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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.STEM.2020.11.005

Capture of Mouse and Human Stem Cells with Features of Formative Pluripotency.

04 Mar 2021-Cell Stem Cell (Elsevier)-Vol. 28, Iss: 3, pp 2180
Abstract: Pluripotent cells emerge as a naive founder population in the blastocyst, acquire capacity for germline and soma formation, and then undergo lineage priming. Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and epiblast-derived stem cells (EpiSCs) represent the initial naive and final primed phases of pluripotency, respectively. Here, we investigate the intermediate formative stage. Using minimal exposure to specification cues, we derive stem cells from formative mouse epiblast. Unlike ESCs or EpiSCs, formative stem (FS) cells respond directly to germ cell induction. They colonize somatic tissues and germline in chimeras. Whole-transcriptome analyses show similarity to pre-gastrulation formative epiblast. Signal responsiveness and chromatin accessibility features reflect lineage capacitation. Furthermore, FS cells show distinct transcription factor dependencies, relying critically on Otx2. Finally, FS cell culture conditions applied to human naive cells or embryos support expansion of similar stem cells, consistent with a conserved staging post on the trajectory of mammalian pluripotency.

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Topics: Induced pluripotent stem cell (61%), Stem cell (61%), Embryonic stem cell (61%) ... show more
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45 results found


Open accessJournal Article
Ge Guo1, Jian Yang2, Jian Yang1, Jennifer Nichols1  +7 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: 1. Guo, G. et al. 2009. Development doi:10.1242/dev.030957 [OpenUrl][1][Abstract/FREE Full Text][2] [1]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DDevelopment%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.1242%252Fdev.030957%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Apmid%252F19224983%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo

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44 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41422-021-00477-X
Xiaoxiao Wang1, Yunlong Xiang2, Yang Yu1, Ran Wang1  +16 moreInstitutions (4)
19 Feb 2021-Cell Research
Abstract: The pluripotency of mammalian early and late epiblast could be recapitulated by naive embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and primed epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs), respectively. However, these two states of pluripotency may not be sufficient to reflect the full complexity and developmental potency of the epiblast during mammalian early development. Here we report the establishment of self-renewing formative pluripotent stem cells (fPSCs) which manifest features of epiblast cells poised for gastrulation. fPSCs can be established from different mouse ESCs, pre-/early-gastrula epiblasts and induced PSCs. Similar to pre-/early-gastrula epiblasts, fPSCs show the transcriptomic features of formative pluripotency, which are distinct from naive ESCs and primed EpiSCs. fPSCs show the unique epigenetic states of E6.5 epiblast, including the super-bivalency of a large set of developmental genes. Just like epiblast cells immediately before gastrulation, fPSCs can efficiently differentiate into three germ layers and primordial germ cells (PGCs) in vitro. Thus, fPSCs highlight the feasibility of using PSCs to explore the development of mammalian epiblast.

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Topics: Epiblast (63%), Gastrulation (57%), Germ layer (54%) ... show more

13 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41467-021-23758-W
Abstract: Following implantation, the human embryo undergoes major morphogenetic transformations that establish the future body plan. While the molecular events underpinning this process are established in mice, they remain unknown in humans. Here we characterise key events of human embryo morphogenesis, in the period between implantation and gastrulation, using single-cell analyses and functional studies. First, the embryonic epiblast cells transition through different pluripotent states and act as a source of FGF signals that ensure proliferation of both embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues. In a subset of embryos, we identify a group of asymmetrically positioned extra-embryonic hypoblast cells expressing inhibitors of BMP, NODAL and WNT signalling pathways. We suggest that this group of cells can act as the anterior singalling centre to pattern the epiblast. These results provide insights into pluripotency state transitions, the role of FGF signalling and the specification of anterior-posterior axis during human embryo development.

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Topics: Hypoblast (66%), Epiblast (59%), Gastrulation (59%) ... show more

11 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1083/JCB.202005095
Abstract: To coordinate cell fate with changes in spatial organization, stem cells (SCs) require specific and adaptable systems of signal exchange and cell-to-cell communication. Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) use cytonemes to pair with trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) and form synthetic embryonic structures in a Wnt-dependent manner. How these interactions vary with pluripotency states remains elusive. Here we show that ESC transition to an early primed ESC (pESC) state reduces their pairing with TSCs and impairs synthetic embryogenesis. pESCs can activate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in response to soluble Wnt ligands, but their cytonemes form unspecific and unstable interactions with localized Wnt sources. This is due to an impaired crosstalk between Wnt and glutamate receptor activity and reduced generation of Ca2+ transients on the cytonemes upon Wnt source contact. Induced iGluR activation can partially restore cytoneme function in pESCs, while transient overexpression of E-cadherin improves pESC-TSC pairing. Our results illustrate how changes in pluripotency state alter the mechanisms SCs use to self-organize.

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Topics: Cytoneme (57%), Wnt signaling pathway (57%), Stem cell (55%) ... show more

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELREP.2021.108834
09 Mar 2021-Cell Reports
Abstract: At implantation, the embryo establishes contacts with the maternal endometrium. This stage is associated with a high incidence of preclinical pregnancy losses. While the maternal factors underlying uterine receptivity have been investigated, the signals required by the embryo for successful peri-implantation development remain elusive. To explore these, we studied integrin β1 signaling, as embryos deficient for this receptor degenerate at implantation. We demonstrate that the coordinated action of pro-survival signals and localized actomyosin suppression via integrin β1 permits the development of the embryo beyond implantation. Failure of either process leads to developmental arrest and apoptosis. Pharmacological stimulation through fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), coupled with ROCK-mediated actomyosin inhibition, rescues the deficiency of integrin β1, promoting progression to post-implantation stages. Mutual exclusion between integrin β1 and actomyosin seems to be conserved in the human embryo, suggesting the possibility that these mechanisms could also underlie the transition of the human epiblast from pre- to post-implantation.

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Topics: Epiblast (51%), Fibroblast growth factor (51%)

4 Citations


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123 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S13059-014-0550-8
05 Dec 2014-Genome Biology
Abstract: In comparative high-throughput sequencing assays, a fundamental task is the analysis of count data, such as read counts per gene in RNA-seq, for evidence of systematic changes across experimental conditions. Small replicate numbers, discreteness, large dynamic range and the presence of outliers require a suitable statistical approach. We present DESeq2, a method for differential analysis of count data, using shrinkage estimation for dispersions and fold changes to improve stability and interpretability of estimates. This enables a more quantitative analysis focused on the strength rather than the mere presence of differential expression. The DESeq2 package is available at http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/DESeq2.html .

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Topics: MRNA Sequencing (54%), Integrator complex (51%), Count data (50%) ... show more

29,675 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NMETH.1923
01 Apr 2012-Nature Methods
Abstract: As the rate of sequencing increases, greater throughput is demanded from read aligners. The full-text minute index is often used to make alignment very fast and memory-efficient, but the approach is ill-suited to finding longer, gapped alignments. Bowtie 2 combines the strengths of the full-text minute index with the flexibility and speed of hardware-accelerated dynamic programming algorithms to achieve a combination of high speed, sensitivity and accuracy.

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27,973 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NPROT.2008.211
01 Jan 2009-Nature Protocols
Abstract: DAVID bioinformatics resources consists of an integrated biological knowledgebase and analytic tools aimed at systematically extracting biological meaning from large gene/protein lists. This protocol explains how to use DAVID, a high-throughput and integrated data-mining environment, to analyze gene lists derived from high-throughput genomic experiments. The procedure first requires uploading a gene list containing any number of common gene identifiers followed by analysis using one or more text and pathway-mining tools such as gene functional classification, functional annotation chart or clustering and functional annotation table. By following this protocol, investigators are able to gain an in-depth understanding of the biological themes in lists of genes that are enriched in genome-scale studies.

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27,356 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/BIOINFORMATICS/BTS635
01 Jan 2013-Bioinformatics
Abstract: Motivation Accurate alignment of high-throughput RNA-seq data is a challenging and yet unsolved problem because of the non-contiguous transcript structure, relatively short read lengths and constantly increasing throughput of the sequencing technologies. Currently available RNA-seq aligners suffer from high mapping error rates, low mapping speed, read length limitation and mapping biases. Results To align our large (>80 billon reads) ENCODE Transcriptome RNA-seq dataset, we developed the Spliced Transcripts Alignment to a Reference (STAR) software based on a previously undescribed RNA-seq alignment algorithm that uses sequential maximum mappable seed search in uncompressed suffix arrays followed by seed clustering and stitching procedure. STAR outperforms other aligners by a factor of >50 in mapping speed, aligning to the human genome 550 million 2 × 76 bp paired-end reads per hour on a modest 12-core server, while at the same time improving alignment sensitivity and precision. In addition to unbiased de novo detection of canonical junctions, STAR can discover non-canonical splices and chimeric (fusion) transcripts, and is also capable of mapping full-length RNA sequences. Using Roche 454 sequencing of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction amplicons, we experimentally validated 1960 novel intergenic splice junctions with an 80-90% success rate, corroborating the high precision of the STAR mapping strategy. Availability and implementation STAR is implemented as a standalone C++ code. STAR is free open source software distributed under GPLv3 license and can be downloaded from http://code.google.com/p/rna-star/.

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Topics: MRNA Sequencing (57%)

20,172 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/GB-2013-14-4-R36
Daehwan Kim1, Daehwan Kim2, Geo Pertea3, Cole Trapnell4  +5 moreInstitutions (7)
25 Apr 2013-Genome Biology
Abstract: TopHat is a popular spliced aligner for RNA-sequence (RNA-seq) experiments. In this paper, we describe TopHat2, which incorporates many significant enhancements to TopHat. TopHat2 can align reads of various lengths produced by the latest sequencing technologies, while allowing for variable-length indels with respect to the reference genome. In addition to de novo spliced alignment, TopHat2 can align reads across fusion breaks, which can occur after genomic translocations. TopHat2 combines the ability to identify novel splice sites with direct mapping to known transcripts, producing sensitive and accurate alignments, even for highly repetitive genomes or in the presence of pseudogenes. TopHat2 is available at http://ccb.jhu.edu/software/tophat.

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Topics: Reference genome (51%), Pseudogene (50%)

9,972 Citations


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