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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACS.NANOLETT.0C04667

Can Copper Nanostructures Sustain High-Quality Plasmons?

02 Mar 2021-Nano Letters (American Chemical Society (ACS))-Vol. 21, Iss: 6, pp 2444-2452
Abstract: Silver is considered to be the king among plasmonic materials because it features low inelastic absorption in the visible and infrared (vis-IR) spectral regions compared to other metals. In contrast, copper is commonly regarded as being too lossy for plasmonic applications. Here, we experimentally demonstrate vis-IR plasmons in long copper nanowires (NWs) with quality factors that exceed a value of 60, as determined by spatially resolved, high-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements. We explain this counterintuitive result by the fact that plasmons in these metal wires have most of their electromagnetic energy outside the metal, and thus, they are less sensitive to inelastic losses in the material. We present an extensive set of data acquired on long silver and copper NWs of varying diameters supporting this conclusion and further allowing us to understand the relative roles played by radiative and nonradiative losses in plasmons that span a wide range of energies down to $<20\,$meV. At such small plasmon energies, thermal population of these modes becomes significant enough to enable the observation of electron energy gains associated with plasmon absorption events. Our results support the use of copper as an attractive cheap and abundant material platform for high quality plasmons in elongated nanostructures.

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9 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACSPHOTONICS.0C01950
25 Mar 2021-ACS Photonics
Abstract: Free electron beams such as those employed in electron microscopes have evolved into powerful tools to investigate photonic nanostructures with an unrivaled combination of spatial and spectral prec...

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Topics: Cathodoluminescence (54%), Electron microscope (50%), Electron (50%)

22 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACSNANO.1C01071
18 May 2021-ACS Nano
Abstract: Transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy currently enable the acquisition of spatially resolved spectral information from a specimen by focusing electron beams down to a sub-angstrom spot and then analyzing the energy of the inelastically scattered electrons with few-meV energy resolution. This technique has recently been used to experimentally resolve vibrational modes in 2D materials emerging at mid-infrared frequencies. Here, on the basis of first-principles theory, we demonstrate the possibility of identifying single isotope atom impurities in a nanostructure through the trace that they leave in the spectral and spatial characteristics of the vibrational modes. Specifically, we examine a hexagonal boron nitride molecule as an example of application, in which the presence of a single isotope impurity is revealed through changes in the electron spectra, as well as in the space-, energy-, and momentum-resolved inelastic electron signal. We compare these results with conventional far-field spectroscopy, showing that electron beams offer superior spatial resolution combined with the ability to probe the complete set of vibrational modes, including those that are optically dark. Our study is relevant for the atomic-scale characterization of vibrational modes in materials of interest, including a detailed mapping of isotope distributions.

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Topics: Atom (53%), Resolution (electron density) (52%), Spectroscopy (52%) ... show more

3 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACSPHOTONICS.0C01950
Abstract: Free electron beams such as those employed in electron microscopes have evolved into powerful tools to investigate photonic nanostructures with an unrivaled combination of spatial and spectral precision through the analysis of electron energy losses and cathodoluminescence light emission. In combination with ultrafast optics, the emerging field of ultrafast electron microscopy utilizes synchronized femtosecond electron and light pulses that are aimed at the sampled structures, holding the promise to bring simultaneous sub-Angstrom--sub-fs--sub-meV space-time-energy resolution to the study of material and optical-field dynamics. In addition, these advances enable the manipulation of the wave function of individual free electrons in unprecedented ways, opening sound prospects to probe and control quantum excitations at the nanoscale. Here, we provide an overview of photonics research based on free electrons, supplemented by original theoretical insights, and discussion of challenges and opportunities. In particular, we show that the excitation probability by a single electron is independent of its wave function, apart from a classical average over the transverse beam density profile, whereas the probability for two or more modulated electrons depends on their relative spatial arrangement, thus reflecting the quantum nature of their interactions. We derive first-principles analytical expressions that embody these results and have general validity for arbitrarily shaped electrons and any type of electron-sample interaction. We conclude with perspectives on various exciting directions for disruptive approaches to non-invasive spectroscopy and microscopy, the possibility of sampling the nonlinear optical response at the nanoscale, the manipulation of the density matrices associated with free electrons and optical sample modes, and applications in optical modulation of electron beams.

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Topics: Free electron model (55%), Photonics (54%), Electron (54%) ... show more

1 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/SMLL.202105684
Fangwei Wang1, Yan Liu1, Thanh Xuan Hoang2, Hong-Son Chu2  +4 moreInstitutions (4)
05 Nov 2021-Small
Abstract: To develop methods to generate, manipulate, and detect plasmonic signals by electrical means with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible materials is essential to realize on-chip electronic-plasmonic transduction. Here, electrically driven, CMOS-compatible electronic-plasmonic transducers with Al-AlOX -Cu tunnel junctions as the excitation source of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and Si-Cu Schottky diodes as the detector of SPPs, connected via plasmonic strip waveguides of Cu, are demonstrated. Remarkably, the electronic-plasmonic transducers exhibit overall transduction efficiency of 1.85 ± 0.03%, five times higher than previously reported transducers with two tunnel junctions (metal-insulator-metal (MIM)-MIM transducers) where SPPs are detected based on optical rectification. The result establishes a new platform to convert electronic signals to plasmonic signals via electrical means, paving the way toward CMOS-compatible plasmonic components.

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Topics: Schottky diode (52%), Optical rectification (51%), Surface plasmon polariton (51%) ... show more

Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: BaSnO$_3$ exhibits the highest carrier mobility among perovskite oxides, making it ideal for oxide electronics. Collective charge carrier oscillations, plasmons, are expected to arise in this material, thus providing a tool to control the nanoscale optical field for optoelectronics applications. Here, we demonstrate the existence of relatively long-lived plasmons supported by high-mobility charge carriers in La-doped BaSnO$_3$ (BLSO). By exploiting the high spatial and energy resolution of electron energy-loss spectroscopy with a focused beam in a scanning transmission electron microscope, we systematically investigate the dispersion, confinement ratio, and damping of infrared localized surface plasmons (LSP) in BLSO nanoparticles. We find that the LSPs in BLSO are highly spatially confined compared to those sustained by noble metals and have relatively low loss and high quality factor compared to other doped oxides. Further analysis clarifies the relation between plasmon damping and carrier mobility in BLSO. Our results support the use of nanostructured degenerate semiconductors for plasmonic applications in the infrared region and establish a relevant alternative to more traditional plasmonic materials.

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Topics: Plasmon (60%), Electron mobility (56%), Localized surface plasmon (54%) ... show more


50 results found

Open accessBook
01 Jan 1962-

23,982 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1103/PHYSREVB.6.4370
P. B. Johnson1, R. W. Christy1Institutions (1)
15 Dec 1972-Physical Review B
Abstract: The optical constants $n$ and $k$ were obtained for the noble metals (copper, silver, and gold) from reflection and transmission measurements on vacuum-evaporated thin films at room temperature, in the spectral range 0.5-6.5 eV. The film-thickness range was 185-500 \AA{}. Three optical measurements were inverted to obtain the film thickness $d$ as well as $n$ and $k$. The estimated error in $d$ was \ifmmode\pm\else\textpm\fi{} 2 \AA{}, and that in $n$, $k$ was less than 0.02 over most of the spectral range. The results in the film-thickness range 250-500 \AA{} were independent of thickness, and were unchanged after vacuum annealing or aging in air. The free-electron optical effective masses and relaxation times derived from the results in the near infrared agree satisfactorily with previous values. The interband contribution to the imaginary part of the dielectric constant was obtained by subtracting the free-electron contribution. Some recent theoretical calculations are compared with the results for copper and gold. In addition, some other recent experiments are critically compared with our results.

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15,901 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NMAT2629
Harry A. Atwater1, Albert Polman2Institutions (2)
01 Mar 2010-Nature Materials
Abstract: The emerging field of plasmonics has yielded methods for guiding and localizing light at the nanoscale, well below the scale of the wavelength of light in free space. Now plasmonics researchers are turning their attention to photovoltaics, where design approaches based on plasmonics can be used to improve absorption in photovoltaic devices, permitting a considerable reduction in the physical thickness of solar photovoltaic absorber layers, and yielding new options for solar-cell design. In this review, we survey recent advances at the intersection of plasmonics and photovoltaics and offer an outlook on the future of solar cells based on these principles.

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7,551 Citations

Abstract: Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectroscopy of metallic nanoparticles is a powerful technique for chemical and biological sensing experiments. Moreover, the LSPR is responsible for the electromagnetic-field enhancement that leads to surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and other surface-enhanced spectroscopic processes. This review describes recent fundamental spectroscopic studies that reveal key relationships governing the LSPR spectral location and its sensitivity to the local environment, including nanoparticle shape and size. We also describe studies on the distance dependence of the enhanced electromagnetic field and the relationship between the plasmon resonance and the Raman excitation energy. Lastly, we introduce a new form of LSPR spectroscopy, involving the coupling between nanoparticle plasmon resonances and adsorbate molecular resonances. The results from these fundamental studies guide the design of new sensing experiments, illustrated through applications in which researchers use both LSPR wavelength-shift sensing and SERS to detect molecules of chemical and biological relevance.

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4,896 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/AR7002804
Abstract: Noble metal nanostructures attract much interest because of their unique properties, including large optical field enhancements resulting in the strong scattering and absorption of light. The enhancement in the optical and photothermal properties of noble metal nanoparticles arises from resonant oscillation of their free electrons in the presence of light, also known as localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). The plasmon resonance can either radiate light (Mie scattering), a process that finds great utility in optical and imaging fields, or be rapidly converted to heat (absorption); the latter mechanism of dissipation has opened up applications in several new areas. The ability to integrate metal nanoparticles into biological systems has had greatest impact in biology and biomedicine. In this Account, we discuss the plasmonic properties of gold and silver nanostructures and present examples of how they are being utilized for biodiagnostics, biophysical studies, and medical therapy. For instance, takin...

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3,303 Citations

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