scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Journal ArticleDOI

Capital Formation in the Ottoman Empire

01 Mar 1969-The Journal of Economic History (Cambridge University Press)-Vol. 29, Iss: 1, pp 97-140
TL;DR: The economic system of the Ottoman Empire and its basic economic principles derived from a traditional view of state and society which had prevailed since antiquity in the empires of the Near East.
Abstract: The economic system of the Ottoman Empire and its basic economic principles derived from a traditional view of state and society which had prevailed since antiquity in the empires of the Near East. This theory, since it determined the attitude and policy of the administrators, was of considerable practical importance.
Citations
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examine the sociohistorical formation of the consumer subject during the development of consumer culture in the context of leisure consumption, and investigate how an active consumer was forming while a coffeehouse culture was taking shape during early modern Ottoman society.
Abstract: We examine the sociohistorical formation of the consumer subject during the development of consumer culture in the context of leisure consumption. Specifically, we investigate how an active consumer was forming while a coffeehouse culture was taking shape during early modern Ottoman society. Utilizing multiple historical data sources and analysis techniques, we focus on the discursive negotiations and the practices of the consumers, the marketers, the state, and the religious institution as relevant stakeholders. Our findings demonstrate that multiparty resistance, enacted by consumers and marketers, first challenged the authority of the state and religion and then changed them. Simultaneously and at interplay with various institutional transformations, a public sphere, a coffeehouse culture, and a consumer subject constructing his self-ethics were developed, normalized, and legalized. We discuss the implications of the centrality of transgressive hedonism in this process, as well as the existence of an a...

216 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Şerif Mardin1
TL;DR: The term used to refer to these attempts at national stereo-typing in the lingua franca of the Levant was Alia Turca behavior, an expression which has survived into modern Turkish.
Abstract: Few countries have been as frequently described in terms of national character as Turkey. Even the earliest observers of the Ottoman Empire appear anxious to set their findings into some generalized formula of the Turkish ethos. The term used to refer to these attempts at national stereo-typing in the lingua franca of the Levant was Alia Turca behavior, an expression which has survived into modern Turkish.

163 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Among the various institutions and practices singled out as distinctly Ottoman contributions to Islamic civilization, one has drawn surprisingly little comment and analysis as discussed by the authors, which is the legitimized practice of usurious piety, the establishment of a trust with money the interest from which might pay the salary of a teacher, or preacher, or even unashamedly pass into the pocket of the trust.
Abstract: Among the various institutions and practices singled out as distinctly Ottoman contributions to Islamic civilization, one has drawn surprisingly little comment and analysis. Neither so eye-catching as the devsirme system nor as fundamental as the kanun, it still emerges as an important factor in Ottoman, thence Islamic, history. This is the legitimized practice of usurious piety, the waqf al-nuqūd (pl. awqaf al-nuqud), the establishment of a trust with money the interest from which might pay the salary of a teacher, or preacher, or even unashamedly pass into the pocket of the founder of the trust.

151 citations

OtherDOI
TL;DR: The authors in this article presented a summarized yet more balanced and hopefully more insightful analysis of the growth and development experience of the countries in the region with a special attention given to the existing bottlenecks hindering future development prospects.
Abstract: The growth and development performance of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region presents one of the major anomalies that current economics literature seeks to resolve, which is how to reconcile the existence of massive natural resources with the high unemployment, low growth and the general underdevelopment of the region. In this debate, much attention is focused on the problems arising from: a) state oriented inward looking economic policies, b) lack of ‘integration’ with the world economy, c) underdeveloped financial sectors and chilling investment climate, and d) low levels of human capital development. In this paper, we attempt to present a summarized yet more balanced and hopefully more insightful analysis of the growth and development experience of the countries in the region with a special attention given to the existing bottlenecks hindering future development prospects. While discussing the MENA region as a whole we will divide the countries into five subgroups: 1) oil rich labor importing states (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Libya, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia) 2) oil rich labor abundant states (Algeria, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Syria), 3) oil poor labor abundant NICs (Egypt, Morocco, Turkey), 4) oilpoor limited natural resource states (Israel, Tunisia, West Bank and Gaza, Jordan, Lebanon), and 5) natural resource poor states (Sudan, Yemen). (Richards and Waterbury, 1996). Although the inclusion of Turkey, Israel, and Iran is controversial as the trajectory of the Arab and other Middle Eastern countries constitute a more appropriate whole, they share many commonalities as well. However, unless stated otherwise, the general statements will exclude Turkey and Israel. The economic history of MENA region is characterized by several cycles of growth and accumulation. In retrospect, the region formerly enjoyed higher levels of economic development and prosperity compared to its counterparts in Europe. While Istanbul with its 700,000 inhabitants in 16 century was the largest city in the world, North Africa overall was much more urbanized than Europe (Paris with 125,000 inhabitants vs. Cairo with 450,000 around 1500) (Bairoch, 1997:517-537). However, in the last of these cycles, the region experienced a decline in its growth and development indicators starting from early 18 century with the factors that precipitated this decline remaining a source of continuing debate. The current essay will focus

143 citations

References
More filters
Book
01 Jan 1966
TL;DR: A history of cities in the Mamluk empire can be found in this paper, where the Mamluck regime in the life of the cities and the urban society can be seen.
Abstract: 1. A history of cities in the Mamluk empire 2. The Mamluck regime in the life of the cities 3. The urban society 4. The political system: the Mamluck state and the urban notables 5. The political system: the common people between violence and impotence.

210 citations

01 Jan 1928

196 citations

Book
01 Jan 1966
TL;DR: Goitein's selection of studies dealing with Islamic institutions and social history offers a general introduction to Islamic civilization by one who lived all his life with Islam as mentioned in this paper, and his fruit of specialized research gives a rounded view of important aspects of Islamic civilization and provides the student with an opportunity to acquaint himself not only with the results of research, but also with the methods by which they were obtained.
Abstract: Goitein's selection of studies dealing with Islamic institutions and social history offers a general introduction to Islamic civilization by one who lived all his life with Islam. His fruit of specialized research gives a rounded view of important aspects of Islamic civilization and provides the student with an opportunity to acquaint himself not only with the results of research, but also with the methods by which they were obtained. With a new foreword by Norman A. Stillman

139 citations

Book
01 Jan 1944

121 citations