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Journal ArticleDOI

Capital-labor substitution and economic efficiency

01 Aug 1961-The Review of Economics and Statistics-Vol. 43, Iss: 3, pp 225-250

AbstractОбсуждаются следующие темы: чистая теория производства, функциональное распределение дохода, технический прогресс, источники международных конкурентных преимуществ. Анализируются эластичность замещения между трудом и капиталом в обрабатывающей промышленности; производственные функции различного типа.

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Citations
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Book ChapterDOI
Abstract: It is by now incontrovertible that increases in per capita income cannot be explained simply by increases in the capital-labor ratio. Though doubtless no economist would ever have denied the role of technological change in economic growth, its overwhelming importance relative to capital formation has perhaps only been fully realized with the important empirical studies of Abramovitz [1] and Solow [l 1]. These results do not directly contradict the neo-classical view of the production function as an expression of technological knowledge. All that has to be added is the obvious fact that knowledge is growing in time. Nevertheless a view of economic growth that depends so heavily on an exogenous variable, let alone one so difficult to measure as the quantity of knowledge, is hardly intellectually satisfactory. From a quantitative, empirical point of view, we are left with time as an explanatory variable. Now trend projections, however necessary they may be in practice, are basically a confession of ignorance, and, what is worse from a practical viewpoint, are not policy variables.

6,824 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The paper rationalizes certain functional forms for index numbers with functional forms for the underlying aggregator function. An aggregator functional form is said to be ‘flexible’ if it can provide a second order approximation to an arbitrary twice diffentiable linearly homogeneous function. An index number functional form is said to be ‘superlative’ if it is exact (i.e., consistent with) for a ‘flexible’ aggregator functional form. The paper shows that a certain family of index number formulae is exact for the ‘flexible’ quadratic mean of order r aggregator function, (Σ i Σ j a ij x i r 2 x j r 2 ) 1 r , defined by Den and others. For r equals 2, the resulting quantity index is Irving Fisher's ideal index. The paper also utilizes the Malmquist quantity index in order to rationalize the Tornqvist-Theil quantity indexin the nonhomothetic case. Finally, the paper attempts to justify the Jorgenson-Griliches productivity measurement technique for the case of discrete (as opposed to continuous) data.

2,220 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The paper indicates how the Shephard duality theorem may be utilized in order to obtain a system of derived demand equations which are linear in the technological parameters, thus facilitating econometric estimation. This theorem states that technology may be equivalently represented by either a production function or a cost function, and a proof of the theorem is given. The chosen functional form is a quadratic form in the square roots of input prices and is a generalization of the Leontief cost function. The generalization has the property that it can attain any set of partial elasticities of substitution using a minimal number of parameters.

1,122 citations


Cites methods from "Capital-labor substitution and econ..."

  • ...For the case of two inputs, Arrow et al. (1961) have exhibited a func-...

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  • ...For the case of two inputs, Arrow et al. (1961) have exhibited a func- I would like to acknowledge the assistance and encouragement of Daniel McFadden and Robert E. Hall....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Current issues are now on the Chicago Journals website. Read the latest issue.One of the oldest and most prestigious journals in economics, the Journal of Political Economy (JPE) presents significant and essential scholarship in economic theory and practice. The journal publishes highly selective and widely cited analytical, interpretive, and empirical studies in a number of areas, including monetary theory, fiscal policy, labor economics, development, microeconomic and macroeconomic theory, international trade and finance, industrial organization, and social economics.

875 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: В статье рассматривается класс производственных функций с постоянной эластичностью замены безотносительно цен факторов, рассматривается случай, когда в процесс вовлекается больше чем два фактора.

776 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: В статье производится анализ агрегированной производственной функции, вводится аппарат, позволяющий различать движение вдоль такой функции от ее сдвигов. На основании сделанных в статье предположений делаются выводы о характере технического прогресса и технологических изменений. Существенное внимание уделяется вариантам применения концепции агрегированной производственной функции.

10,116 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

3,663 citations

Book
01 Jan 1956
Abstract: Introduction This paper is a very brief treatment of three questions relating to the history of our economic growth since the Civil War: (1) How large has been the net increase of aggregate output per capita, and to what extent has this increase been obtained as a result of greater labor or capital input on the one hand and of a rise in productivity on the other? (2) Is there evidence of retardation, or conceivably acceleration, in the growth of per capita output? (3) Have there been fluctuations in the rate of growth of output, apart from the shortterm fluctuations of business cycles, and, if so, what is the significance of these swings? The answers to these three questions, to the extent that they can be given, represent, of course, only a tiny fraction of the historical experience relevant to the problems of growth. Even so, anyone acquainted with their complexity will realize that no one of them, much less all three, can be treated satisfactorily in a short space. I shall have to pronounce upon them somewhat arbitrarily. My ability to deal with them at all is a reflection of one of the more important, though one of the less obvious, of the many aspects of our growing wealth, namely, the accumulation of historical statistics in this country during the last generation. For the most part, the figures which I present or which underlie my qualitative statements are taken directly from tables of estimates of national product, labor force, productivity, and the like compiled by others.

1,006 citations

Book
01 Jan 1938

926 citations