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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJERPH18052434

Burnout of Healthcare Workers amid the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Japanese Cross-Sectional Survey.

02 Mar 2021-International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (MDPI AG)-Vol. 18, Iss: 5, pp 2434
Abstract: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic has drastically changed how we live and work. Amid the prolonged pandemic, burnout of the frontline healthcare professionals has become a significant concern. We conducted a cross-sectional survey study to provide data about the relationship between the COVID-19 pandemic and the prevalence of burnout in healthcare professionals in Japan. Healthcare workers in a single Japanese national university hospital participated in the survey, including basic demographics, whether a participant engaged in care of COVID-19 patients in the past 2 weeks and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Of those, 25.4% fully answered the survey; 33.3% were doctors and 63.6% were nurses, and 36.3% engaged in care of COVID-19 patients in the past 2 weeks. Compared to those belonging to General Medicine, those in Emergency Intensive Care Unit were at higher risk of burnout (odds ratio (OR), 6.7; 95% CI, 1.1-42.1; p = 0.031). Of those who engaged in care of COVID-19 patients, 50% reported burnout while 6.1% did not (OR 8.5, 95% CI; 1.3-54.1; p = 0.014). The burnout of healthcare workers is a significant concern amid the pandemic, which needs to be addressed for sustainable healthcare delivery.

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Topics: Burnout (60%), Health care (51%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SOCSCI10050178
Abstract: Working as healthcare workers (HCWs) and emergency workers (EWs) during the first wave of COVID-19 has been associated with high levels of stress and burnout, while hardiness, coping strategies and resilience have emerged as protective factors. No studies have so far investigated these psychological factors during the second wave. We aimed to verify the trend of stress levels, burnout, coping strategies and resilience during the pandemic in Italian healthcare and emergency workers by comparing a first sample recruited from the first COVID-19 wave (N = 240) with a second sample relating to the second wave (N = 260). Through an online platform we administered questionnaires to measure stress, burnout, resilience, hardiness and coping strategies. The results showed that in the two waves the total stress levels of HCWs and EWs did not differ, while the physical stress and hardiness scores in the second wave were greater. No differences were found in the coping strategies used. An analysis of burnout levels in the second wave sample found that stress showed a high predictive power in the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization scales. Hardiness and resilience emerged as protective factors in reducing stress. The implications for the need to provide support and to improve hardiness for HCWs and EWs are discussed.

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Topics: Hardiness (psychological) (58%), Burnout (56%), Emotional exhaustion (55%) ... read more

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/1348-9585.12243
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Work related stress is a major occupational health problem that is associated with adverse effects on physical and mental health. Healthcare workers are particularly vulnerable in the era of COVID-19. Physical methods of stress relief such as yoga and massage therapy may reduce occupational stress. The objective of this systematic review and network meta-analysis is to determine the effects of yoga, massage therapy, progressive muscle relaxation, and stretching on alleviating stress and improving physical and mental health in healthcare workers. METHODS: Databases were searched for randomized controlled trials on the use of physical relaxation methods for occupational stress in healthcare workers with any duration of follow-up. Meta-analysis was performed for standard mean differences in stress measures from baseline between subjects undergoing relaxation vs non-intervention controls. Network meta-analysis was conducted to determine the best relaxation method. RESULTS: Fifteen trials representing 688 healthcare workers were identified. Random-effects meta-analysis shows that physical relaxation methods overall reduced measures of occupational stress at the longest duration of follow-up vs baseline compared to non-intervention controls (SMD -0.53; 95% CI [-0.74 to -0.33]; p < .00001). On network meta-analysis, only yoga alone (SMD -0.71; 95% CI [-1.01 to -0.41]) and massage therapy alone (SMD -0.43; 95% CI [-0.72 to -0.14]) were more effective than control, with yoga identified as the best method (p-score = .89). CONCLUSION: Physical relaxation may help reduce occupational stress in healthcare workers. Yoga is particularly effective and offers the convenience of online delivery. Employers should consider implementing these methods into workplace wellness programs.

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Topics: Progressive muscle relaxation (55%), Massage (53%), Stress measures (52%) ... read more

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJERPH18083943
Kathy McKay1, Sarah Wayland2, David J. P. Ferguson3, Jane Petty4  +1 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: In the UK, tweets around COVID-19 and health care have primarily focused on the NHS. Recent research has identified that the psychological well-being of NHS staff has been adversely impacted as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to investigate narratives relating to the NHS and COVID-19 during the first lockdown (26 March-4 July 2020). A total of 123,880 tweets were collated and downloaded bound to the time period of the first lockdown in order to analyse the real-time discourse around COVID-19 and the NHS. Content analysis was undertaken and tweets were coded to positive and negative sentiments. Five main themes were identified: (1) the dichotomies of 'clap for carers'; (2) problems with PPE and testing; (3) peaks of anger; (4) issues around hero worship; and (5) hints of a normality. Further research exploring and documenting social media narratives around COVID-19 and the NHS, in this and subsequent lockdowns, should help in tailoring suitable support for staff in the future and acknowledging the profound impact that the pandemic has had.

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2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/1348-9585.12247
Abstract: Objectives To determine the prevalence of burnout according to job category after the first wave of COVID-19 in Japan and to explore its association with certain factors. Methods An online cross-sectional survey of health care workers (HCWs) from June 15 to July 6, 2020, was conducted at a tertiary hospital in Tokyo, Japan. Demographic characteristics, results of the Japanese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, types of anxiety and stress, changes in life and work after the peak of the pandemic, and types of support aimed at reducing the physical or mental burden, were determined. Results Of 672 HCWs, 149 (22.6%) met the overall burnout criteria. Burnout was more prevalent in women (OR, 3.11; 95% CI, 1.45-6.67, P = .003), anxiety due to unfamiliarity with personal protective equipment (PPE) (OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.20-3.27, P = .007), and decreased sleep duration (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.20-3.20, P = .008). Conversely, participants who felt that the delivery of COVID-19-related information (OR, .608; 95% CI, .371-.996, P = .048) and PPE education opportunities (OR, .484; 95% CI, .236-.993, P = .048) and messages of encouragement at the workplace (OR, .584; 95% CI, .352-.969; p = .037) was helpful experienced less burnout. Conclusions There is a need to focus on the above factors to maintain the mental health of HCWs. The delivery of COVID-19-related information and educational interventions for PPE and messages of encouragement at the workplace may be needed to reduce the mental burden.

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Topics: Burnout (58%), Mental health (50%)

1 Citations



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29 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/JOB.4030020205
Christina Maslach1, Susan E. Jackson1Institutions (1)
Abstract: A scale designed to assess various aspects of the burnout syndrome was administered to a wide range of human services professionals. Three subscales emerged from the data analysis: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. Various psychometric analyses showed that the scale has both high reliability and validity as a measure of burnout.

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Topics: Occupational burnout (65%), Burnout (63%), Emotional exhaustion (58%) ... read more

8,665 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S12889-017-4153-7
Gunnar Aronsson1, Töres Theorell2, Töres Theorell1, Tom Grape  +6 moreInstitutions (5)
16 Mar 2017-BMC Public Health
Abstract: Practitioners and decision makers in the medical and insurance systems need knowledge on the relationship between work exposures and burnout. Many burnout studies – original as well as reviews - restricted their analyses to emotional exhaustion or did not report results on cynicism, personal accomplishment or global burnout. To meet this need we carried out this review and meta-analyses with the aim to provide systematically graded evidence for associations between working conditions and near-future development of burnout symptoms. A wide range of work exposure factors was screened. Inclusion criteria were: 1) Study performed in Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand 1990–2013. 2) Prospective or comparable case control design. 3) Assessments of exposure (work) and outcome at baseline and at least once again during follow up 1–5 years later. Twenty-five articles met the predefined relevance and quality criteria. The GRADE-system with its 4-grade evidence scale was used. Most of the 25 studies focused emotional exhaustion, fewer cynicism and still fewer personal accomplishment. Moderately strong evidence (grade 3) was concluded for the association between job control and reduced emotional exhaustion and between low workplace support and increased emotional exhaustion. Limited evidence (grade 2) was found for the associations between workplace justice, demands, high work load, low reward, low supervisor support, low co-worker support, job insecurity and change in emotional exhaustion. Cynicism was associated with most of these work factors. Reduced personal accomplishment was only associated with low reward. There were few prospective studies with sufficient quality on adverse chemical, biological and physical factors and burnout. While high levels of job support and workplace justice were protective for emotional exhaustion, high demands, low job control, high work load, low reward and job insecurity increased the risk for developing exhaustion. Our approach with a wide range of work exposure factors analysed in relation to the separate dimensions of burnout expanded the knowledge of associations, evidence as well as research needs. The potential of organizational interventions is illustrated by the findings that burnout symptoms are strongly influenced by structural factors such as job demands, support and the possibility to exert control.

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Topics: Emotional exhaustion (67%), Job control (65%), Burnout (60%)

269 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/0142159X.2016.1248918
Christina Maslach1, Michael P. Leiter2Institutions (2)
01 Feb 2017-Medical Teacher
Abstract: What do we know about burnout, and what can we do about it? This article will provide an overview of what has been learned from current research on burnout, and what are the implications of the key themes that have emerged. One theme involves the critical significance of the social environment in health care settings. A second theme is the challenge of how to take what we know, and apply it to what we can do about burnout. What we need are new ideas about potential interventions, and clear evidence of their effectiveness. One example of this perspective addresses burnout by improving the balance of civil, respectful social encounters occurring during a workday. Research has demonstrated that not only can civility be increased at work but that doing so leads to an enduring reduction in burnout among health care providers. Lessons learned from this extensive research form the basis of recommendations for medical education. Specifically, the effectiveness of both the academic content and supervised p...

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Topics: Burnout (64%), Health care (52%)

148 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMANETWORKOPEN.2020.17271
03 Aug 2020-
Abstract: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has placed considerable psychological strain on frontline health care workers (HCWs).1 Although the problem of burnout, which overlaps with the symptoms of depression,2 remains urgent, few studies have addressed it comprehensively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of burnout among frontline HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan based on job categories and other factors.

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Topics: Burnout (55%), Pandemic (51%), Health care (51%)

100 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.5811/WESTJEM.2019.4.40970
Abstract: Each year more than 400 physicians take their lives, likely related to increasing depression and burnout. Burnout-a psychological syndrome featuring emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and a reduced sense of personal accomplishment-is a disturbingly and increasingly prevalent phenomenon in healthcare, and emergency medicine (EM) in particular. As self-care based solutions have proven unsuccessful, more system-based causes, beyond the control of the individual physicians, have been identified. Such system-based causes include limitations of the electronic health record, long work hours and substantial educational debt, all in a culture of "no mistakes allowed." Blame and isolation in the face of medical errors and poor outcomes may lead to physician emotional injury, the so-called "second victim" syndrome, which is both a contributor to and consequence of burnout. In addition, emergency physicians (EP) are also particularly affected by the intensity of clinical practice, the higher risk of litigation, and the chronic fatigue of circadian rhythm disruption. Burnout has widespread consequences, including poor quality of care, increased medical errors, patient and provider dissatisfaction, and attrition from medical practice, exacerbating the shortage and maldistribution of EPs. Burned-out physicians are unlikely to seek professional treatment and may attempt to deal with substance abuse, depression and suicidal thoughts alone. This paper reviews the scope of burnout, contributors, and consequences both for medicine in general and for EM in particular.

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Topics: Burnout (58%), Emotional exhaustion (55%), Health care (50%)

86 Citations