01 May 2020-Crop Science (Wiley)-Vol. 60, Iss: 3, pp 1513-1529
Abstract: Australian cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) farmers are adopting canopy temperature (Tc)‐based irrigation scheduling as a decision support tool to improve on‐farm production. High N supply, characteristic of the high‐yielding, furrow‐irrigated cotton system of Australia, might alter cotton Tc with implications for irrigation. We examined growth, physiological, and biochemical traits and changes in Tc of well‐watered and water‐stressed cotton plants supplied with high to excessive levels of N under glasshouse conditions. We also examined Tc, lint yield, and fiber quality of furrow‐irrigated cotton crop supplied with high N. In the glasshouse and under well‐watered conditions, high N supply stimulated plant growth and increased stomatal conductance and photosynthesis, resulting in cooler Tc. Under water deficit stress, high N also stimulated growth, increasing plant water demand and thus vulnerability to water stress, which manifested as warmer Tc. Water‐stressed plants supplied high N also showed reduced stomatal conductance, lower leaf water potential, and greater accumulation of leaf and xylem sap abscisic acid. Furrow‐irrigated crops supplied higher N also had higher Tc, but there was no gain in lint yield and fiber quality. The influence of high N on cotton Tc suggests that the need for accurate and reliable Tc‐based irrigation scheduling is paramount.
TL;DR: A method is described which permits measurement of sap pressure in the xylem of vascular plants, and finds that in tall conifers there is a hydrostatic pressure gradient that closely corresponds to the height and seems surprisingly little influenced by the intensity of transpiration.
Abstract: A method is described which permits measurement of sap pressure in the xylem of vascular plants. As long predicted, sap pressures during transpiration are normally negative, ranging from -4 or -5 atmospheres in a damp forest to -80 atmospheres in the desert. Mangroves and other halophytes maintain at all times a sap pressure of -35 to -60 atmospheres. Mistletoes have greater suction than their hosts, usually by 10 to 20 atmospheres. Diurnal cycles of 10 to 20 atmospheres are common. In tall conifers there is a hydrostatic pressure gradient that closely corresponds to the height and seems surprisingly little influenced by the intensity of transpiration. Sap extruded from the xylem by gas pressure on the leaves is practically pure water. At zero turgor this procedure gives a linear relation between the intracellular concentration and the tension of the xylem.
Abstract: Summary. Recent work by Reiss and Ogden provides a theoretical basis for sometimes preferring restricted maximum likelihood (REML) to generalized cross-validation (GCV) for smoothing parameter selection in semiparametric regression. However, existing REML or marginal likelihood (ML) based methods for semiparametric generalized linear models (GLMs) use iterative REML or ML estimation of the smoothing parameters of working linear approximations to the GLM. Such indirect schemes need not converge and fail to do so in a non-negligible proportion of practical analyses. By contrast, very reliable prediction error criteria smoothing parameter selection methods are available, based on direct optimization of GCV, or related criteria, for the GLM itself. Since such methods directly optimize properly defined functions of the smoothing parameters, they have much more reliable convergence properties. The paper develops the first such method for REML or ML estimation of smoothing parameters. A Laplace approximation is used to obtain an approximate REML or ML for any GLM, which is suitable for efficient direct optimization. This REML or ML criterion requires that Newton–Raphson iteration, rather than Fisher scoring, be used for GLM fitting, and a computationally stable approach to this is proposed. The REML or ML criterion itself is optimized by a Newton method, with the derivatives required obtained by a mixture of implicit differentiation and direct methods. The method will cope with numerical rank deficiency in the fitted model and in fact provides a slight improvement in numerical robustness on the earlier method of Wood for prediction error criteria based smoothness selection. Simulation results suggest that the new REML and ML methods offer some improvement in mean-square error performance relative to GCV or Akaike's information criterion in most cases, without the small number of severe undersmoothing failures to which Akaike's information criterion and GCV are prone. This is achieved at the same computational cost as GCV or Akaike's information criterion. The new approach also eliminates the convergence failures of previous REML- or ML-based approaches for penalized GLMs and usually has lower computational cost than these alternatives. Example applications are presented in adaptive smoothing, scalar on function regression and generalized additive model selection.
TL;DR: Differences among species that can be traced to different capacities for water acquisition, rather than to differences in metabolism at a given water status, are described.
Abstract: Plants are often subjected to periods of soil and atmospheric water deficit during their life cycle. The frequency of such phenomena is likely to increase in the future even outside today’s arid/semi-arid regions. Plant responses to water scarcity are complex, involving deleterious and/or adaptive changes, and under field conditions these responses can be synergistically or antagonistically modified by the superimposition of other stresses. This complexity is illustrated using examples of woody and herbaceous species mostly from Mediterranean-type ecosystems, with strategies ranging from drought-avoidance, as in winter/spring annuals or in deep-rooted perennials, to the stress resistance of sclerophylls. Differences among species that can be traced to different capacities for water acquisition, rather than to differences in metabolism at a given water status, are described. Changes in the root : shoot ratio or the temporary accumulation of reserves in the stem are accompanied by alterations in nitrogen and carbon metabolism, the fine regulation of which is still largely unknown. At the leaf level, the dissipation of excitation energy through processes other than photosynthetic C-metabolism is an important defence mechanism under conditions of water stress and is accompanied by down-regulation of photochemistry and, in the longer term, of carbon metabolism. a 2002 Annals of Botany Company
Abstract: Canopy temperatures, obtained by infrared thermometry, along with wet- and dry-bulb air temperatures and an estimate of net radiation were used in equations derived from energy balance considerations to calculate a crop water stress index (CWSI). Theoretical limits were developed for the canopy air temperature difference as related to the air vapor pressure deficit. The CWSI was shown to be equal to 1 - E/Ep, the ratio of actual to potential evapotranspiration obtained from the Penman-Monteith equation. Four experimental plots, planted to wheat, received postemergence irrigations at different times to create different degrees of water stress. Pertinent variables were measured between 1340 and 1400 each day (except some weekends). The CWSI, plotted as a function of time, closely paralleled a plot of the extractable soil water in the 0- to 1.1-m zone. The usefulness and limitations of the index are discussed.