scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Journal ArticleDOI

Carbon nanotube: A review on its mechanical properties and application in aerospace industry

TL;DR: In this article, a review about carbon nanotube (CNT) on its various aspects such as fabrication methods, mechanical properties and applications in aerospace is presented, where the evolution of CNT is discussed to its recent applications.
Abstract: Carbon nanotube (CNT) is a prominent material that has good potential to be used in numerous aerospace applications. This paper presents a review about CNT on its various aspects such as fabrication methods, mechanical properties and applications in aerospace. The evolution of CNT is discussed to its recent applications. The aim of this review article is to highlight the recent advancements in CNT and its possible applications in aerospace.
Citations
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the efficacy of unmodified and modified carbon nanotubes for the removal of dyes from wastewater has been reviewed and shown that chemical modification leads to an improvement of the adsorption capacity.
Abstract: Contamination of water is calling for new techniques to provide safe and clean water for drinking and other usages. Among existing techniques of wastewater treatment, adsorption is one of the most efficient methods. Recently, carbon nanotube-based adsorbents are attracting research and industrial attention due to their large surface area, cylindrical hollow structure and well-flourished mesopores. Raw carbon nanotubes can be modified and adapted to the intended applications and targeted pollutants. Here we review the efficacy of unmodified and modified carbon nanotubes for the removal of dyes from wastewater. Reports show that chemical modification leads to an improvement of the adsorption capacity. The adsorption of dyes on carbon nanotubes depends on the nature of the adsorbent and adsorbate. Adsorption mechanisms involve van der Waals forces, π–π stacking, hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions. Nonetheless, hydrophobicity and cost actually restrict practical applications.

122 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The various types of carbon-based nanomaterials and methods that use for determining these toxic effects that are reported recently in the papers are described.

121 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
15 Oct 2020-Carbon
TL;DR: In this article, a class of 2-dimensional carbon nanostructures with mixed s p 2 − s p 3 hybridization is theoretically investigated, which contain hexagonal and tetragonal cycles and exhibit metallic or semiconducting behaviors depending on structural parameters.

11 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
27 Oct 2022-Polymers
TL;DR: In this paper , a carboxylated carbon nanotube (C-CNT) and polyimide (PI) was used for fabrication of flexible, low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and improved mechanical properties.
Abstract: Polyimide (PI) films with excellent heat resistance and outstanding mechanical properties have been widely researched in microelectronics and aerospace fields. However, most PI films can only be used under ordinary conditions due to their instability of dimension. The fabrication of multifunctional PI films for harsh conditions is still a challenge. Herein, flexible, low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and improved mechanical properties films modified by carboxylated carbon nanotube (C-CNT) were fabricated. Acid treatment was adapted to adjust the surface characteristics by using a mixture of concentrated H2SO4/HNO3 solution to introduce carboxyl groups on the surface and improve the interfacial performance between the CNT and matrix. Moreover, different C-CNT concentrations of 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 wt.% were synthesized to use for the PI film fabrication. The results demonstrated that the 9 wt.% and 5 wt.% C-CNT/PI films possessed the lowest CTE value and the highest mechanical properties. In addition, the thermal stability of the C-CNT/PI films was improved, making them promising applications in precise and harsh environments.

2 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Jul 2022
TL;DR: In this article , the mechanical properties of carbon fiber reinforced composites with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were investigated by hand lay-up process and their mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength and impact strength were investigated.
Abstract: Aircraft is highly efficient man-made flying machine, despite its complexity. One of the most essential considerations in the design and development of an aircraft is the structure's weight. This work is concerned with fabrication and experimental investigations of the mechanical properties of Carbon fiber Reinforcement Polymers (CFRP) along with Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) as additives. The usage of high-performance polymeric composites is a valuable alternative to conventional materials due to their high mechanical properties, stiffness to weight ratio and damage tolerance. The present work evaluates mechanical properties of CNT added CFRP’s and compares it with the CFRP alone. Samples of carbon reinforced composites added with CNT are fabricated by hand lay-up process and their mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength and impact strength are investigated by the experimental study. The CNT with 0.5wt. %, 1 wt.%, and 2 wt.% are added to the carbon fiber reinforcement polymer. The addition of CNT to CFRP resulted in improvement of tensile strength by 27.5 %, 53.25 %, and 40 % respectively. The tested specimens were observed by SEM which showcased the phenomenon of fibre breakage and pull out under loading conditions.
References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
02 Aug 2002-Science
TL;DR: Many potential applications have been proposed for carbon nanotubes, including conductive and high-strength composites; energy storage and energy conversion devices; sensors; field emission displays and radiation sources; hydrogen storage media; and nanometer-sized semiconductor devices, probes, and interconnects.
Abstract: Many potential applications have been proposed for carbon nanotubes, including conductive and high-strength composites; energy storage and energy conversion devices; sensors; field emission displays and radiation sources; hydrogen storage media; and nanometer-sized semiconductor devices, probes, and interconnects. Some of these applications are now realized in products. Others are demonstrated in early to advanced devices, and one, hydrogen storage, is clouded by controversy. Nanotube cost, polydispersity in nanotube type, and limitations in processing and assembly methods are important barriers for some applications of single-walled nanotubes.

9,693 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
28 Jan 2000-Science
TL;DR: The tensile strengths of individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were measured with a "nanostressing stage" located within a scanning electron microscope and a variety of structures were revealed, such as a nanotube ribbon, a wave pattern, and partial radial collapse.
Abstract: The tensile strengths of individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were measured with a “nanostressing stage” located within a scanning electron microscope. The tensile-loading experiment was prepared and observed entirely within the microscope and was recorded on video. The MWCNTs broke in the outermost layer (“sword-in-sheath” failure), and the tensile strength of this layer ranged from 11 to 63 gigapascals for the set of 19 MWCNTs that were loaded. Analysis of the stress-strain curves for individual MWCNTs indicated that the Young's modulus E of the outermost layer varied from 270 to 950 gigapascals. Transmission electron microscopic examination of the broken nanotube fragments revealed a variety of structures, such as a nanotube ribbon, a wave pattern, and partial radial collapse.

5,011 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power of a single carbon nanotube were measured using a microfabricated suspended device and shows linear temperature dependence with a value of 80 microV/K at room temperature.
Abstract: The thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power of a single carbon nanotube were measured using a microfabricated suspended device. The observed thermal conductivity is more than 3000 W/K m at room temperature, which is 2 orders of magnitude higher than the estimation from previous experiments that used macroscopic mat samples. The temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity of nanotubes exhibits a peak at 320 K due to the onset of umklapp phonon scattering. The measured thermoelectric power shows linear temperature dependence with a value of 80 microV/K at room temperature.

3,166 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jul 1992-Nature
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used a variant of the standard arc-discharge technique for fullerene synthesis under a helium atmosphere, where a carbonaceous deposit formed on one of the graphite rods, consisting of a macroscopic (diameter of about 5 mm) cylinder.
Abstract: INTEREST in carbon fibres1,2 has been stimulated greatly by the recent discovery of hollow graphitic tubules of nanometre dimensions3. There has been much speculation about the properties and potential application of these nanotubes4–8. Theoretical studies predict that their electronic properties will depend on their diameter and degree of helicity4,5. Experimental tests of these ideas has been hampered, however, by the lack of macroscopic quantities of the material. Here we report the synthesis of graphitic nanotubes in gram quantities. We use a variant of the standard arc-discharge technique for fullerene synthesis under a helium atmosphere. Under certain conditions, a carbonaceous deposit forms on one of the graphite rods, consisting of a macroscopic (diameter of about 5 mm) cylinder in which the core comprises pure nanotubes and nanoscale particles in high yield. The purity and yield depend sensitively on the gas pressure in the reaction vessel. Preliminary measurements of the conductivity of the bulk nanotube material indicate a conductivity of about 100 S cm–11.

2,908 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 1996-Nature
TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that carbon nanotubes might constitute well defined tips for scanning probe microscopy, and they were attached to the silicon cantilevers of conventional atomic force microscopes.
Abstract: SINCE the invention of the scanning tunnelling microscope1, the value of establishing a physical connection between the macroscopic world and individual nanometre-scale objects has become increasingly evident, both for probing these objects2–4 and for direct manipulation5–7 and fabrication8–10 at the nanometre scale. While good progress has been made in controlling the position of the macroscopic probe of such devices to sub-angstrom accuracy, and in designing sensitive detection schemes, less has been done to improve the probe tip itself4. Ideally the tip should be as precisely defined as the object under investigation, and should maintain its integrity after repeated use not only in high vacuum but also in air and water. The best tips currently used for scanning probe microscopy do sometimes achieve sub-nanometre resolution, but they seldom survive a 'tip crash' with the surface, and it is rarely clear what the atomic configuration of the tip is during imaging. Here we show that carbon nanotubes11,12 might constitute well defined tips for scanning probe microscopy. We have attached individual nanotubes several micrometres in length to the silicon cantilevers of conventional atomic force microscopes. Because of their flexibility, the tips are resistant to damage from tip crashes, while their slenderness permits imaging of sharp recesses in surface topography. We have also been able to exploit the electrical conductivity of nanotubes by using them for scanning tunnelling microscopy.

2,179 citations