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Botanical Medicines: The Desk Reference for Major Herbal Supplements

15 Jul 2002-

TL;DR: This Desk Reference discusses Dietary Supplements, a large variety of herbs and plants used in herbal remedies for pregnancy, lactation, and Pediatrics, as well as some of their applications in clinical practice.

Abstract* Foreword * Preface * A Note on the Interpretation of Information on Pregnancy, Lactation, and Pediatrics in This Desk Reference * Dietary Supplements * Astragalus * Bilberry * Black Cohosh * Capsicum * Cat's Claw * Chamomile * Cordyceps * Cranberry * Dong Quai * Echinacea * Eleuthero * Ephedra (Ma Huang) * Evening Primrose Oil * Feverfew * Garlic * Ginger * Ginkgo Biloba * Ginseng * Goldenseal * Grape Seed * Green Tea * Hawthorn * Horse Chestnut * Kava * Licorice * Milk Thistle * Red Yeast Rice * Reishi * Saw Palmetto * Schisandra * St. John's Wort * Uva Ursi * Valerian * Vitex * Appendix I: A Note About Quality in Botanical Supplements * Appendix II: DSHEA: What are the Key Provisions? * Index * Reference Notes Included more

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TL;DR: Several of the mushroom polysaccharide compounds have proceeded through phases I, II, and III clinical trials and are used extensively and successfully in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases.
Abstract: The target of the present review is to draw attention to many critically important unsolved problems in the future development of medicinal mushroom science in the twenty-first century. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active polysaccharides in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. The data on mushroom polysaccharides are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher Hetero- and Homobasidiomycetes. The chemical structure of polysaccharides and its connection to antitumor activity, including possible ways of chemical modification, experimental testing and clinical use of antitumor or immunostimulating polysaccharides, and possible mechanisms of their biological action, are discussed. Numerous bioactive polysaccharides or polysaccharide–protein complexes from medicinal mushrooms are described that appear to enhance innate and cell-mediated immune responses and exhibit antitumor activities in animals and humans. Stimulation of host immune defense systems by bioactive polymers from medicinal mushrooms has significant effects on the maturation, differentiation, and proliferation of many kinds of immune cells in the host. Many of these mushroom polymers were reported previously to have immunotherapeutic properties by facilitating growth inhibition and destruction of tumor cells. While the mechanism of their antitumor actions is still not completely understood, stimulation and modulation of key host immune responses by these mushroom polymers appears central. Particularly and most importantly for modern medicine are polysaccharides with antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom polysaccharide compounds have proceeded through phases I, II, and III clinical trials and are used extensively and successfully in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. A total of 126 medicinal functions are thought to be produced by medicinal mushrooms and fungi including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, antihypercholesterolemia, antiviral, antibacterial, antiparasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects.

358 citations

Cites background from "Botanical Medicines: The Desk Refer..."

  • ...Future trends and unsolved problems On the one hand, MM science made great progress in the last 30 years, embracing traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) as well as Chinese herbal medicines along with their commercial derivatives....


  • ...There have also been neurological, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal problems reported with TCM (McKenna et al. 2002; Bagchi and Preuss 2005)....


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review covers recent findings on the medicinal properties and noncancer health benefits of both green and black tea.
Abstract: Tea, in the form of green or black tea, is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. Extracts of tea leaves also are sold as dietary supplements. However, with the increasing interest in the health properties of tea and a significant rise in scientific investigation, this review covers recent findings on the medicinal properties and noncancer health benefits of both green and black tea. In Part II, a review of anticancer properties of green tea extracts is presented. Green tea contains a unique set of catechins that possess biological activity in antioxidant, anti-angiogenesis, and antiproliferative assays potentially relevant to the prevention and treatment of various forms of cancer. Although there has been much focus on the biological properties of the major tea catechin epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) and its antitumor properties, tea offers other health benefits; some due to the presence of other important constituents. Characteristics unrelated to the antioxidant properties of green an...

345 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In the present study, the hypoglycaemic potentials of ginger (Zingiber officinale) were studied in rats. An aqueous extract of raw ginger was administered daily (500 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) for a period of 7 weeks to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Fasting blood serum was analysed for blood glucose, cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels. The STZ-injected rats exhibited hyperglycaemia accompanied with weight loss, indicating their diabetic condition. At a dose of 500 mg/kg, raw ginger was significantly effective in lowering serum glucose, cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in the ginger-treated diabetic rats compared with the control diabetic rats. The ginger treatment also resulted in a significant reduction in urine protein levels. In addition, the ginger-treated diabetic rats sustained their initial weights during the treatment period. Moreover, ginger decreased both water intake and urine output in the STZ-induced diabetic rats. The present results indicate that raw ginger possesses hypoglycaemic, hypocholesterolaemic and hypolipidaemic potential. Additionally, raw ginger is effective in reversing the diabetic proteinuria observed in the diabetic rats. Thus, ginger may be of great value in managing the effects of diabetic complications in human subjects.

329 citations

Cites background from "Botanical Medicines: The Desk Refer..."

  • ...…of potentially bioactive substances, mainly gingerols and their related dehydration products, the shogaols, as well as volatile oils including sesquiterpenes, such as b-bisabolene and (-)-zingiberene, and monoterpenes, mainly geranial and neral (Chevallier, 1996; Ursell, 2000; McKenna et al. 2002)....


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Ganoderma lucidum has now become recognized as an alternative adjuvant in the treatment of leukemia, carcinoma, hepatitis and diabetes, and playing a significant role in various therapeutic applications.
Abstract: Ganoderma lucidum (Ling Zhi) is a basidiomycete white rot macrofungus which has been used extensively as "the mushroom of immortality" in China, Japan, Korea and other Asian countries for 2000 years. A great deal of work has been carried out on therapeutic potential of Ganoderma lucidum. The basidiocarp, mycelia and spores of Ganoderma lucidum contain approximately 400 different bioactive compounds, which mainly include triterpenoids, polysaccharides, nucleotides, sterols, steroids, fatty acids, proteins/peptides and trace elements which has been reported to have a number of pharmacological effects including immunomodulation, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, chemo-preventive, antitumor, chemo and radio protective, sleep promoting, antibacterial, antiviral (including anti-HIV), hypolipidemic, anti-fibrotic, hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic, anti-androgenic, anti-angiogenic, anti-herpetic, antioxidative and radical-scavenging, anti-aging, hypoglycemic, estrogenic activity and anti-ulcer properties. Ganoderma lucidum has now become recognized as an alternative adjuvant in the treatment of leukemia, carcinoma, hepatitis and diabetes. The macrofungus is very rare in nature rather not sufficient for commercial exploitation for vital therapeutic emergencies, therefore, the cultivation on solid substrates, stationary liquid medium or by submerged cultivation has become an essential aspect to meet the driving force towards the increasing demands in the international market. Present review focuses on the pharmacological aspects, cultivation methods and bioactive metabolites playing a significant role in various therapeutic applications.

299 citations

01 Jan 2006
Abstract: S & BIBLIOGRAPHIES Bibliography of Agriculture Biological Abstracts Botany Subject Index (U. S. Dept. of Agriculture) Chemical Abstracts Craker, L. E., A. F. Chadwick, & J. E. Simon. 1986. An introduction to the scientific literature on herbs, spices, and medicinal plants. Recent Adv. Bot. Hort. Pharm. 1: 1-9. Excerpta Botanica Index Medicus Index to American Botanical Literature Simon, J. E., A. F. Chadwick, & L. E. Craker. 1984. Herbs: an indexed bibliography, 1971-1980: the scientific literature on selected herbs, and aromatic and medicinal plants of the temperate zone. Shoe String Press. 770 pp.

230 citations