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Journal ArticleDOI

Carbon Nanotubes--the Route Toward Applications

02 Aug 2002-Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science)-Vol. 297, Iss: 5582, pp 787-792

TL;DR: Many potential applications have been proposed for carbon nanotubes, including conductive and high-strength composites; energy storage and energy conversion devices; sensors; field emission displays and radiation sources; hydrogen storage media; and nanometer-sized semiconductor devices, probes, and interconnects.

AbstractMany potential applications have been proposed for carbon nanotubes, including conductive and high-strength composites; energy storage and energy conversion devices; sensors; field emission displays and radiation sources; hydrogen storage media; and nanometer-sized semiconductor devices, probes, and interconnects. Some of these applications are now realized in products. Others are demonstrated in early to advanced devices, and one, hydrogen storage, is clouded by controversy. Nanotube cost, polydispersity in nanotube type, and limitations in processing and assembly methods are important barriers for some applications of single-walled nanotubes.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
22 Oct 2004-Science
TL;DR: Monocrystalline graphitic films are found to be a two-dimensional semimetal with a tiny overlap between valence and conductance bands and they exhibit a strong ambipolar electric field effect.
Abstract: We describe monocrystalline graphitic films, which are a few atoms thick but are nonetheless stable under ambient conditions, metallic, and of remarkably high quality. The films are found to be a two-dimensional semimetal with a tiny overlap between valence and conductance bands, and they exhibit a strong ambipolar electric field effect such that electrons and holes in concentrations up to 10 13 per square centimeter and with room-temperature mobilities of ∼10,000 square centimeters per volt-second can be induced by applying gate voltage.

48,846 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is reported that chemically converted graphene sheets obtained from graphite can readily form stable aqueous colloids through electrostatic stabilization, making it possible to process graphene materials using low-cost solution processing techniques, opening up enormous opportunities to use this unique carbon nanostructure for many technological applications.
Abstract: Graphene sheets offer extraordinary electronic, thermal and mechanical properties and are expected to find a variety of applications. A prerequisite for exploiting most proposed applications for graphene is the availability of processable graphene sheets in large quantities. The direct dispersion of hydrophobic graphite or graphene sheets in water without the assistance of dispersing agents has generally been considered to be an insurmountable challenge. Here we report that chemically converted graphene sheets obtained from graphite can readily form stable aqueous colloids through electrostatic stabilization. This discovery has enabled us to develop a facile approach to large-scale production of aqueous graphene dispersions without the need for polymeric or surfactant stabilizers. Our findings make it possible to process graphene materials using low-cost solution processing techniques, opening up enormous opportunities to use this unique carbon nanostructure for many technological applications.

8,033 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a comprehensive review is presented on the researches and developments related to electrospun polymer nanofibers including processing, structure and property characterization, applications, and modeling and simulations.
Abstract: Electrospinning has been recognized as an efficient technique for the fabrication of polymer nanofibers. Various polymers have been successfully electrospun into ultrafine fibers in recent years mostly in solvent solution and some in melt form. Potential applications based on such fibers specifically their use as reinforcement in nanocomposite development have been realized. In this paper, a comprehensive review is presented on the researches and developments related to electrospun polymer nanofibers including processing, structure and property characterization, applications, and modeling and simulations. Information of those polymers together with their processing conditions for electrospinning of ultrafine fibers has been summarized in the paper. Other issues regarding the technology limitations, research challenges, and future trends are also discussed.

6,503 citations


Cites background from "Carbon Nanotubes--the Route Toward ..."

  • ...Several comprehensive reviews have summarized the researches done until very recently on these composites [5,98,112,150]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, Greece, Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, National Hellenic Research Foundation, and Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Universita di Trieste, Piazzale Europa 1, 34127 Triesteadays.
Abstract: Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, 26504 Rio Patras, Greece, Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 48 Vass. Constantinou Avenue, 116 35 Athens, Greece, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, UPR9021 CNRS, Immunologie et Chimie Therapeutiques, 67084 Strasbourg, France, and Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Universita di Trieste, Piazzale Europa 1, 34127 Trieste, Italy

3,668 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Aug 2006-Carbon
TL;DR: In this article, a review of the progress to date in the field of mechanical reinforcement of polymers using nanotubes is presented, and the most promising processing methods for mechanical reinforcement are discussed.
Abstract: The superlative mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes make them the filler material of choice for composite reinforcement. In this paper we review the progress to date in the field of mechanical reinforcement of polymers using nanotubes. Initially, the basics of fibre reinforced composites are introduced and the prerequisites for successful reinforcement discussed. The effectiveness of different processing methods is compared and the state of the art demonstrated. In addition we discuss the levels of reinforcement that have actually been achieved. While the focus will be on enhancement of Young’s modulus we will also discuss enhancement of strength and toughness. Finally we compare and tabulate these results. This leads to a discussion of the most promising processing methods for mechanical reinforcement and the outlook for the future.

3,534 citations


Cites background from "Carbon Nanotubes--the Route Toward ..."

  • ...These properties make nanotubes ideal, not only for a wide range of applications [1] but as a test bed for fundamental science [2]....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
28 Jan 2000-Science
TL;DR: The nanotubes sensors exhibit a fast response and a substantially higher sensitivity than that of existing solid-state sensors at room temperature and the mechanisms of molecular sensing with nanotube molecular wires are investigated.
Abstract: Chemical sensors based on individual single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are demonstrated. Upon exposure to gaseous molecules such as NO 2 or NH 3 , the electrical resistance of a semiconducting SWNT is found to dramatically increase or decrease. This serves as the basis for nanotube molecular sensors. The nanotube sensors exhibit a fast response and a substantially higher sensitivity than that of existing solid-state sensors at room temperature. Sensor reversibility is achieved by slow recovery under ambient conditions or by heating to high temperatures. The interactions between molecular species and SWNTs and the mechanisms of molecular sensing with nanotube molecular wires are investigated.

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 1998-Nature
TL;DR: In this paper, the fabrication of a three-terminal switching device at the level of a single molecule represents an important step towards molecular electronics and has attracted much interest, particularly because it could lead to new miniaturization strategies in the electronics and computer industry.
Abstract: The use of individual molecules as functional electronic devices was first proposed in the 1970s (ref 1) Since then, molecular electronics2,3 has attracted much interest, particularly because it could lead to conceptually new miniaturization strategies in the electronics and computer industry The realization of single-molecule devices has remained challenging, largely owing to difficulties in achieving electrical contact to individual molecules Recent advances in nanotechnology, however, have resulted in electrical measurements on single molecules4,5,6,7 Here we report the fabrication of a field-effect transistor—a three-terminal switching device—that consists of one semiconducting8,9,10 single-wall carbon nanotube11,12 connected to two metal electrodes By applying a voltage to a gate electrode, the nanotube can be switched from a conducting to an insulating state We have previously reported5 similar behaviour for a metallic single-wall carbon nanotube operated at extremely low temperatures The present device, in contrast, operates at room temperature, thereby meeting an important requirement for potential practical applications Electrical measurements on the nanotube transistor indicate that its operation characteristics can be qualitatively described by the semiclassical band-bending models currently used for traditional semiconductor devices The fabrication of the three-terminal switching device at the level of a single molecule represents an important step towards molecular electronics

5,147 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
26 Jul 1996-Science
TL;DR: X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy showed that fullerene single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) are nearly uniform in diameter and that they self-organize into “ropes,” which consist of 100 to 500 SWNTs in a two-dimensional triangular lattice with a lattice constant of 17 angstroms.
Abstract: The major part of this chapter has already appeared in [1], but because of the length restrictions (in Science), the discussion on why we think this form is given in only brief detail. This chapter goes into more depth to try to answer the questions of why the fullerenes form themselves. This is another example of the very special behavior of carbon. From a chemist’s standpoint, it is carbon’s ability to form multiple bonds that allows it to make these low dimensional forms rather than to produce tetrahedral forms. Carbon can readily accomplish this and it is in the mathematics and physics of the way this universe was put together, that carbon is given this property. One of the consequences of this property is that, if left to its own devices as carbon condenses from the vapor and if the temperature range is just right, above 1000°C, but lower than 1400°C, there is an efficient self-assembly process whose endpoint is C60.

5,071 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
26 Sep 1997-Science
TL;DR: In this paper, the Young's modulus, strength, and toughness of nanostructures are evaluated using an atomic force microscopy (AFM) approach. And the results showed that the strength of the SiC NRs were substantially greater than those found previously for larger SiC structures, and they approach theoretical values.
Abstract: The Young's modulus, strength, and toughness of nanostructures are important to proposed applications ranging from nanocomposites to probe microscopy, yet there is little direct knowledge of these key mechanical properties. Atomic force microscopy was used to determine the mechanical properties of individual, structurally isolated silicon carbide (SiC) nanorods (NRs) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) that were pinned at one end to molybdenum disulfide surfaces. The bending force was measured versus displacement along the unpinned lengths. The MWNTs were about two times as stiff as the SiC NRs. Continued bending of the SiC NRs ultimately led to fracture, whereas the MWNTs exhibited an interesting elastic buckling process. The strengths of the SiC NRs were substantially greater than those found previously for larger SiC structures, and they approach theoretical values. Because of buckling, the ultimate strengths of the stiffer MWNTs were less than those of the SiC NRs, although the MWNTs represent a uniquely tough, energy-absorbing material.

4,478 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
17 Nov 1995-Science
TL;DR: In this paper, a high-intensity electron gun based on field emission from a film of aligned carbon nanotubes has been made, which consists of a nanotube film with a 1-millimeter-diameter grid about 20 micrometers above it.
Abstract: A high-intensity electron gun based on field emission from a film of aligned carbon nanotubes has been made. The gun consists of a nanotube film with a 1-millimeter-diameter grid about 20 micrometers above it. Field-emission current densities of about 0.1 milliampere per square centimeter were observed for applied voltages as low as 200 volts, and current densities greater than 100 milliamperes per square centimeter have been realized at 700 volts. The gun is air-stable, easy and inexpensive to fabricate, and functions stably and reliably for long times (short-term fluctuations are on the order of 10 percent). The entire gun is only about 0.2 millimeter thick and can be produced with virtually no restrictions on its area, from less than 1 square millimeter to hundreds of square centimeters, making it suitable for flat panel display applications.

3,068 citations