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Book ChapterDOI

Bridging The Unknown: An Interdisciplinary Case Study of Paratext in Electronic Literature

TL;DR: In this paper, a dual perspective on the paratextual apparatus of a work of electronic literature, The Unknown: The Original Great American Hypertext Novel by William Gillespie, Scott Rettberg, Dirk Stratton, and Frank Marquardt, is presented.
Abstract: This chapter presents a dual perspective on the paratextual apparatus of a work of electronic literature, The Unknown: The Original Great American Hypertext Novel by William Gillespie, Scott Rettberg, Dirk Stratton, and Frank Marquardt. Approaches from literature studies and information science are combined to offer qualitative content analyses and close readings of the table of contents, titular apparatus, comments hidden in the source code, and other paratextual elements, in relation to the narrative. Findings indicate that the work’s paratextual content presents inconsistencies and contradictions, both in terms of the use of the paratextual structure and of the information conveyed. The paratextual elements are analyzed through the lens of Gérard Genette’s theory, as outlined in Paratexts: Thresholds of Interpretation, in order to gauge their role and efficiency as identifiers, organizational components, and information providers, as well as their literary effect. The value of the theory as an interdisciplinary tool is also discussed.
Citations
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Dissertation
28 Jul 2019
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined e-book cultural value in terms of legitimacy, particularly as framed by readers, and found that legitimacy is only one aspect of cultural value, but for e-books it is a fundamental aspect, crystallising the central question of whether ebooks can be classed with books and partake of the book's cultural status and privileged cultural position, or belong in a separate, almost inevitably lesser, category.
Abstract: This thesis examines e-book cultural value in terms of legitimacy, particularly as framed by readers in terms of ‘realness’ and ‘bookness’. Legitimacy is only one aspect of cultural value, but for e-books it is a fundamental aspect, crystallising the central question of whether e-books can be classed with books and partake of the book’s cultural status and privileged cultural position, or belong in a separate, almost inevitably lesser, category. The research gathers data relevant to many types of digital texts but focusses on e-novels. The thesis uses a mixed methods study design to gather data from surveys, focus groups, interviews and three pilot experiments conducted with readers. The discussion investigates how e-book legitimacy is constituted by readers, and how these qualities relate to and interact with other e-book attributes (e.g. instant access, materiality, etc.). The dissertation concludes with discussion of the implications of these findings for readers, authors, and publishers. Findings indicate that legitimacy in the form of realness or bookness remains highly relevant for readers, but conceptions of realness and bookness are flexible and contextspecific. These data confirm that while realness and bookness are widely recognised as desirable qualities, many e-novels function as useful fakes, where realness is unnecessary or actually undesirable. Further, the moiety of unrealness is as important as the unrealness itself, with three main categories of unrealness emerging as most prominent: e-novel as ersatz book, as digital proxy, and as incomplete book. Individual readers move between conceptions, demonstrating willingness to adopt different ideas of realness (and by extension different stances regarding the nature, legitimacy and cultural value of e-novels) depending on their needs in the moment, and what they require from a given e-novel at a particular time.

26 citations


Cites background from "Bridging The Unknown: An Interdisci..."

  • ...It is regularly applied in scholarship in and around the digital humanities, as with Cooper’s examination of how digital editions of medieval manuscripts can create new digital epitexts (2015) and to interactive electronic literature such as hypertext works (Desrochers and Tomaszek, 2014, p.163)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors present an analytical literature review of the research surrounding the information behavior of writers, defined as people whose written output is creative in nature and produced outside of the academia or the traditional news media realm.

11 citations


Cites background from "Bridging The Unknown: An Interdisci..."

  • ...These technologies influence not only the very fabric of the writers’works, but, as has been shown elsewhere, their underlying and paratextual structure, which can offer new venues for IB/IP research (Desrochers & Tomaszek, 2014)....

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01 Jan 2011
TL;DR: In this article, the authors introduce contextualized metrics: cardinal and ordinal pseudo-Shapley values that measure a scholar's contribution to her own school and her market value to other schools should she change job.
Abstract: Performance measures of individual scholars tend to ignore the context. I introduce contextualised metrics: cardinal and ordinal pseudo-Shapley values that measure a scholar’s contribution to (perhaps power over) her own school and her market value to other schools should she change job. I illustrate the proposed measures with business scholars and business schools in Ireland. Although conceptually superior, the power indicators imply a ranking of scholars within a school that is identical to the corresponding conventional performance measures. The market value indicators imply an identical ranking within schools and a very similar ranking between schools. The ordinal indices further contextualise performance measures and thus deviate further from the corresponding conventional indicators. As the ordinal measures are discontinuous by construction, a natural classification of scholars emerges. Averaged over schools, the market values offer little extra information over the corresponding production and impact measures. The ordinal power measure indicates the robustness or fragility of an institution’s place in the rank order. It is only weakly correlated with the concentration of publications and citations.

10 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present an etude qualitative constitue l'etape empirique d a projet portant sur les comportements informationnels des membres de l’Union des ecrivaines et des ecvains quebecois (UNEQ).
Abstract: Cette etude qualitative constitue l’etape empirique d’un projet portant sur les comportements informationnels des membres de l’Union des ecrivaines et des ecrivains quebecois (UNEQ). Grâce a un cadre theorique inspire des travaux de Pierre Bourdieu sur le champ litteraire, repere egalement dans la litterature, elle decrit les pratiques des ecrivains quant a leurs besoins, recherche, utilisation et diffusion d’information, unissant les donnees recueillies lors d’un sondage, une analyse de contenus web et des entrevues. Les resultats montrent que les avantages et desavantages apportes par le numerique creent parfois un sentiment d’incoherence entre les ressources utilisees et la diffusion en ligne. Par ailleurs, la relation avec les professionnels de l’information pourrait etre repensee a l’etape de la creation du texte, quant a l’organisation du paratexte numerique et pour la comprehension des outils web a la portee des ecrivains. Cela dit, il faudrait que cela participe d’une transformation plus large du champ, car la perception de la legitimation continue pour l’instant de suivre les voies traditionnelles de l’illusio.

3 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors delineate analytic procedures specific to each approach and techniques addressing trustworthiness with hypothetical examples drawn from the area of end-of-life care.
Abstract: Content analysis is a widely used qualitative research technique. Rather than being a single method, current applications of content analysis show three distinct approaches: conventional, directed, or summative. All three approaches are used to interpret meaning from the content of text data and, hence, adhere to the naturalistic paradigm. The major differences among the approaches are coding schemes, origins of codes, and threats to trustworthiness. In conventional content analysis, coding categories are derived directly from the text data. With a directed approach, analysis starts with a theory or relevant research findings as guidance for initial codes. A summative content analysis involves counting and comparisons, usually of keywords or content, followed by the interpretation of the underlying context. The authors delineate analytic procedures specific to each approach and techniques addressing trustworthiness with hypothetical examples drawn from the area of end-of-life care.

31,398 citations

Book
01 Jan 1980
TL;DR: History Conceptual Foundations Uses and Kinds of Inference The Logic of Content Analysis Designs Unitizing Sampling Recording Data Languages Constructs for Inference Analytical Techniques The Use of Computers Reliability Validity A Practical Guide
Abstract: History Conceptual Foundations Uses and Kinds of Inference The Logic of Content Analysis Designs Unitizing Sampling Recording Data Languages Constructs for Inference Analytical Techniques The Use of Computers Reliability Validity A Practical Guide

25,749 citations


"Bridging The Unknown: An Interdisci..." refers background in this paper

  • ...sampling reflects Krippendorff’s (2013) view that “in qualitative research, samples may not be drawn according to statistical guidelines, but the quotes and examples that qualitative researchers present to their readers have the same function as the use...

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Book
06 Aug 1997
TL;DR: In this paper, Ricoeur argues that o texto como um todo singular se pode comparar a object, visto de varios lados mas nunca de todos, simultaneamente.
Abstract: Perspectivas e o que temos, quer se discuta o texto quer se discuta o cibertexto. Dizia Ricoeur que o texto como um todo singular se pode comparar a um objecto, visto de varios lados mas nunca de todos, simultaneamente. Decidimos sempre olhar de um certo modo. Ora, estamos num tempo em que do dia para a noite varias propostas, novas perspectivas, novas formas de textualidade emergem. Necessita-se para isso de uma terminologia mais consistente do que as formas que ocorrem.

1,509 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...Simanowski, 2010), “cybertext” (Aarseth, 1997; Eskelinen, 2012), “net literature” (Gendolla & Schäfer, 2007, 2010), “writing in networked and...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article characterizes content analysis as a systematic, rigorous approach to analyzing documents obtained or generated in the course of research, distinguishes between quantitative and qualitative content analysis, and shows that content analysis serves the purposes of both quantitative research and qualitative research.
Abstract: Content analysis is a highly fl exible research method that has been widely used in library and information science (LIS) studies with varying research goals and objectives. The research method is applied in qualitative, quantitative, and sometimes mixed modes of research frameworks and employs a wide range of analytical techniques to generate fi ndings and put them into context. This article characterizes content analysis as a systematic, rigorous approach to analyzing documents obtained or generated in the course of research. It briefl y describes the steps involved in content analysis, differentiates between quantitative and qualitative content analysis, and shows that content analysis serves the purposes of both quantitative research and qualitative research. The authors draw on selected LIS studies that have used content analysis to illustrate the concepts addressed in the article. The article also serves as a gateway to methodological books and articles that provide more detail about aspects of content analysis discussed only briefl y in the article.

1,316 citations

Book
01 Oct 1997
TL;DR: The Palimpsest is a written document, usually on vellum or parchment, that has been written upon several times, often with remnants of erased writing still visible.
Abstract: By definition, a palimpsest is oa written document, usually on vellum or parchment, that has been written upon several times, often with remnants of erased writing still visible.o Palimpsests (originally published in France in 1982), one of GUrard GenetteAEs most important works, examines the manifold relationships a text may have with prior texts. Genette describes the multiple ways a later text asks readers to read or remember an earlier one. In this regard, he treats the history and nature of parody, antinovels, pastiches, caricatures, commentary, allusion, imitations, and other textual relations. GUrard Genette is one of the most original and influential literary critics of modern France. He is the major practitioner of narratological criticism, a pioneer in structuralism, and a much-admired literary historian. Such works as Narrative Discourse and Mimologics (Nebraska 1995) have established his international reputation as a literary theorist of the first order.

774 citations


"Bridging The Unknown: An Interdisci..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The author therefore explores and assesses these new paratextual conventions through Genette’s five primary dimensions (spatial, temporal, substantive, pragmatic, and functional; see our introduction to this book for a discussion of these dimensions, as well as Genette, 1997, pp. 4–13)....

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  • ...On the basis of this classification, Simonsen argues that the paratextual elements’ illocutionary force, seen by Genette as “the ability to perform what they describe” (Genette, 1997, p. 11), can be extended to mean the ability to “mak[e] the audience perform an action.”...

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  • ...…production and circulation of cultural texts in the digital age,” she concludes that “paratexts reflect not only meaning, but also inherited and emerging means of production,” thereby giving a more literal and commercial meaning to the “transaction” (Genette, 1997, p. 2) negotiated by the paratext....

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