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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CMET.2021.01.005

C9orf72 regulates energy homeostasis by stabilizing mitochondrial complex I assembly.

02 Mar 2021-Cell Metabolism (Cell Press)-Vol. 33, Iss: 3
Abstract: The haploinsufficiency of C9orf72 is implicated in the most common forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), but the full spectrum of C9orf72 functions remains to be established. Here, we report that C9orf72 is a mitochondrial inner-membrane-associated protein regulating cellular energy homeostasis via its critical role in the control of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). The translocation of C9orf72 from the cytosol to the inter-membrane space is mediated by the redox-sensitive AIFM1/CHCHD4 pathway. In mitochondria, C9orf72 specifically stabilizes translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane domain containing 1 (TIMMDC1), a crucial factor for the assembly of OXPHOS complex I. C9orf72 directly recruits the prohibitin complex to inhibit the m-AAA protease-dependent degradation of TIMMDC1. The mitochondrial complex I function is impaired in C9orf72-linked ALS/FTD patient-derived neurons. These results reveal a previously unknown function of C9orf72 in mitochondria and suggest that defective energy metabolism may underlie the pathogenesis of relevant diseases.

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Topics: Inner mitochondrial membrane (58%), Mitochondrion (55%), AIFM1 (54%) ... read more
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12 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CELLS10071789
15 Jul 2021-Cells
Abstract: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease for which there is currently no cure. Progress in the characterization of other neurodegenerative mechanisms has shifted the spotlight onto an intracellular structure called mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contacts (MERCs) whose ER portion can be biochemically isolated as mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs). Within the central nervous system (CNS), these structures control the metabolic output of mitochondria and keep sources of oxidative stress in check via autophagy. The most relevant MERC controllers in the ALS pathogenesis are vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein B (VAPB), a mitochondria-ER tether, and the ubiquitin-specific chaperone valosin containing protein (VCP). These two systems cooperate to maintain mitochondrial energy output and prevent oxidative stress. In ALS, mutant VAPB and VCP take a central position in the pathology through MERC dysfunction that ultimately alters or compromises mitochondrial bioenergetics. Intriguingly, both proteins are targets themselves of other ALS mutant proteins, including C9orf72, FUS, or TDP-43. Thus, a new picture emerges, where different triggers cause MERC dysfunction in ALS, subsequently leading to well-known pathological changes including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, inflammation, and motor neuron death.

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Topics: VAPB (58%), Endoplasmic reticulum (55%), Valosin-containing protein (52%)

6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FNCEL.2021.653688
Abstract: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease of the motor system with complex determinants, including genetic and non-genetic factors. Despite this heterogeneity, a key pathological signature is the mislocalization and aggregation of specific proteins in the cytoplasm, suggesting that convergent pathogenic mechanisms focusing on disturbances in proteostasis are important in ALS. In addition, many cellular processes have been identified as potentially contributing to disease initiation and progression, such as defects in axonal transport, autophagy, nucleocytoplasmic transport, ER stress, calcium metabolism, the unfolded protein response and mitochondrial function. Here we review the evidence from in vitro and in vivo models of C9ORF72 and TDP-43-related ALS supporting a central role in pathogenesis for endoplasmic reticulum stress, which activates an unfolded protein response (UPR), and mitochondrial dysfunction. Disruption in the finely tuned signaling between the ER and mitochondria through calcium ions may be a crucial trigger of mitochondrial deficits and initiate an apoptotic signaling cascade, thus acting as a point of convergence for multiple upstream disturbances of cellular homeostasis and constituting a potentially important therapeutic target.

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Topics: Unfolded protein response (62%), Proteostasis (58%), Cellular homeostasis (55%) ... read more

6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FNCEL.2021.661447
Abstract: When the non-coding repeat expansion in the C9ORF72 gene was discovered to be the most frequent cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in 2011, this gene and its derived protein, C9ORF72, were completely unknown. The mutation appeared to produce both haploinsufficiency and gain-of-function effects in the form of aggregating expanded RNAs and dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs). An unprecedented effort was then unleashed to decipher the pathogenic mechanisms and the functions of C9ORF72 in order to design therapies. A decade later, while the toxicity of accumulating gain-of-function products has been established and therapeutic strategies are being developed to target it, the contribution of the loss of function starts to appear more clearly. This article reviews the current knowledge about the C9ORF72 protein, how it is affected by the repeat expansion in models and patients, and what could be the contribution of its haploinsufficiency to the disease in light of the most recent findings. We suggest that these elements should be taken into consideration to refine future therapeutic strategies, compensating for the decrease of C9ORF72 or at least preventing a further reduction.

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Topics: C9orf72 (54%), Trinucleotide repeat expansion (53%), Haploinsufficiency (53%) ... read more

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/LIFE11050432
11 May 2021-Life
Abstract: The fact that >99% of mitochondrial proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome and synthesised in the cytosol renders the process of mitochondrial protein import fundamental for normal organelle physiology. In addition to this, the nuclear genome comprises most of the proteins required for respiratory complex assembly and function. This means that without fully functional protein import, mitochondrial respiration will be defective, and the major cellular ATP source depleted. When mitochondrial protein import is impaired, a number of stress response pathways are activated in order to overcome the dysfunction and restore mitochondrial and cellular proteostasis. However, prolonged impaired mitochondrial protein import and subsequent defective respiratory chain function contributes to a number of diseases including primary mitochondrial diseases and neurodegeneration. This review focuses on how the processes of mitochondrial protein translocation and respiratory complex assembly and function are interlinked, how they are regulated, and their importance in health and disease.

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Topics: Respiratory chain (61%), Proteostasis (56%), Neurodegeneration (52%) ... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FNCEL.2021.668500
Yu-Ju Liu1, Yijuang Chern1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Impaired energy homeostasis and aberrant translational control have independently been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. AMP kinase (AMPK), regulated by the ratio of cellular AMP and ATP, is a major gatekeeper for cellular energy homeostasis. Abnormal regulation of AMPK has been reported in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Most importantly, AMPK activation is known to suppress the translational machinery by inhibiting the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), activating translational regulators, and phosphorylating nuclear transporter factors. In this review, we describe recent findings on the emerging role of protein translation impairment caused by energy dysregulation in neurodegenerative diseases.

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Topics: AMPK (61%), mTORC1 (53%), Energy homeostasis (51%)

1 Citations


References
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66 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE05292
Michael T. Lin1, M. Flint Beal1Institutions (1)
19 Oct 2006-Nature
Abstract: Many lines of evidence suggest that mitochondria have a central role in ageing-related neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondria are critical regulators of cell death, a key feature of neurodegeneration. Mutations in mitochondrial DNA and oxidative stress both contribute to ageing, which is the greatest risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. In all major examples of these diseases there is strong evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction occurs early and acts causally in disease pathogenesis. Moreover, an impressive number of disease-specific proteins interact with mitochondria. Thus, therapies targeting basic mitochondrial processes, such as energy metabolism or free-radical generation, or specific interactions of disease-related proteins with mitochondria, hold great promise.

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Topics: DNAJA3 (62%), mitochondrial fusion (61%), Neurodegeneration (58%) ... read more

4,742 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.NEURON.2011.09.011
20 Oct 2011-Neuron
Abstract: Several families have been reported with autosomal-dominant frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), genetically linked to chromosome 9p21. Here, we report an expansion of a noncoding GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat in the gene C9ORF72 that is strongly associated with disease in a large FTD/ALS kindred, previously reported to be conclusively linked to chromosome 9p. This same repeat expansion was identified in the majority of our families with a combined FTD/ALS phenotype and TDP-43-based pathology. Analysis of extended clinical series found the C9ORF72 repeat expansion to be the most common genetic abnormality in both familial FTD (11.7%) and familial ALS (23.5%). The repeat expansion leads to the loss of one alternatively spliced C9ORF72 transcript and to formation of nuclear RNA foci, suggesting multiple disease mechanisms. Our findings indicate that repeat expansion in C9ORF72 is a major cause of both FTD and ALS.

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Topics: Trinucleotide repeat expansion (58%), C9orf72 Protein (58%), DNA Repeat Expansion (56%) ... read more

3,580 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.NEURON.2011.09.010
20 Oct 2011-Neuron
Abstract: The chromosome 9p21 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD) locus contains one of the last major unidentified autosomal-dominant genes underlying these common neurodegenerative diseases. We have previously shown that a founder haplotype, covering the MOBKL2b, IFNK, and C9ORF72 genes, is present in the majority of cases linked to this region. Here we show that there is a large hexanucleotide (GGGGCC) repeat expansion in the first intron of C9ORF72 on the affected haplotype. This repeat expansion segregates perfectly with disease in the Finnish population, underlying 46.0% of familial ALS and 21.1% of sporadic ALS in that population. Taken together with the D90A SOD1 mutation, 87% of familial ALS in Finland is now explained by a simple monogenic cause. The repeat expansion is also present in one-third of familial ALS cases of outbred European descent, making it the most common genetic cause of these fatal neurodegenerative diseases identified to date.

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Topics: Trinucleotide repeat expansion (58%), C9orf72 Protein (55%), DNA Repeat Expansion (54%) ... read more

3,304 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE20413
10 Nov 2016-Nature
Abstract: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and uniformly fatal neurodegenerative disease. A plethora of genetic factors have been identified that drive the degeneration of motor neurons in ALS, increase susceptibility to the disease or influence the rate of its progression. Emerging themes include dysfunction in RNA metabolism and protein homeostasis, with specific defects in nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, the induction of stress at the endoplasmic reticulum and impaired dynamics of ribonucleoprotein bodies such as RNA granules that assemble through liquid-liquid phase separation. Extraordinary progress in understanding the biology of ALS provides new reasons for optimism that meaningful therapies will be identified.

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1,069 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1232927
Kohji Mori1, Shih-Ming Weng2, Thomas Arzberger1, Stephanie May2  +11 moreInstitutions (3)
15 Mar 2013-Science
Abstract: Expansion of a GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat upstream of the C9orf72 coding region is the most common cause of familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FTLD/ALS), but the pathomechanisms involved are unknown. As in other FTLD/ALS variants, characteristic intracellular inclusions of misfolded proteins define C9orf72 pathology, but the core proteins of the majority of inclusions are still unknown. Here, we found that most of these characteristic inclusions contain poly-(Gly-Ala) and, to a lesser extent, poly-(Gly-Pro) and poly-(Gly-Arg) dipeptide-repeat proteins presumably generated by non-ATG-initiated translation from the expanded GGGGCC repeat in three reading frames. These findings directly link the FTLD/ALS-associated genetic mutation to the predominant pathology in patients with C9orf72 hexanucleotide expansion.

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954 Citations


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202112