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Journal ArticleDOI

Camellia sinensis L. Alleviates Pulmonary Inflammation Induced by Porcine Pancreas Elastase and Cigarette Smoke Extract

TL;DR: It is suggested that the CLE administration be the effective approach for treating or preventing chronic pulmonary diseases such as COPD induced by CS.
Abstract: Cigarette smoke (CS) is the major factor in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the third leading cause of death worldwide. Furthermore, although Camellia sinensis (CN) has been known as an anti-inflammatory material, the effect of CN has not yet been known on pulmonary inflammation in COPD. Thus, we investigated the protective effects of Camellia sinensis L. extract (CLE) against pulmonary inflammation in porcine pancreas elastase (PPE) and a cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced COPD mouse model. Oral administration of CLE suppressed the symptoms such as infiltration of immune cells, cytokines/chemokines secretion, mucus hypersecretion, and injuries of the lung parenchyma. Increased inflammatory responses in COPD are mediated by various immune cells such as airway epithelial cells, neutrophils, and alveolar macrophages. Thus, we investigated the effect and mechanisms of CLE in H292, HL-60, and MH-S cells. The CLE inhibited the expression of IL-6, IL-8, MUC5AC and MUC5B on CSE/LPS-stimulated H292 cells and also suppressed the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps and secretion of neutrophil elastase by inhibiting reactive oxygen species in PMA-induced HL-60 cells. In particular, the CLE suppressed the release of cytokines and chemokines caused by activating the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B via the activation of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 and the heme oxygenase-1 pathway in CSE/LPS-stimulated MH-S cells. Therefore, we suggest that the CLE administration be the effective approach for treating or preventing chronic pulmonary diseases such as COPD induced by CS.

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TL;DR: In this article , the authors investigated the effect of fermented Lillium longiflorum thunb (LLT) bulb extract fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus 803 in COPD mouse models induced by CSE and porcine pancreas elastase (PPE).
Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), one of the leading causes of death worldwide, is caused by repeated exposure to harmful matter, such as cigarette smoke. Although Lilium longiflorum Thunb (LLT) has anti-inflammatory effects, there is no report on the fermented LLT bulb extract regulating lung inflammation in COPD. Thus, we investigated the protective effect of LLT bulb extract fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus 803 in COPD mouse models induced by cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and porcine pancreas elastase (PPE). Oral administration of the fermented product (LS803) suppressed the production of inflammatory mediators and the infiltration of immune cells involving neutrophils and macrophages, resulting in protective effects against lung damage. In addition, LS803 inhibited CSE- and LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production in airway epithelial H292 cells as well as suppressed PMA-induced formation of neutrophil extracellular traps in HL-60 cells. In particular, LS803 significantly repressed the elevated IL-6 and MIP-2 production after CSE and LPS stimulation by suppressing the activity of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B (NFκB) in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Therefore, our results suggest that the fermented product LS803 is effective in preventing and alleviating lung inflammation.
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TL;DR: In this article , the authors investigated the role of C. wightii oleo-gum resin extract and its fractions against elastase-induced COPD-linked lung inflammation and identified key bioactive constituent(s).
References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Rafael Lozano1, Mohsen Naghavi1, Kyle J Foreman2, Stephen S Lim1  +192 moreInstitutions (95)
TL;DR: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 aimed to estimate annual deaths for the world and 21 regions between 1980 and 2010 for 235 causes, with uncertainty intervals (UIs), separately by age and sex, using the Cause of Death Ensemble model.

11,809 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The NF-kappaB pathway is a paradigm for understanding general principles of signal transduction and gene regulation as well as other pathway-specific mediators, and the transcription factors are themselves extensively modified.
Abstract: Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) consists of a family of transcription factors that play critical roles in inflammation, immunity, cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Inducible NF-κB activation depends on phosphorylation-induced proteosomal degradation of the inhibitor of NF-κB proteins (IκBs), which retain inactive NF-κB dimers in the cytosol in unstimulated cells. The majority of the diverse signaling pathways that lead to NF-κB activation converge on the IκB kinase (IKK) complex, which is responsible for IκB phosphorylation and is essential for signal transduction to NF-κB. Additional regulation of NF-κB activity is achieved through various post-translational modifications of the core components of the NF-κB signaling pathways. In addition to cytosolic modifications of IKK and IκB proteins, as well as other pathway-specific mediators, the transcription factors are themselves extensively modified. Tremendous progress has been made over the last two decades in unraveling the elaborate regulatory networks that control the NF-κB response. This has made the NF-κB pathway a paradigm for understanding general principles of signal transduction and gene regulation.

2,093 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Although all the evidence from research on green tea is very promising, future studies are necessary to fully understand its contributions to human health, and advise its regular consumption in Western diets, in which green tea consumption is nowadays limited and sporadic.
Abstract: Tea is the most consumed drink in the world after water. Green tea is a 'non-fermented' tea, and contains more catechins, than black tea or oolong tea. Catechins are in vitro and in vivo strong antioxidants. In addition, its content of certain minerals and vitamins increases the antioxidant potential of this type of tea. Since ancient times, green tea has been considered by the traditional Chinese medicine as a healthful beverage. Recent human studies suggest that green tea may contribute to a reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease and some forms of cancer, as well as to the promotion of oral health and other physiological functions such as anti-hypertensive effect, body weight control, antibacterial and antivirasic activity, solar ultraviolet protection, bone mineral density increase, anti-fibrotic properties, and neuroprotective power. Increasing interest in its health benefits has led to the inclusion of green tea in the group of beverages with functional properties. However, although all the evidence from research on green tea is very promising, future studies are necessary to fully understand its contributions to human health, and advise its regular consumption in Western diets, in which green tea consumption is nowadays limited and sporadic.

1,732 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review summarizes knowledge about Nrf2 and HO-1 across different phyla suggesting their conservative role as stress-protective and anti-aging factors.
Abstract: The multifunctional regulator nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) is considered not only as a cytoprotective factor regulating the expression of genes coding for anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and detoxifying proteins, but it is also a powerful modulator of species longevity. The vertebrate Nrf2 belongs to Cap ‘n’ Collar (Cnc) bZIP family of transcription factors and shares a high homology with SKN-1 from Caenorhabditis elegans or CncC found in Drosophila melanogaster. The major characteristics of Nrf2 are to some extent mimicked by Nrf2-dependent genes and their proteins including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which besides removing toxic heme, produces biliverdin, iron ions and carbon monoxide. HO-1 and their products exert beneficial effects through the protection against oxidative injury, regulation of apoptosis, modulation of inflammation as well as contribution to angiogenesis. On the other hand, the disturbances in the proper HO-1 level are associated with the pathogenesis of some age-dependent disorders, including neurodegeneration, cancer or macular degeneration. This review summarizes our knowledge about Nrf2 and HO-1 across different phyla suggesting their conservative role as stress-protective and anti-aging factors.

1,490 citations

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TL;DR: A significant increase in neutrophils and increased concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in the patients with COPD compared with the smoking and nonsmoking control subjects means that the cytokines TNF alpha and IL-8 may be involved in the inflammation in COPD.
Abstract: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are characterized by chronic airway inflammation. Studies using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) have shown an increased proportion of eosinophils in the BAL fluid from asthmatics compared with that from normal subjects, whereas studies of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have shown increased numbers of neutrophils. Induced sputum allows sampling of respiratory tract secretions from patients and control subjects, providing a noninvasive method of studying airway secretions and allowing characterization of cells and measurement of soluble markers. We investigated whether induced sputum was a useful method of studying airway fluid from patients with moderate to severe COPD and whether it could be used to compare inflammation in this condition with that in asthma. An initial reproducibility study was undertaken. Sputum was induced twice in 13 patients with severe COPD at a 14-d interval. Total and differential cell counts were carried out and were found to be reproducible over this period. Sputum was then induced in 14 patients with COPD, 23 patients with asthma, 12 healthy cigarette smokers, and 16 normal nonsmoking control subjects. We found a significant increase in neutrophils and increased concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in the patients with COPD compared with the smoking and nonsmoking control subjects. Interleukin-8, but not TNF alpha, was significantly higher in the COPD group than in the asthmatic group. We conclude that the cytokines TNF alpha and IL-8 may be involved in the inflammation in COPD.

1,400 citations