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Journal ArticleDOI

Cadmium sulfide with iridium sulfide and platinum sulfide deposits as a photocatalyst for the decomposition of aqueous sulfide

04 Oct 1995-Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A-chemistry (Elsevier)-Vol. 91, Iss: 1, pp 63-66
Abstract: The in situ deposition of Pt and Ir on CdS during the photocatalytic decomposition of aqueous sulfide results in the formation of an effective bifunctional photocatalyst (MS/CdS/M, where MS is Pt or Ir sulfide and M is Pt or Ir) which is more active than CdS and metallized CdS. In situ metallization provides a convenient method for the preparation of metal- and metal-sulfide-deposited CdS. The order of reactivity for the in situ metallization of CdS in the case of the photocatalytic decomposition of aqueous sulfide is Rh > Pt > Ru = Ir > Co ≃ Ni ≃ Fe. Based on the observed results a mechanism for the photocatalytic decomposition of aqueous sulfide is proposed. more

Topics: Sulfide (67%), Cadmium sulfide (59%), Platinum (51%)
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Journal ArticleDOI
Frank E. Osterloh1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Photochemical splitting of water into H2 and O2 using solar energy is a process of great economic and environmental interest. Since the discovery of the first water splitting system based on TiO2 and Pt in 1972 by Fujishima and Honda, over 130 inorganic materials have been discovered as catalysts for this reaction. This review discusses the known inorganic catalysts with a focus on structure–activity relationships. more

1,874 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Kasper Wenderich1, Guido Mul1Institutions (1)
05 Dec 2016-Chemical Reviews
TL;DR: For a variety of metals and semiconductors, an attempt is made to generalize observations in the literature on the effect of process conditions applied during photodeposition on (i) particle size distributions, (ii) oxidation states of the metals obtained, and (iii) consequences for photocatalytic activities. more

Abstract: In this review, for a variety of metals and semiconductors, an attempt is made to generalize observations in the literature on the effect of process conditions applied during photodeposition on (i) particle size distributions, (ii) oxidation states of the metals obtained, and (iii) consequences for photocatalytic activities. Process parameters include presence or absence of (organic) sacrificial agents, applied pH, presence or absence of an air/inert atmosphere, metal precursor type and concentration, and temperature. Most intensively reviewed are studies concerning (i) TiO2; (ii) ZnO, focusing on Ag deposition; (iii) WO3, with a strong emphasis on the photodeposition of Pt; and (iv) CdS, again with a focus on deposition of Pt. Furthermore, a detailed overview is given of achievements in structure-directed photodeposition, which could ultimately be employed to obtain highly effective photocatalytic materials. Finally, we provide suggestions for improvements in description of the photodeposition methods applied when included in scientific papers. more

446 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Kai Zhang1, Liejin Guo1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Photocatalytic hydrogen production using semiconductor materials is one of the ideal processes for direct solar energy conversion. Sulphide semiconductor photocatalysts have attracted much attention due to their excellent solar spectrum responses and high photocatalytic activities. This article presents recent research progress in the development of visible light driven sulphide photocatalysts, focusing on the expansion of solar spectrum response and enhancement of charge separation efficiency. As is known, the ultimate goal of photocatalytic hydrogen production is to meet the practical energy demand of human beings. Thus, design of highly efficient and low cost sulphide photocatalysts with excellent sunlight response is highly desired. So we also highlight the crucial issues in the development of highly efficient sulphide photocatalysts without noble metal cocatalysts. The present paper is expected to provide important scientific reference for future works. Finally, the challenges and perspectives in this area are also discussed. more

379 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Nanostructured photocatalysts with high activity are sought for solar production of hydrogen. Spinel semiconductors with different nanostructures and morphologies have immense importance for photocatalytic and other potential applications. Here, a chemically stable cubic spinel nanostructured CdIn2S4 prepared by a facile hydrothermal method is reported as a visible-light driven photocatalyst. A pretty, marigold-like morphology is observed in aqueous-mediated CdIn2S4, whereas nanotubes of good crystallinity, 25 nm in diameter, are obtained in methanol-mediated CdIn2S4. The aqueous- and methanol-mediated CdIn2S4 products show excellent photocatalytic activity compared to other organic mediated samples, and this is attributed to their high degree of crystallinity. The CdIn2S4 photocatalyst gives quantum yields of 16.8 % (marigold-like morphology) and 17.1 % (nanotubes) at 500 nm, respectively, for the H2 evolution reaction. The details of the characteristics of the photocatalyst, such as crystal and band structure, are reported. Considering the importance of hydrogen energy, CdIn2S4 will be an excellent candidate as a catalyst for “photohydrogen” production under visible light. Being a nanostructured chalcogenide semiconductor, CdIn2S4 will have other potential prospective applications, such as in solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and optoelectronic devices. more

292 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Visible light sensitive and highly active Cu-doped ZnS hollow photocatalyst particles “Cu-ZnS-shell” were successfully developed. These particles could generate H2 through photocatalytic decomposition of HS− ion in Na2S solution. The photoactivity under xenon lamp irradiation was 6 and 130 times higher than that of copper-free “ZnS-shell” and coprecipitated ZnS particles, respectively. “Cu-ZnS-shell” particles were prepared by doping the “ZnS-shell” particles synthesized using zinc oxide as precursor with Cu, utilizing the difference in ionization tendency between zinc and copper. Though the photoactivity of “ZnS-shell” was higher than that of coprecipitated ZnS, their photoactivity under visible light conditions was low. However, the “Cu-ZnS-shell” was active to light of wavelengths higher than 440 nm and is preferred over CdS, which requires an expensive support metal catalyst such as platinum to decompose HS− ion. more

156 citations

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Journal ArticleDOI
T.A. Pecoraro1, Russell R. Chianelli1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The primary effect in the hydrodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene by transition metal sulfides is “electronic,” i.e., it is related to the position the metal occupies in the periodic table. This effect, which determines the ability of the transition metal sulfides to catalyze the HDS reaction, varies over three orders of magnitude across the periodic table. The first-row transition metal sulfides are relatively inactive, but the second- and third-row transition metals show maximum activity with Ru and Os. HDS activity as a function of periodic position yields typical “volcano” plots. more

709 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Allen J. Bard1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The principles and applications of semiconductor electrodes in photo-electrochemical (PEC) cells (liquid junction photovoltaic, photoelectro-synthetic, photocatalytic) are described. Factors important to the design of practical systems and the extension of the principles of PEC cells to particulate systems for carrying out heterogeneous photocatalysis and photosynthesis are discussed. A “dual n-type semiconductor” model of biological photo-synthesis is proposed and possible means of utilization of such a system is described. more

701 citations

01 Jan 1983-
Abstract: energy resources through photochemistry and catalysis pdf ebook energy resources through photochemistry and catalysis ebook energy resources through photochemistry and catalysis energy resources through photochemistry and catalysis energy resources through photochemistry and catalysis energy resources through photochemistry and catalysis organometallics and catalysis pdf firebase light harvesting and energy transfer in laser dye-labeled nanotechnology in catalysis nanostructure science and free download section 4 1 energy and mineral resources kids guide to types of landforms childrens science nature photochemistry and photophysics of hyper porphyrins solar photochemistry office of science 2000 gmc w3500 manual quafe free download section 4 2 alternate energy resources homogeneous and heterogeneous photocatalysis springer free download energy and resources section 1 reinforcement malory and christianity essays on sir thomas malorys morte nazaryth [the exiled 1] (siren publishing everlasting free download energy resources wordsearch answers cad managers guidebook paycox photoelectrochemical reduction of co2 using silicate rock tier unit 3 1 day fourscorched earth ebook | ufcgymmatthews how to troubleshoot a tv receiver dioro bien dit french 2 workbook answers alongz size effects in photoprocesses on dispersed catalysts department of chemistry, university of texas, austin basic energy sciences overview more

663 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Active photocatalysts for photochemical hydrogen production have been prepared by platinum deposition on microcrystals of CdS powders. Hydrogen produced by irradiating suspensions of platinized CdS in various electrolyte solutions (S/sup 2 -/, SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/, H/sub 2/PO/sup 2 -/) has been shown to be significantly improved by photoetching the CdS microcrystals. The efficiency of hydrogen formation in solutions containing S/sup 2 -/ is low due to the formation of disulfide ions. Additional of reducing agents such as sulfite or hypophosphite ions, which efficiently suppresses disulfide formation, allows hydrogen to evolve at a surprisingly high rate. In the case of a solution containing both S/sup 2/ and SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ ions, the formation of thiosulfate is observed with a quantum yield of 0.25. In mixtures of sulfide and hypophosphite ions, phosphite and phosphate ions are the oxidation products. Hydrogen formation occurs in solutions containing SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ ions only when the platinized CdS particles have previously been photoetched. Concomitant to the proton reduction, SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ ions are oxidized to sulfate and dithionate. In 12 days, 9 L of H/sub 2/ was generated by irradiating 1 g of CdS/Pt suspended in an Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ solution. Aftermore » this period, the efficiency of the photocatalyst dropped to about 60% of the initial rate. The reaction parameters and the formation of the oxidation products have been investigated in detail. 57 references, 10 figures, 4 tables.« less more

371 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Enrico Borgarello1, John Kiwi1, Ezio Pelizzetti2, Mario Visca  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
01 Jan 1981-Nature
Abstract: A bifunctional redox catalyst, composed of Pt and RuO2 co-deposited on a colloidal TiO2 carrier, is a highly potent mediator for water decomposition by visible light1. The system contains apart from the sensitizer (Ru(bipy)2+3) an electron relay—methylviologen. The latter is reduced on light excitation, and the photoreaction is coupled with catalytic steps2 generating H2 and O2 from water. To rationalize the surprisingly high efficiency of this photoredox system, we proposed a mechanism involving species adsorbed at the TiO2 surface. This led us to explore sensitizers which through suitable functionalization show an enhanced affinity for adsorption at the particle–water interface. We describe here the performance of electron relay-free systems capable of efficiently decomposing water into H2 and O2 under visible light illumination. A bifunctional redox catalyst composed of RuO2 and Pt co-supported on colloidal TiO2 particles is used. The only other component present is a sensitizer. Amphiphilic surfactant derivatives of Ru(bipy)2+3 exhibit extremely high activity in promoting the water cleavage process. Adsorption of the sensitizer at the TiO2 particle–water interface and electron ejection into the TiO2 conduction band are evoked to explain the observations. Exposure to UV radiation leads to efficient water cleavage in the absence of sensitizer. more

334 citations

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