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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FCLIM.2021.638805

Carbon Dioxide Removal Policy in the Making: Assessing Developments in 9 OECD Cases

04 Mar 2021-Vol. 3
Abstract: Since the adoption of the Paris Agreement in 2015, spurred by the 2018 IPCC Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5°C, net zero emission targets have emerged as a new organizing principle of climate policy. In this context, climate policymakers and stakeholders have been shifting their attention to carbon dioxide removal (CDR) as an inevitable component of net zero targets. The importance of CDR would increase further if countries and other entities set net-negative emissions targets. The scientific literature on CDR governance and policy is still rather scarce, with empirical case studies and comparisons largely missing. Based on an analytical framework that draws on the multi-level perspective of sociotechnical transitions as well as existing work on CDR governance, we gathered and assessed empirical material until early 2021 from 9 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) cases: the European Union and three of its Member States (Ireland, Germany, and Sweden), Norway, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States. Based on a synthesis of differences and commonalities, we propose a tripartite conceptual typology of the varieties of CDR policymaking: 1) incremental modification of existing national policy mixes, 2) early integration of CDR policy that treats emission reductions and removals as fungible, and 3) proactive CDR policy entrepreneurship with support for niche development. Although these types do not necessarily cover all dimensions relevant for CDR policy and are based on a limited set of cases, the conceptual typology might spur future comparative work as well as more fine-grained case-studies on established and emerging CDR policies.

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Topics: European union (54%), National Policy (50%)
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13 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FCLIM.2021.672996
07 Jun 2021-
Abstract: Carbon dioxide removal (CDR) poses a significant and complex public policy challenge in the long-term. Presently treated as a marginal aspect of climate policy, addressing CDR as a public good is quickly becoming essential for limiting warming to well below 2°C or 1.5°C by achieving net-zero emissions in time – including by mobilization of public and private finance. In this policy and practice review, we develop six functions jointly needed for policy mixes mobilizing CDR in a manner compatible with the Paris Agreement’s objectives. We discuss the emerging CDR financing efforts in light of these functions, and we chart a path to a meaningful long-term structuring of policies and financing instruments. CDR characteristics point to the need for up-front capital, continuous funding for scaling, and long-term operating funding streams, as well as differentiation based on permanence of storage and should influence the design of policy instruments. Transparency and early public deliberation are essential for charting a politically stable course of action on CDR, while specific policy designs are being developed in a way that ensures effectiveness, prevents rent-seeking at public expense, and allows for iterative course corrections. We propose a stepwise approach whereby various CDR approaches initially need differentiated treatment based on their differing maturity and cost through R&D pilot activity subsidies. In the longer term, CDR increasingly ought to be funded through mitigation results-oriented financing and included in broader policy instruments. We conclude that CDR needs to become a regularly-provided public service like public waste management has become over the last century.

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Topics: Public policy (57%), Public service (54%), Public good (52%) ... read more

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ERSS.2021.102086
Abstract: This article analyses competing, emerging visions on the role and governance of negative emissions technologies (NETs) in Sweden. Using the concept of sociotechnical imaginaries, we explore different visions of NETs, how they relate to each other and how prevailing socioeconomic interests constrain their prospects for institutional stabilisation. Through an interpretive and qualitative analysis of interviews and publicly available documents, we identify various negative emission imaginaries that differ in their degree of contestation and institutionalisation. We find relatively high agreement on the desirable role of bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) in Swedish energy systems, while measures in the land-use sector appear more contested. These differences can be attributed to conflicts/alignment with existing imaginaries of the bioeconomy in Sweden, with energy systems already highly oriented towards bioenergy use, and with the political and economic interests that underlie these conditions.

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Topics: Sociotechnical system (50%)

2 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.21203/RS.3.RS-422173/V1
21 Apr 2021-
Abstract: Carbon dioxide removal (CDR) will be essential to meet the climate targets, so enabling its deployment at the right time will be decisive. Here, we investigate the still poorly understood implications of delaying CDR actions, focusing on integrating direct air capture and bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (DACCS and BECCS) into the European Union power mix. Under an indicative target of − 50 Gt of net CO2 by 2100, delayed CDR would cost an extra of 0.12 − 0.19 trillion EUR per year of inaction. Moreover, postponing CDR beyond mid-century would substantially reduce the removal potential to almost half (− 35.60 Gt CO2) due to the underused biomass and land resources and the maximum technology diffusion speed. The effective design of BECCS and DACCS systems calls for long-term planning starting from now and aligned with the evolving power systems. Our quantitative analysis of the consequences of inaction on CDR —with climate targets at risk and fair CDR contributions at stake —should help to break the current impasse and incentivize early actions worldwide.

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Topics: Carbon dioxide removal (56%)

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JOULE.2021.06.013
Sam Uden1, Paul Dargusch1, Chris Greig2Institutions (2)
18 Aug 2021-Joule
Abstract: Summary Negative-emission technologies (NETs) are widely viewed as a risky backstop technology for climate change mitigation. In this perspective, we challenge this limited view of NETs. We show how, notwithstanding their merit, integrated assessment models (IAMs) are largely responsible for establishing this opposition to NETs. This is because IAM-based assessments of NETs dominate the policy-facing literature, but as a result of model limitations, we are left with a deceptively shallow understanding of the role NETs could play to support long-term mitigation goals. Therefore, in the second part of this perspective, we provide a non-IAM-based fresh take on NETs. We explore NETs via a bottom-up analysis and introduce a decision-making framework to determine the circumstances under which NETs could provide value as a mitigation option at jurisdictional scales. We apply this framework to case studies in California and New Mexico, highlighting how NETs could overcome socio-technical obstacles and unlock a variety of environmental and social co-benefits as part of helping to achieve time-bound mitigation goals. Overall, this perspective aims to cut through what we see as a noisy discourse on NETs, which is wrapped-up in concerns that are dependent on scenario modeling and offer a plain evaluation of NETs as a potential climate change mitigation option.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/D1FD00029B
Volker Sick1Institutions (1)
Abstract: This introduction to the Faraday Discussion on carbon dioxide utilization (CDU) provides a framework to lay out the need for CDU, the opportunities, boundary conditions, potential pitfalls, and critical needs to advance the required technologies in the time needed. CDU as a mainstream climate-relevant solution is gaining rapid traction as measured by the increase in the number of related publications, the investment activity, and the political action taken in various countries.

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1 Citations


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82 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.RESPOL.2007.01.003
Frank W. Geels1, Johan SchotInstitutions (1)
01 Apr 2007-Research Policy
Abstract: Contributing to debates about transitions and system changes, this article has two aims. First, it uses criticisms on the multi-level perspective as stepping stones for further conceptual refinements. Second, it develops a typology of four transition pathways: transformation, reconfiguration, technological substitution, and de-alignment and re-alignment. These pathways differ in combinations of timing and nature of multi-level interactions. They are illustrated with historical examples.

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3,367 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.2307/2084615
Abstract: I N SOME ONE of its numerous forms, the problem of the unanticipated consequences of purposive action has been treated by virtually every substantial contributor to the long history of social thought.' The diversity of context' and variety of terms3 by which this problem has been known, however, have tended to obscure the definite continuity in its consideration. In fact, this diversity of context-ranging from theology to technology-has been so pronounced that not only has the substantial identity of the problem been overlooked, but no systematic, scientific analysis of it has as yet been effected. The failure to subject this problem to such thorough-going investigation has perhaps been due in part to its having been linked historically with transcendental and ethical considerations. Obviously, the ready solution provided by ascribing uncontemplated consequences of action to the inscrutable will of God or Providence or Fate precludes, in the mind of the believer, any need for scientific analysis. Whatever the actual reasons, the fact remains that though the process has been widely recognized and its importance equally appreciated, it still awaits a systematic treatment. Although the phrase, unanticipated consequences of purposive social action, is in a measure self-explanatory, the setting of the prob-

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Topics: Action (philosophy) (54%), Poison control (52%)

1,790 Citations


MonographDOI: 10.1515/9781400837311
31 Jan 2005-
Abstract: LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES vii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ix ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS xi Prologue 1 Chapter 1: Why Compare? 13 Chapter 2: Controlling Narratives 42 Chapter 3: A Question of Europe 68 Chapter 4: Unsettled Settlements 94 Chapter 5: Food for Thought 119 Chapter 6: Natural Mothers and Other Kinds 146 Chapter 7: Ethical Sense and Sensibility 171 Chapter 8: Making Something of Life 203 Chapter 9: The New Social Contract 225 Chapter 10: Civic Epistemology 247 Chapter 11: Republics of Science 272 APPENDIX: CHRONOLOGY 293 NOTES 295 REFERENCES 339 INDEX 361

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1,786 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.RESPOL.2005.07.005
01 Dec 2005-Research Policy
Abstract: A quasi-evolutionary model of socio-technical transitions is described in which regimes face selection pressures continuously. Differentiated transition contexts determine the form and direction of regime change in response to these pressures. The articulation of pressures, and the degree to which responses are coordinated and based on resources available within the regime, define the transition context. Four alternative contexts are described: endogenous renewal; re-orientation of trajectories; emergent transformation and purposive transitions. Agency and power in the governance of regime transformation are analysed. Power to affect change depends on regime membership, the distribution of resources for change and expectations.

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1,728 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.EIST.2011.02.002
Frank W. Geels1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The multi-level perspective (MLP) has emerged as a fruitful middle-range framework for analysing socio-technical transitions to sustainability. The MLP also received constructive criticisms. This paper summarises seven criticisms, formulates responses to them, and translates these into suggestions for future research. The criticisms relate to: (1) lack of agency, (2) operationalization of regimes, (3) bias towards bottom-up change models, (4) epistemology and explanatory style, (5) methodology, (6) socio-technical landscape as residual category, and (7) flat ontologies versus hierarchical levels.

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1,628 Citations


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