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Journal ArticleDOI

Cannabinoid-Based Drugs: Potential Applications in Addiction and Other Mental Disorders

TL;DR: This work provides a general introduction on the properties of marijuana, briefly describes the cannabinoid receptors (cell surface proteins that recognize the plant’s psychoactive constituent, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol), and delineates the potential utility of agents that activate such receptors.
Abstract: The recreational and medicinal desirability of marijuana (Cannabis sativa), fomented by widespread and generationally shifted social acceptance, has created a perfect storm for the medical community. The emergence of this drug highlights the lack of scientific and clinical understanding of its effects, including those that are health adverse as well as medicinal. This review illustrates established findings to guide psychiatric practice (and nonpractice) and outlines open questions to motivate further study. This work provides a general introduction on the properties of marijuana, briefly describes the cannabinoid receptors (cell surface proteins that recognize the plant’s psychoactive constituent, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol), and delineates the potential utility of agents that activate such receptors. Current theories on the workings of the endogenous neurotransmitter system that is hijacked by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are considered. Finally, this review proposes possible ways in which growing knowledge of ...
Citations
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18 Dec 2005
TL;DR: Gobi et al. as discussed by the authors showed that URB597, a selective inhibitor of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase, which catalyzes the intracellular hydrolysis of the endocannabinoid anandamide, exerts potent antidepressant-like effects in the mouse tail-suspension test and the rat forced-swim test.
Abstract: This Resource Is a peer-reviewed article by Gobi et al. published in the 2005-12-13 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The authors show, quoting from the Abstract: '[how] URB597, a selective inhibitor of the enzyme fatty-acid amide hydrolase, which catalyzes the intracellular hydrolysis of the endocannabinoid anandamide, exerts potent antidepressant-like effects in the mouse tail-suspension test and the rat forced-swim test... These actions are prevented by the CB1 antagonist rimonabant, are accompanied by increased brain anandamide levels... The findings support a role for anandamide in mood regulation and point to fatty-acid amide hydrolase as a previously uncharacterized target for antidepressant drugs.'

571 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Emergent insight is that endocannabinoid signaling in specific circuits of the brain is context dependent and selectively recruited, which opens new vistas on the neural basis of social behavior and social impairment.

72 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is suggested that activation of CB2 may stabilise mood in this disorder and basic and clinical studies to determine how cannabis and cannabinoids (CBs) can affect mood are encouraged.
Abstract: ObjectiveBipolar disorder (BD) is a debilitating, lifelong neuropsychiatric illness characterised by unsteady mood states which vacillate from (hypo)mania to depression. Despite the availability of pharmaceutical agents which can be effective in ameliorating the acute affective symptoms and prevent episodic relapse, BD is inadequately treated in a subset of patients. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is known to exert neuromodulatory effects on other neurotransmitter systems critical in governing emotions. Several studies ranging from clinical to molecular, as well as anecdotal evidence, have placed a spotlight on the potential role of the ECS in the pathophysiology of BD. In this perspective, we present advantages and disadvantages of cannabis use in the management of illness course of BD and provide mechanistic insights into how this system might contribute to the pathophysiology of BD.ResultsWe highlight the putative role of selective cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonists in BD and briefly discuss findings which provide a rationale for targeting the ECS to assuage the symptoms of BD. Further, data encourage basic and clinical studies to determine how cannabis and cannabinoids (CBs) can affect mood and to investigate emerging CB-based options as probable treatment approaches.ConclusionThe probable role of the ECS has been almost neglected in BD; however, from data available which suggest a role of ECS in mood control, it is justified to support conducting comprehensive studies to determine whether ECS manipulation could positively affect BD. Based on the limited available data, we suggest that activation of CB2 may stabilise mood in this disorder.

17 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2015

8 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2022
References
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Journal ArticleDOI
09 Aug 1990-Nature
TL;DR: The cloning and expression of a complementary DNA that encodes a G protein-coupled receptor that is involved in cannabinoid-induced CNS effects (including alterations in mood and cognition) experienced by users of marijuana are suggested.
Abstract: Marijuana and many of its constituent cannabinoids influence the central nervous system (CNS) in a complex and dose-dependent manner. Although CNS depression and analgesia are well documented effects of the cannabinoids, the mechanisms responsible for these and other cannabinoid-induced effects are not so far known. The hydrophobic nature of these substances has suggested that cannabinoids resemble anaesthetic agents in their action, that is, they nonspecifically disrupt cellular membranes. Recent evidence, however, has supported a mechanism involving a G protein-coupled receptor found in brain and neural cell lines, and which inhibits adenylate cyclase activity in a dose-dependent, stereoselective and pertussis toxin-sensitive manner. Also, the receptor is more responsive to psychoactive cannabinoids than to non-psychoactive cannabinoids. Here we report the cloning and expression of a complementary DNA that encodes a G protein-coupled receptor with all of these properties. Its messenger RNA is found in cell lines and regions of the brain that have cannabinoid receptors. These findings suggest that this protein is involved in cannabinoid-induced CNS effects (including alterations in mood and cognition) experienced by users of marijuana.

4,806 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
02 Sep 1993-Nature
TL;DR: The cloning of a receptor for cannabinoids is reported that is not expressed in the brain but rather in macrophages in the marginal zone of spleen, which helps clarify the non-psychoactive effects of cannabinoids.
Abstract: THE major active ingredient of marijuana, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabi-nol (Δ9-THC), has been used as a psychoactive agent for thousands of years. Marijuana, and Δ9-THC, also exert a wide range of other effects including analgesia, anti-inflammation, immunosuppression, anticonvulsion, alleviation of intraocular pressure in glaucoma, and attenuation of vomiting1. The clinical application of cannabinoids has, however, been limited by their psychoactive effects, and this has led to interest in the biochemical bases of their action. Progress stemmed initially from the synthesis of potent derivatives of δ9-THC4,5, and more recently from the cloning of a gene encoding a G-protein-coupled receptor for cannabinoids6. This receptor is expressed in the brain but not in the periphery, except for a low level in testes. It has been proposed that the non-psychoactive effects of cannabinoids are either mediated centrally or through direct interaction with other, non-receptor proteins1,7,8. Here we report the cloning of a receptor for cannabinoids that is not expressed in the brain but rather in macrophages in the marginal zone of spleen.

4,782 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: The criteria for a high affinity, stereoselective, pharmacologically distinct cannabinoid receptor in brain tissue have been fulfilled.
Abstract: The determination and characterization of a cannabinoid receptor from brain are reported. A biologically active bicyclic cannabinoid analgetic CP-55,940 was tritium-labeled to high specific activity. Conditions for binding to rat brain P2 membranes and synaptosomes were established. The pH optimum was between 7 and 8, and specific binding could be eliminated by heating the membranes to 60 degrees. Binding to the P2 membranes was linear within the range of 10 to 50 micrograms of protein/ml. Specific binding (defined as total binding displaced by 1 microM delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC) or 100 nM desacetyllevonantradol) was saturable. The Kd determined from Scatchard analysis was 133 pM, and the Bmax for rat cortical P2 membranes was 1.85 pmol/mg of protein. The Hill coefficient for [3H]CP-55,940 approximated 1, indicating that, under the conditions of assay, a single class of binding sites was determined that did not exhibit cooperativity. The binding was rapid (kon approximately 2.6 x 10(-4) pM-1 min-1) and reversible (Koff approximately 0.016 min-1) and (koff' greater than 0.06 min-1). The two Kd values estimated from the kinetic constants approximately 55 pM and exceeded 200 pM, respectively. The binding of the agonist ligand [3H]CP-55,940 was decreased by the nonhydrolyzable GTP analog guanylylimidodiphosphate. The guanine nucleotide induced a more rapid dissociation of the ligand from the binding site, consistent with an allosteric regulation of the putative receptor by a G protein. The binding was also sensitive to MgCl2 and CaCl2. Binding of [3H]CP-55,940 was displaced by cannabinoid drugs in the following order of potency: CP-55,940 greater than or equal to desacetyllevonantradol greater than 11-OH-delta 9-THC = delta 9-THC greater than cannabinol. Cannabidiol and cannabigerol displaced [3H]CP-55,940 by less than 50% at 1 microM concentrations. The (-)-isomer of CP-55,940 displaced with 50-fold greater potency than the (+)-isomer. This pharmacology is comparable to both the inhibition of adenylate cyclase in vitro and the analgetic activity of these compounds in vivo. The criteria for a high affinity, stereoselective, pharmacologically distinct cannabinoid receptor in brain tissue have been fulfilled.

2,242 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The potencies of a series of natural and synthetic cannabinoids as competitors of [3H]CP 55,940 binding correlated closely with their relative potencies in several biological assays, suggesting that the receptor characterized in the in vitro assay is the same receptor that mediates behavioral and pharmacological effects of cannabinoids, including human subjective experience.
Abstract: [3H]CP 55,940, a radiolabeled synthetic cannabinoid, which is 10-100 times more potent in vivo than delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, was used to characterize and localize a specific cannabinoid receptor in brain sections. The potencies of a series of natural and synthetic cannabinoids as competitors of [3H]CP 55,940 binding correlated closely with their relative potencies in several biological assays, suggesting that the receptor characterized in our in vitro assay is the same receptor that mediates behavioral and pharmacological effects of cannabinoids, including human subjective experience. Autoradiography of cannabinoid receptors in brain sections from several mammalian species, including human, reveals a unique and conserved distribution; binding is most dense in outflow nuclei of the basal ganglia--the substantia nigra pars reticulata and globus pallidus--and in the hippocampus and cerebellum. Generally high densities in forebrain and cerebellum implicate roles for cannabinoids in cognition and movement. Sparse densities in lower brainstem areas controlling cardiovascular and respiratory functions may explain why high doses of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol are not lethal.

2,179 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: As marijuana use becomes legal in some states, the dominant public opinion is that marijuana is a harmless source of mood alteration, but enough information is available to cause concern.
Abstract: As marijuana use becomes legal in some states, the dominant public opinion is that marijuana is a harmless source of mood alteration. Although the harms associated with marijuana use have not been well studied, enough information is available to cause concern.

2,069 citations