# C ONDENSATION —Conditional Density Propagation forVisual Tracking

##### Citations

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10,141 citations

8,059 citations

### Cites methods from "C ONDENSATION —Conditional Density ..."

...This is the approach used in the condensation algorithm (which stands for “conditional density propagation”) used for visual tracking (Isard and Blake 1998)....

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5,318 citations

### Cites background or methods from "C ONDENSATION —Conditional Density ..."

...Kalman .ltering [Isard and Blake 1998] S × v Gradient mag....

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...The weights tt de.ne the importance of a sample, that is, its observation frequency [Isard and Blake 1998]....

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...Silhouette Tracking Contour evolution State space models [Isard and Blake 1998], Variational methods [Bertalmio et al. 2000], Heuristic methods [Ronfard 1994]....

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...For example, these methods have extensively been used for tracking contours [Isard and Blake 1998], activity recognition [Vaswani et al....

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4,996 citations

### Cites methods from "C ONDENSATION —Conditional Density ..."

...Particle filtering was first introduced, in vision, as the Condensation algorithm by Isard and Blake [ 40 ]....

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4,146 citations

### Cites background or methods from "C ONDENSATION —Conditional Density ..."

...One popular approach, called particle filtering (Isard and Blake 1998), was originally developed for tracking the outlines of people and hands, as described in §5....

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...1: Some popular image segmentation techniques: (a) active contours (Isard and Blake 1998); (b) level sets (Cremers et al....

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...6: Probability density propagation (Isard and Blake 1998)....

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...8: Head tracking using CONDENSATION: (Isard and Blake 1998): (a) sample set representation of head estimate distribution; (b) multiple measurements at each control vertex location; (c) multi-hypothesis tracking over time....

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...7: Factored sampling using particle filter in the CONDENSATION algorithm (Isard and Blake 1998): (a) each density distribution is represented using a superposition of weighted particles; (b) the drift-diffusion-measurement cycle implemented using random sampling, perturbation, and re-weighting stages....

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##### References

23,396 citations

### "C ONDENSATION —Conditional Density ..." refers background in this paper

...The “RANSAC” algorithm (Fischler and Bolles, 1981) deals probabilistically with multiple observations but the observations have to be discrete, and there is no mechanism for temporal propagation....

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19,881 citations

### "C ONDENSATION —Conditional Density ..." refers methods in this paper

...Otherwise, for low-dimensional parameterisations as in this paper, standard, direct methods can be used for Gaussians2 (Press et al., 1988)....

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...Otherwise, for low-dimensional parameterisations as in this paper, standard, direct methods can be used for Gaussians 2 (Press et al., 1988)....

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18,761 citations

### "C ONDENSATION —Conditional Density ..." refers methods in this paper

...In cases wherep(z | x) is sufficiently complex thatp(x | z) cannot be evaluated simply in closed form, iterative sampling techniques can be used (Geman and Geman, 1984; Ripley and Sutherland, 1990; Grenander et al., 1991; Storvik, 1994)....

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18,095 citations

### "C ONDENSATION —Conditional Density ..." refers background in this paper

...One important facility is the modelling of curve segments which interact with images (Fischler and Elschlager, 1973; Yuille and Hallinan, 1992) or image sequences (Kass et al., 1987; Dickmanns, and Graefe, 1988)....

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8,442 citations

### "C ONDENSATION —Conditional Density ..." refers background in this paper

...Finally, it is striking that the density propagation equation (4) in the Condensation algorithm is a continuous form of the propagation rule of the “forward algorithm” for Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) (Rabiner and Bing-Hwang, 1993)....

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...Finally, it is striking that the density propagation equation (4) in theCondensation algorithm is a continuous form of the propagation rule of the “forward algorithm” for Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) (Rabiner and Bing-Hwang, 1993)....

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