Cancelable Biometric Template Security Using Segment-Based Visual Cryptography
01 Jan 2017-pp 511-521
TL;DR: This paper describes various threats that can be encountered by a cancelable biometric system and focuses on preventing the attacks designed to extract information about the transformed biometric data of an individual, from the template database.
Abstract: The cancelable biometric system is susceptible to a variety of attacks aimed at deteriorating the integrity of the authentication procedure. These attacks are intended to either ruin the security afforded by the system or deter the normal functioning of the authentication system. This paper describes various threats that can be encountered by a cancelable biometric system. It specifically focuses on preventing the attacks designed to extract information about the transformed biometric data of an individual, from the template database. Furthermore, we provide experimental results pertaining to a system combining the cancelable biometrics with segment-based visual cryptography, which converts traditional biocode into novel structures called shares.
TL;DR: Over 40 visual cryptography schemes that have been proposed in the past two decades were analyzed and compared and indicate that existing problems such as pixel expansion, poor quality of recovered image quality, computational and memory complexities still exist and a optimizing the trade-off between these requirements still requires further investigation.
Abstract: Visual cryptography is an encryption technique that decomposes secret images into multiple shares. These shares are digitally or physically overlapped to recover the original image, negating the need for complex mathematical operations or additional hardware. There have been many variations of visual cryptography proposed over the years, each addressing different problems or to fulfill different security requirements. Existing review papers on the area only cover certain types of visual cryptography or lack comparisons between the various schemes. To address this gap, this paper provides broad overview of the area to aid new researchers in identifying research problems or to select suitable visual cryptography methods for their desired applications. For more veteran researchers in the area, our paper provides the most up-to-date coverage of the state-of-the-art. We first provide an introduction to the various categories of visual cryptography techniques, including a discussion on recently proposed schemes. These schemes are then compared in terms of their features, performance metrics, advantages and disadvantages. Compared to prior work, we extend the number of comparison metrics to include signal-to-noise ratio and the type of shares. Over 40 visual cryptography schemes that have been proposed in the past two decades were analyzed and compared. Our findings indicate that existing problems such as pixel expansion, poor quality of recovered image quality, computational and memory complexities still exist, and a optimizing the trade-off between these requirements still requires further investigation. We conclude the paper with a discussion of these open problems and future research directions.
TL;DR: In this article , a QR code-based expansion-free and meaningful visual cryptography approach which generates visually appealing QR codes for transmitting meaningful shares has been proposed to enhance the enhancement of privacy protection of digital images.
Abstract: The increase in information sharing in terms of digital images imposes threats to privacy and personal identity. Digital images can be stolen while in transfer and any kind of alteration can be done very easily. Thus, privacy protection of digital images from attackers becomes very important. Encryption, steganography, watermarking, and visual cryptography techniques to protect digital images have been proposed from time to time. The present paper is focused on the enhancement of privacy protection of digital images utilizing watermarking and a QR code-based expansion-free and meaningful visual cryptography approach which generates visually appealing QR codes for transmitting meaningful shares. The original secret image is processed with a watermark image (copyright logo, signature, and so on), and then halftoning of the watermarked image has been done to limit pixel expansion. Then, the halftoned image has been partitioned using VC into two shares. These shares are embedded with a QR code to make the shares meaningful. Lossless compression has been performed on the QR code-based shares. The compression method employed in visual cryptography would save space and time. The proposed approach keeps the beauty of visual cryptography, i.e., computation-free decryption, and the size of the recovered image the same as the original secret image. The experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
TL;DR: A method for rapid visual recognition of personal identity is described, based on the failure of a statistical test of independence, which implies a theoretical "cross-over" error rate of one in 131000 when a decision criterion is adopted that would equalize the false accept and false reject error rates.
Abstract: A method for rapid visual recognition of personal identity is described, based on the failure of a statistical test of independence. The most unique phenotypic feature visible in a person's face is the detailed texture of each eye's iris. The visible texture of a person's iris in a real-time video image is encoded into a compact sequence of multi-scale quadrature 2-D Gabor wavelet coefficients, whose most-significant bits comprise a 256-byte "iris code". Statistical decision theory generates identification decisions from Exclusive-OR comparisons of complete iris codes at the rate of 4000 per second, including calculation of decision confidence levels. The distributions observed empirically in such comparisons imply a theoretical "cross-over" error rate of one in 131000 when a decision criterion is adopted that would equalize the false accept and false reject error rates. In the typical recognition case, given the mean observed degree of iris code agreement, the decision confidence levels correspond formally to a conditional false accept probability of one in about 10/sup 31/. >
01 Jun 1994
TL;DR: In this paper, a new type of cryptographic scheme, which can decode concealed images without any cryptographic computations, is proposed, which is called k-out-of-n secret sharing.
Abstract: In this paper we consider a new type of cryptographic scheme, which can decode concealed images without any cryptographic computations. The scheme is perfectly secure and very easy to implement. We extend it into a visual variant of the k out of n secret sharing problem, in which a dealer provides a transparency to each one of the n users; any k of them can see the image by stacking their transparencies, but any k-1 of them gain no information about it.
TL;DR: This paper demonstrates several methods to generate multiple cancelable identifiers from fingerprint images to overcome privacy concerns and concludes that feature-level cancelable biometric construction is practicable in large biometric deployments.
Abstract: Biometrics-based authentication systems offer obvious usability advantages over traditional password and token-based authentication schemes. However, biometrics raises several privacy concerns. A biometric is permanently associated with a user and cannot be changed. Hence, if a biometric identifier is compromised, it is lost forever and possibly for every application where the biometric is used. Moreover, if the same biometric is used in multiple applications, a user can potentially be tracked from one application to the next by cross-matching biometric databases. In this paper, we demonstrate several methods to generate multiple cancelable identifiers from fingerprint images to overcome these problems. In essence, a user can be given as many biometric identifiers as needed by issuing a new transformation "key". The identifiers can be cancelled and replaced when compromised. We empirically compare the performance of several algorithms such as Cartesian, polar, and surface folding transformations of the minutiae positions. It is demonstrated through multiple experiments that we can achieve revocability and prevent cross-matching of biometric databases. It is also shown that the transforms are noninvertible by demonstrating that it is computationally as hard to recover the original biometric identifier from a transformed version as by randomly guessing. Based on these empirical results and a theoretical analysis we conclude that feature-level cancelable biometric construction is practicable in large biometric deployments
TL;DR: Biometrics authentication systems suffer from some inherent biometrics-specific security threats, mainly related to the use of digital signals and the need for additional input devices, though the also discuss brute-force attacks of biometric systems.
TL;DR: An overview of various cancelable biometric schemes for biometric template protection is provided and the merits and drawbacks of available cancelableBiometric systems are discussed and promising avenues of research are identified.
Abstract: Recent years have seen an exponential growth in the use of various biometric technologies for trusted automatic recognition of humans With the rapid adaptation of biometric systems, there is a growing concern that biometric technologies may compromise the privacy and anonymity of individuals Unlike credit cards and passwords, which can be revoked and reissued when compromised, biometrics are permanently associated with a user and cannot be replaced To prevent the theft of biometric patterns, it is desirable to modify them through revocable and noninvertible transformations to produce cancelable biometric templates In this article, we provide an overview of various cancelable biometric schemes for biometric template protection We discuss the merits and drawbacks of available cancelable biometric systems and identify promising avenues of research in this rapidly evolving field
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