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Broadband Microstrip Antennas

TL;DR: In this article, the authors provide an exhaustive coverage of broadband techniques, including the most up-to-date information to help users choose and design the optimum broadband microstrip antenna configurations without sacrificing other antenna parameters.
Abstract: Look to this new, cutting-edge microstrip antenna book for the first exhaustive coverage of broadband techniques, including the most up-to-date information to help you choose and design the optimum broadband microstrip antenna configurations for your applications, without sacrificing other antenna parameters. The book shows you how to take advantage of the lightweight, low volume benefits of these antennas, by providing clear explanations of the various configurations and simple design equations that help you analyze and design microstrip antennas with speed and confidence. This practical resource offers you a comprehensive understanding of the radiation mechanism and characteristic of microstrip antennas, and provides guidance in designing new types of planar monopole antennas with multi-octave bandwidth. You learn how to select and design proper broadband microstrip antenna configurations for compact, tunable, dual-band and circular polarization applications. Moreover, the book compares all the broadband techniques and suggests the most attractive configuration. Extensively referenced with over 300 illustrations and 140 equations.
Citations
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Book
03 Sep 2010
TL;DR: In this paper, the Cavity Model Characteristics of the Rectangular Patch and the Circular Patch are described and a full wave analysis of Microstrip antennas is performed using the full-wave analysis of microstrip antennas.
Abstract: Introduction Review of Some Background Materials General Formulation of the Cavity Model Characteristics of the Rectangular Patch Characteristics of the Circular Patch The Annular-Ring and the Equilaterial Triangular Patch Introduction to Full Wave Analysis of Microstrip Antennas Some Methods of Tuning the Resonant Frequencies of Patch Antennas Broadbanding Techniques Size Reduction Techniques Dual and Multi-Band Designs Dual Polarized Patch Antenna Designs Circular Polarization Microstrip Arrays

278 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a general technique was proposed to compensate these currents and suppress radiation in horizontal directions, where dielectric polarization currents were identified as the physical sources of this radiation.
Abstract: Microstrip (patch) antennas usually strongly radiate in directions along the ground plane. This effect causes unwanted radiation patterns and increased coupling among array elements. Dielectric polarization currents are identified as physical sources of this radiation. A general technique is proposed to compensate these currents and suppress radiation in horizontal directions.

173 citations


Cites background from "Broadband Microstrip Antennas"

  • ...or larger [6], where is the substrate thickness, the freespace wavelength, and the relative permittivity of the substrate....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a reconfigurable wideband and multiband C-slot patch antenna with dual-patch elements is proposed and studied, where two parallel C-Slots on the patch elements are employed to perturb the surface current paths for excitation of the dual-band and wideband modes.
Abstract: A reconfigurable wideband and multiband C-Slot patch antenna with dual-patch elements is proposed and studied. It occupies a compact volume of 50 × 50 × 1.57 (3925 mm3), including the ground plane. The antenna can operate in two dual-band modes and a wideband mode from 5 to 7 GHz. Two parallel C-Slots on the patch elements are employed to perturb the surface current paths for excitation of the dual-band and the wideband modes. Two switches, implemented using PIN diodes, are placed on the connecting lines of a simple feed network to the patch elements. Dual-band modes are achieved by switching “ON” either one of the two patch elements, while the wideband mode with an impedance bandwidth of 33.52% is obtained by switching “ON” both patch elements. The frequencies in the dual-band modes can be independently controlled using positions and dimensions of the C-Slots without affecting the wideband mode. The advantage of the proposed antenna is that two dual-band operations and one wideband operation can be achieved using the same dimensions. This overcomes the need for increasing the surface area normally incurred when designing wideband patch antennas. Simulation results are validated experimentally through prototypes. The measured radiation patterns and peak gains show stable responses and are in good agreements. Coupling between the two patch elements plays a major role for achieving the wide bandwidth and the effects of mutual coupling between the patch elements are also studied.

172 citations


Cites background from "Broadband Microstrip Antennas"

  • ...P ATCH antennas suffer from narrow bandwidth which can limit their uses in some modern wireless applications [1], [2]; therefore, there is an increasing demand for low-profile,...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a compact broadband 8-way Butler matrix integrated with tunable phase shifters is proposed to provide full beam switching/steering capability, which exhibits an average insertion loss of 1.1 dB with amplitude variation less than ± 2.2 dB.
Abstract: A compact broadband 8-way Butler matrix integrated with tunable phase shifters is proposed to provide full beam switching/steering capability. The newly designed multilayer stripline Butler matrix exhibits an average insertion loss of 1.1 dB with amplitude variation less than ±2.2 dB and an average phase imbalance of less than 20.7° from 1.6 GHz to 2.8 GHz. The circuit size is only 160 × 100 mm2, which corresponds to an 85% size reduction compared with a comparable conventional microstrip 8-way Butler matrix. The stripline tunable phase shifter is designed based on the asymmetric reflection-type configuration, where a Chebyshev matching network is utilized to convert the port impedance from 50 ? to 25 ? so that a phase tuning range in excess of 120° can be obtained from 1.6 GHz to 2.8 GHz. To demonstrate the beam switching/steering functionality, the proposed tunable Butler matrix is applied to a 1 × 8 antenna array system. The measured radiation patterns show that the beam can be fully steered within a spatial range of 108°.

170 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
29 Feb 2012
TL;DR: Methods of broadbanding, dual and multiband designs, size-reduction techniques, and design for circular polarization are reviewed and the MPA finds numerous applications in both the military and the commercial sectors.
Abstract: The basic geometry of a microstrip patch antenna (MPA) consists of a metallic patch printed on a grounded substrate. Three commonly used feeding methods are coaxial feed, stripline feed, and aperture-coupled feed. The patch antenna idea was first proposed in the early 1950s, but it was not until the late 1970s that this type of antenna attracted serious attention of the antenna community. The microstrip patch antenna offers the advantages of low profile, conformability to a shaped surface, ease of fabrication, and compatibility with integrated circuit technology, but the basic geometry suffers from narrow bandwidth. In the last three decades, extensive studies have been devoted to improve the performance of this antenna and the MPA has found numerous applications in both the military and the commercial sectors. This article begins with a brief description of the modeling techniques and basic characteristics of the MPA. Methods of broadbanding, dual and multiband designs, size-reduction techniques, and design for circular polarization are then reviewed. The paper ends with some concluding remarks.

169 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a method for the analysis of slot-type discontinuities in microstripline was proposed based on the reciprocity theorem and the exact Green's functions for the grounded dielectric slab in a moment method solution for the unknown antenna currents.
Abstract: A method is presented for the analysis of slot-type discontinuities in microstripline. The approach is based on the reciprocity theorem and uses the exact Green's functions for the grounded dielectric slab in a moment method solution for the unknown antenna currents. The method is applied to two specific geometries: a radiating slot in the ground plane of a microstripline, and an aperture coupled microstrip patch antenna. Results for antenna impedance are compared with measurements, and far-zone patterns are calculated. The method is shown to be quite versatile, and should find application to related problems.

557 citations


"Broadband Microstrip Antennas" refers methods in this paper

  • ...The resonance frequency of a CMSA is obtained using the formula [4, 25]:...

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  • ...International Standard Book Number: 1-58053-244-6 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2002033256 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 To our family members Contents Foreword xvii Preface xix Acknowledgments xxiii 1 An Introduction to Microstrip Antennas 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Characteristics of MSAs 3 1.2.1 Advantages 3 1.2.2 Disadvantages 3 1.2.3 Applications of MSAs 4 1.3 Feeding Techniques 4 1.4 Methods of Analysis 7 1.4.1 Transmission Line Model 8 1.4.2 Cavity Model 8 1.4.3 MNM 9 1.4.4 MoM 9 1.4.5 FEM 10 vii viii Broadband Microstrip Antennas 1.4.6 SDT 10 1.4.7 FDTD Method 10 1.5 Review of Various Broadband Techniques for MSAs 11 1.5.1 Definition of BW 11 1.5.2 Modified Shape Patches 14 1.5.3 Planar Multiresonator Configurations 14 1.5.4 Multilayer Configurations 15 1.5.5 Stacked Multiresonator MSAs 17 1.5.6 Impedance-Matching Networks for Broadband MSAs 17 1.5.7 Log-Periodic MSA Configurations 17 1.5.8 Ferrite Substrate-Based Broadband MSAs 18 1.6 Broadband Compact MSAs 18 1.7 Tunable and Dual-Band MSAs 19 1.8 Broadband Circularly Polarized MSAs 20 1.9 Broadband Planar Monopole Antennas 20 1.10 Summary 21 References 21 2 Regularly Shaped Broadband MSAs 29 2.1 Introduction 29 2.2 RMSAs 30 2.2.1 Parametric Study of RMSAs 39 2.2.2 Higher Order Modes of RMSA 52 2.2.3 Orthogonal Feeds for Dual Polarization 55 2.2.4 Circularly Polarized RMSA 58 2.2.5 Broadband Suspended RMSA 58 2.2.6 Broadband Thick RMSA with Various Probes 61 2.2.7 Frequency and Impedance Scaling of RMSA 63 ixContents 2.3 CMSAs 65 2.3.1 Resonance Frequency 66 2.3.2 Input Impedance and Voltage Distribution 67 2.3.3 Radiation Pattern 69 2.3.4 Effect of Loss Tangent 69 2.3.5 Broadband CMSAs 71 2.3.6 Analysis of Higher Order Modes 71 2.3.7 Circularly Polarized CMSAs 73 2.3.8 Dual-Orthogonal Feed CMSAs 73 2.4 Semicircular MSAs 74 2.4.1 Input Impedance and Voltage Distribution 75 2.4.2 Radiation Pattern 76 2.4.3 Broadband SCMSAs 77 2.4.4 Analysis of Higher Order Modes of the SCMSAs 78 2.5 ETMSAs 79 2.6 30°-60°-90° Triangular MSAs 83 2.7 Annular Ring MSAs 84 2.8 Comparison of Various Configurations for Broad BW 84 2.9 Summary 86 References 86 3 Planar Multiresonator Broadband MSAs 89 3.1 Introduction 89 3.2 Mechanism of Parasitic Coupling for Broad BW 90 3.3 Gap-Coupled RMSAs 90 3.3.1 Radiating-Edge Gap-Coupled RMSAs 91 3.3.2 Nonradiating-Edge Gap-Coupled RMSAs 102 x Broadband Microstrip Antennas 3.3.3 Four-Edge Gap-Coupled RMSAs 106 3.3.4 Design Guidelines for Gap-Coupled RMSAs 107 3.3.5 Other Gap-Coupled Multiresonator RMSAs 110 3.4 Directly Coupled RMSAs 111 3.4.1 Radiating-Edge Directly Coupled RMSAs 111 3.4.2 Nonradiating-Edge Directly Coupled RMSAs 113 3.4.3 Four-Edge Directly Coupled RMSAs 114 3.4.4 Multiresonator Impedance-Matching Network 114 3.5 Gap- and Hybrid-Coupled CMSAs 115 3.5.1 Gap-Coupled CMSAs 115 3.5.2 Hybrid-Coupled CMSAs 118 3.6 Gap-Coupled SCMSAs 121 3.7 Gap- and Hybrid-Coupled TMSAs 122 3.7.1 Two Gap-Coupled 30°-60°-90° TMSAs 122 3.7.2 Three Gap-Coupled ETMSAs 123 3.7.3 Three Gap-Coupled ITMSAs 125 3.7.4 Four Hybrid-Coupled ETMSAs 127 3.8 Summary 128 References 129 4 Multilayer Broadband MSAs 131 4.1 Introduction 131 4.2 Electromagnetically Coupled MSAs 131 4.2.1 Microstrip Line Feed ECMSAs 132 4.2.2 Parametric Study of Coaxial-Fed Square ECMSAs 138 4.2.3 Coaxial-Fed Stacked CMSAs 145 4.2.4 Coaxial-Fed Stacked ETMSAs 147 4.2.5 Design Example Using Stacked-Square MSA on Air Substrate 148 xiContents 4.3 ACMSAs 151 4.3.1 Parametric Study of ACMSAs 152 4.3.2 Effect of the Shape of the Coupling Aperture 157 4.3.3 Stacked ACMSAs 159 4.3.4 Resonant Slot ACMSAs 162 4.4 Summary 165 References 167 5 Stacked Multiresonator MSAs 171 5.1 Introduction 171 5.2 Stacked Multiresonator Rectangular Patches on Thick Substrates 172 5.2.1 Three Rectangular Patches at the Bottom and One Patch on the Top 177 5.2.2 One Rectangular Patch at the Bottom and Three Patches on the Top 179 5.2.3 Three Rectangular Patches at the Bottom and Three Patches on the Top 180 5.2.4 One Rectangular Patch at the Bottom and Five Patches on the Top 181 5.2.5 One Rectangular Patch at the Bottom and Two Patches on the Top 183 5.2.6 One Rectangular Patch at the Bottom and Four Patches on the Top 187 5.3 Effect of Probe Diameter on Multiresonator Stacked RMSAs 189 5.4 One Rectangular Patch at the Bottom and Four Patches on the Top on a Thin Dielectric Substrate 189 5.5 Stacked Multiresonator CMSAs 190 5.6 Log-Periodic MSA Arrays 197 5.7 Summary 202 References 203 xii Broadband Microstrip Antennas 6 Compact Broadband MSAs 205 6.1 Introduction 205 6.2 Compact Shorted RMSAs 206 6.2.1 Partially Shorted RMSAs 209 6.2.2 Effect of Dimensions of RMSAs with a Single Shorting Post 211 6.2.3 Effect of the Position of the Single Shorting Post 212 6.3 Compact Shorted CMSA and Its Variations 213 6.3.1 CMSAs and SCMSAs 214 6.3.2 Shorted SCMSAs and 90°-Sectoral MSAs 215 6.3.3 Partially Shorted SCMSAs and 90°-Sectoral MSAs 216 6.3.4 Compact CMSA with a Single Shorting Post 216 6.4 Compact Shorted TMSAs and Sectoral MSAs 217 6.4.1 ETMSA and Its Variations 218 6.4.2 30°-60°-90° TMSA and Its Variations 220 6.4.3 Comparison of Variations of TMSAs 221 6.4.4 Compact ETMSA with a Single Short 221 6.5 Chip-Resistor-Loaded Square MSAs 222 6.6 Slot-Loaded MSAs 223 6.6.1 C-Shaped MSA 223 6.6.2 H-Shaped MSA 225 6.6.3 Rectangular Ring MSA 227 6.7 Slot- and Short-Loaded MSAs 228 6.7.1 Shorted C-Shaped MSA 229 6.7.2 Shorted H-Shaped MSA 229 6.8 Planar Broadband Compact MSAs 231 6.8.1 Coupled Shorted RMSA 231 xiiiContents 6.8.2 Broadband Gap-Coupled Shorted 90°-Sectoral MSA 233 6.8.3 C-Shaped MSA Coupled with a Shorted RMSA 234 6.8.4 C-Shaped MSA with a Matching Network 235 6.8.5 Circular Ring Containing a Shorted CMSA 237 6.8.6 Rectangular Ring Containing a Shorted RMSA 238 6.8.7 Three Gap-Coupled Shorted C-Shaped MSA 238 6.9 Broadband Stacked Compact MSAs 239 6.10 Broadband MSAs with a U-Slot 241 6.10.1 RMSAs with a U-Slot 241 6.10.2 CMSA with a U-Slot 245 6.10.3 TMSA with a U-Slot 246 6.11 Summary 247 References 248 7 Tunable and Dual-Band MSAs 251 7.1 Introduction 251 7.2 Tunable MSAs 252 7.2.1 Stub-Loaded Tunable MSAs 252 7.2.2 Tunable MSAs Using Shorting Posts 261 7.2.3 Tunable MSAs Using Varactor Diodes 262 7.2.4 Optically Tuned MSA 263 7.2.5 Tunable MSAs Using an Air Gap 263 7.2.6 Tunable MSAs Using a Ferrite Substrate 265 7.3 Dual-Band MSAs 266 7.3.1 Higher Order or Orthogonal Mode DualBand MSAs 267 7.3.2 Stub-Loaded Dual-Band MSAs 272 7.3.3 Notch-Loaded MSAs 281 xiv Broadband Microstrip Antennas 7.3.4 MSAs Using Shorting Posts 282 7.3.5 Dual-Band MSA Using Lumped Element Loading 287 7.3.6 Dual-Band MSAs Using Slots 287...

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  • ...Measured Calculated Frequency in Frequency Gigahertz Using Mode (GHz) [35, 36] [25] (2....

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  • ...Both gap and direct (hybrid) coupling have been used with circular MSAs (CMSAs) and equilateral triangular MSAs (ETMSAs) to yield broad BW....

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  • ...xix xvContents 8.5.3 Modified Square MSA with Four Bent Slots 336 8.5.4 Modified CMSAs and TMSAs 337 8.6 Broadband Circularly Polarized MSAs 339 8.6.1 Dual-Feed Planar Multiresonator MSAs 339 8.6.2 Stacked MSAs for CP 341 8.6.3 Aperture Coupled Circularly Polarized MSAs 342 8.6.4 Sequentially Rotated MSAs 344 8.7 Traveling-Wave Circularly Polarized MSAs 349 8.7.1 Curved MSAs 349 8.7.2 Microstrip Line Arrays 349 8.7.3 Cross Antenna 351 8.8 Summary 352 References 353 9 Broadband Planar Monopole Antennas 357 9.1 Introduction 357 9.2 Planar Rectangular and Square Monopole Antennas 359 9.2.1 RMSA Suspended in Air with Orthogonal Ground Plane 359 9.2.2 Calculation of the Lower Frequency of the Planar Monopole Antennas 362...

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Book
02 Jul 1997
TL;DR: Lee et al. as discussed by the authors used the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method to construct a probe-fed multilayer microstrip antenna. But their work focused on the design of the antenna.
Abstract: Probe-Fed Microstrip Antennas (K. Lee, et al.). Aperture-Coupled Multilayer Microstrip Antennas (K. Luk, et al.). Microstrip Arrays: Analysis, Design, and Applications (J. Huang & D. Pozar). Dual and Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antennas (P. Hall & J. Dahele). Computer-Aided Design of Rectangular Microstrip Antennas (D. Jackson, et al.). Multifunction Printed Antennas (J. James & G. Andrasic). Superconducting Microstrip Antennas (J. Williams, et al.). Active Microstrip Antennas (J. Navarro & K. Chang). Tapered Slot Antenna (R. Lee & R. Simons). Efficient Modeling of Microstrip Antennas Using the Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (S. Chebolu, et al.). Analysis of Dielectric Resonator Antennas (K. Luk, et al.). References. Index.

419 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a microstrip patch antenna coupled to a microstripline by an aperture in the intervening ground plane is analyzed and coupled integral equations are formulated by using the Green's functions for grounded dielectric slabs so that the analysis includes all coupling effects and the radiation and surface wave effects of both substrates.
Abstract: A microstrip patch antenna that is coupled to a microstripline by an aperture in the intervening ground plane is analyzed. Coupled integral equations are formulated by using the Green's functions for grounded dielectric slabs so that the analysis includes all coupling effects and the radiation and surface wave effects of both substrates. A Galerkin moment method solution of the coupled integral equations agrees quite well with measured data. Design data are contained in parameter studies, many of which are verified by experimental results.

407 citations


"Broadband Microstrip Antennas" refers background in this paper

  • ...This feed arrangement is also known as three-dimensional (3-D) transition [23, 24]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, two variations of a novel feeding technique for a wideband circularly polarized aperture-coupled microstrip antenna are described, and experimental results are shown for each antenna, and results for the two designs are compared.
Abstract: Two variations of a novel feeding technique for a wideband circularly polarized aperture-coupled microstrip antenna are described. Prototype designs for wideband linearly polarized elements are first presented, and then used for circularly polarized designs. Techniques used for design of the feed network are detailed, for both series feed and parallel feed versions. Experimental results are shown for each antenna, and results for the two designs are compared. The impedance and axial ratio bandwidths for these antennas are among the best yet achieved for microstrip antenna elements. Several design variations are also discussed. >

376 citations


"Broadband Microstrip Antennas" refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...The MNM for analyzing the MSA is an extension of the cavity model [9, 26, 27]....

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  • ...33), the first term is the main capacitance of the disc and the second term is the fringing capacitance, Cf , which is given by [27, 28],...

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 1995
TL;DR: In this paper, a new patch antenna is analyzed which provides dual-frequency operation by means of two narrow slots close to the patch radiating edges, and the ratio between the two frequencies can be well controlled within a range varying from 1.6 to 2, by using simple semi-empirical formulas derived from a physical model.
Abstract: A new patch antenna is analysed which provides dual-frequency operation by means of two narrow slots close to the patch radiating edges. The two modes of operations show similar radiating properties. The ratio between the two frequencies can be well controlled within a range varying from 1.6 to 2, by using simple semi-empirical formulas derived from a physical model and tested by using a fullwave analysis. To obtain a more extended range of this frequency ratio, two tuning microstrip stubs are introduced on a back substrate. Satisfactory performances of simultaneous matching when using a single feed point is demonstrated. Several measurements are shown for both the input impedance and the radiation pattern.

357 citations