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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/NU13030815

Caffeine-Induced Effects on Human Skeletal Muscle Contraction Time and Maximal Displacement Measured by Tensiomyography.

02 Mar 2021-Nutrients (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)-Vol. 13, Iss: 3, pp 815
Abstract: Studies on muscle activation time in sport after caffeine supplementation confirmed the effectiveness of caffeine. The novel approach was to determine whether a dose of 9 mg/kg/ body mass (b.m.) of caffeine affects the changes of contraction time and the displacement of electrically stimulated muscle (gastrocnemius medialis) in professional athletes who regularly consume products rich in caffeine and do not comply with the caffeine discontinuation period requirements. The study included 40 professional male handball players (age = 23.13 ± 3.51, b.m. = 93.51 ± 15.70 kg, height 191 ± 7.72, BMI = 25.89 ± 3.10). The analysis showed that in the experimental group the values of examined parameters were significantly reduced (p ≤ 0.001) (contraction time: before = 20.60 ± 2.58 ms/ after = 18.43 ± 3.05 ms; maximal displacement: before = 2.32 ± 0.80 mm/after = 1.69 ± 0.51 mm). No significant changes were found in the placebo group. The main achievement of this research was to demonstrate that caffeine at a dose of 9 mg/kg in professional athletes who regularly consume products rich in caffeine has a direct positive effect on the mechanical activity of skeletal muscle stimulated by an electric pulse.

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Topics: Tensiomyography (53%), Caffeine (51%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/NU13093088
Kamil Rodak1, Izabela Kokot1, Ewa Maria Kratz1Institutions (1)
02 Sep 2021-Nutrients
Abstract: Nowadays, caffeine is one of the most commonly consumed substances, which presents in many plants and products. It has both positive and negative effects on the human body, and its activity concerns a variety of systems including the central nervous system, immune system, digestive system, respiratory system, urinary tract, etc. These effects are dependent on quantity, the type of product in which caffeine is contained, and also on the individual differences among people (sex, age, diet etc.). The main aim of this review was to collect, present, and analyze the available information including the latest discoveries on the impact of caffeine on human health and the functioning of human body systems, taking into account the role of caffeine in individual disease entities. We present both the positive and negative sides of caffeine consumption and the healing properties of this purine alkaloid in diseases such as asthma, Parkinson’s disease, and others, not forgetting about the negative effects of excess caffeine (e.g., in people with hypertension, children, adolescents, and the elderly). In summary, we can conclude, however, that caffeine has a multi-directional influence on various organs of the human body, and because of its anti-oxidative properties, it was, and still is, an interesting topic for research studies including those aimed at developing new therapeutic strategies.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MEDICINA57111166
27 Oct 2021-Medicina-lithuania
Abstract: Background and Objectives: When performing the jump inside kick in Wushu, it is important to understand the rotation technique while in mid-air. This is because the score varies according to the mid-air rotation, and when landing after the mid-air rotation, it causes considerable injury to the knee. This study aimed to compare the differences in kinematic and kinetic variables between experienced and less experienced knee injuries in the Wushu players who perform 360°, 540°, and 720° jump inside kicks in self-taolu. Materials and Methods: The participants' mean (SD) age was 26.12 (2.84) years old. All of them had suffered knee injuries and were all recovering and returning to training. The group was classified into a group with less than 20 months of injury experience (LESS IG, n = 6) and a group with more than 20 months of injury experience (MORE IG, n = 6). For kinematic measurements, jump inside kicks at three rotations were assessed by using high-speed cameras. For kinetic measurements, the contraction time and maximal displacement of tensiomyography were assessed in the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius lateralis, gastrocnemius medialis, and tibialis anterior. The peak torque, work per repetition, fatigue index, and total work of isokinetic moments were assessed using knee extension/flexion, ankle inversion/eversion, and ankle plantarflexion/dorsiflexion tests. Results: Although there was no difference at the low difficulty level (360°), there were significant differences at the higher difficulty levels (540° and 720°) between the LESS IG and the MORE IG. For distance and time, the LESS IG had a shorter jump distance, but a faster rotation time compared to those in the MORE IG. Due to the characteristics of the jump inside kick's rotation to the left, the static and dynamic muscle contractility properties were mainly found to be higher in the left lower extremity than in the right lower extremity, and higher in the LESS IG than in the MORE IG. In addition, this study observed that the ankle plantarflexor in the LESS IG was significantly higher than that in the MORE IG. Conclusion: To become a world-class self-taolu athlete while avoiding knee injuries, it is necessary to develop the static and dynamic myofunctions of the lower extremities required for jumping. Moreover, it is considered desirable to train by focusing on the vertical height and the amount of rotation during jumping.

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Topics: Vastus medialis (56%), Jumping (53%), Ankle (50%) ... show more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1113/EP088188
Louise M. Burke1Institutions (1)
Abstract: New findings What is the central question of this study? What are the nutritional strategies that athletes use during competition events to optimise performance and why do they use them? What is the main finding and its importance? A range of nutritional strategies can be used by competitive athletes, alone or in combination, to address various event-specific factors that constrain event performance. Evidence for such practices is constantly evolving but must be combined with understanding of the complexities of real-life sport for optimal implementation. Abstract High performance athletes share a common goal despite the unique nature of their sport: to pace or manage their performance to achieve the highest sustainable outputs over the duration of the event. Periodic or sustained decline in the optimal performance of event tasks, involves an interplay between central and peripheral phenomena that can often be reduced or delayed in onset by nutritional strategies. Contemporary nutrition practices undertaken before, during, or between events include strategies to ensure the availability of limited muscle fuel stores. This includes creatine supplementation to increase muscle phosphocreatine content, and consideration of the type, amount and timing of dietary carbohydrate intake to optimise muscle and liver glycogen stores or to provide additional exogenous substrate. Although there is interest in ketogenic low-carbohydrate high-fat diets and exogenous ketone supplements to provide alternative fuels to spare muscle carbohydrate use, present evidence suggests a limited utility of these strategies. Mouth sensing of a range of food tastants (e.g. carbohydrate, quinine, menthol, caffeine, fluid, acetic acid) may provide a central nervous system derived boost to sports performance. Finally, despite decades of research on hypohydration and exercise capacity, there is still contention around its effect on sports performance and the best guidance around hydration for sporting events. A unifying model proposes that some scenarios require personalised fluid plans while others might be managed by an ad hoc approach (ad libitum or thirst-driven drinking) to fluid intake. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJERPH18105309
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to describe the differences between the dominant and non-dominant leg regarding contractility response and quadriceps strength and the morphology and stiffness of the patellar tendon (PT) in a group of physically active men and women. Fifty physically active subjects (36 men and 14 women) were evaluated for morphology and stiffness of the PT, contractility response of the rectus femoris of the quadriceps, isometric strength of the quadriceps and hamstrings, and isokinetic strength (concentric and eccentric) at 60°/s of the knee extensors. The measurements were made on the subject’s dominant and non-dominant leg. The men showed a greater thickness of the PT in both legs compared to the women. Regarding the contractility response, the women recorded a 10.1 ± 16.2% (p = 0.038) greater contraction time (ct) in the dominant versus the non-dominant leg and the men recorded 11.9% (p = 0.040) higher values in the dominant leg compared to the women. In all the absolute strength measurements the men recorded higher values (p < 0.05) than the women, however, when the values were normalised with respect to the muscle mass of the leg these differences disappeared. The dominant leg showed values of isometric strength and eccentric strength at 60°/s (p < 0.05) greater than the non-dominant leg. The reference values provided in this study of the knee extensors and PT may be useful for detecting possible muscular or tendinous anomalies.

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Topics: Isometric exercise (52%), Contractility (51%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/NU13082506
22 Jul 2021-Nutrients
Abstract: The rise in energy drink (ED) intake in the general population and athletes has been achieved with smart and effective marketing strategies. There is a robust base of evidence showing that adolescents are the main consumers of EDs. The prevalence of ED usage in this group ranges from 52% to 68%, whilst in adults is estimated at 32%. The compositions of EDs vary widely. Caffeine content can range from 75 to 240 mg, whereas the average taurine quantity is 342.28 mg/100 mL. Unfortunately, exact amounts of the other ED elements are often not disclosed by manufacturers. Caffeine and taurine in doses 3–6 mg/kg and 1–6 g, respectively, appear to be the main ergogenic elements. However, additive or synergic properties between them seem to be implausible. Because of non-unified protocol design, presented studies show inconsistency between ED ingestion and improved physical performance. Potential side effects caused by abusive consumption or missed contraindications are the aspects that are the most often overlooked by consumers and not fully elucidated by ED producers. In this review, the authors aimed to present the latest scientific information on ED components and their possible impact on improving physical performance as well as to bring emphasis to the danger of inordinate consumption.

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Topics: Population (52%)
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Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: Caffeine is the most widely consumed behaviorally active substance in the world. Almost all caffeine comes from dietary sources (beverages and food), most of it from coffee and tea. Acute and, especially, chronic caffeine intake appear to have only minor negative consequences on health. For this

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Topics: Caffeine (53%), Poison control (51%), SCH-58261 (50%)

2,280 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1085/JGP.52.5.750
A. Weber1, R Herz1Institutions (1)
Abstract: At concentrations between 1 to 10 mM, caffeine reduced the Ca-accumulating capacity of fragmented reticulum obtained from frog and rabbit muscle. With 8 mM caffeine enough Ca was released from frog reticulum to account for the force of the contracture. Caffeine did not affect all reticulum membranes equally. The fraction which was spun down at 2000 g was more sensitive than the lighter fractions. The percentage of the total accumulated Ca released by caffeine decreased with decreasing Ca content of the reticulum. In parallel with their known effects on the caffeine contracture, a drop in temperature increased the caffeine-induced Ca release while procaine inhibited it. Caffeine also inhibited the rate of Ca uptake, which may in part account for the prolongation of the active state caused by caffeine.

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Topics: Caffeine (56%)

652 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1152/AJPREGU.00386.2002
J. Mark Davis, Zuowei Zhao, Howard S. Stock1, Kristen A. Mehl  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Caffeine ingestion can delay fatigue during exercise, but the mechanisms remain elusive. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that blockade of central nervous system (CNS) adenosine recep...

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Topics: Caffeine (56%), Adenosine (56%)

416 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.2165/11317770-000000000-00000
Jon-Kyle Davis, J. Matt Green1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 2009-Sports Medicine
Abstract: The effect caffeine elicits on endurance performance is well founded. However, comparatively less research has been conducted on the ergogenic potential of anaerobic performance. Some studies showing no effect of caffeine on performance used untrained subjects and designs often not conducive to observing an ergogenic effect. Recent studies incorporating trained subjects and paradigms specific to intermittent sports activity support the notion that caffeine is ergogenic to an extent with anaerobic exercise. Caffeine seems highly ergogenic for speed endurance exercise ranging in duration from 60 to 180 seconds. However, other traditional models examining power output (i.e. 30-second Wingate test) have shown minimal effect of caffeine on performance. Conversely, studies employing sport-specific methodologies (i.e. hockey, rugby, soccer) with shorter duration (i.e. 4–6 seconds) show caffeine to be ergogenic during high-intensity intermittent exercise. Recent studies show caffeine affects isometric maximal force and offers introductory evidence for enhanced muscle endurance for lower body musculature. However, isokinetic peak torque, one-repetition maximum and muscular endurance for upper body musculature are less clear. Since relatively few studies exist with resistance training, a definite conclusion cannot be reached on the extent caffeine affects performance.

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Topics: Endurance training (56%), Wingate test (52%), Anaerobic exercise (52%)

321 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1152/JAPPLPHYSIOL.00249.2002
Abstract: Competitive athletes completed two studies of 2-h steady-state (SS) cycling at 70% peak O2uptake followed by 7 kJ/kg time trial (TT) with carbohydrate (CHO) intake before (2 g/kg) and during (6% CH...

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Topics: Time trial (52%)

297 Citations