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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S12350-014-9997-Y

Cardiac imaging for the assessment of patients being evaluated for kidney or liver transplantation.

05 Mar 2021-Journal of Nuclear Cardiology (Springer US)-Vol. 22, Iss: 2, pp 282-296
Abstract: Cardiac risk assessment prior to kidney and liver transplantation is controversial. Given the paucity of available organs, selecting appropriate recipients with favorable short- and long-term cardiovascular risk profile is crucial. Using noninvasive cardiac imaging tools to guide cardiovascular risk assessment and management can also be challenging and controversial. In this article, we address the burden of coronary artery disease among kidney and liver transplant candidates and review the literature pertaining to the diagnostic accuracy and the prognostic value of noninvasive cardiac imaging techniques in this population.

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Topics: Cardiac Imaging Techniques (60%), Liver transplantation (57%), Kidney transplantation (55%) ... show more
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Open access
01 Jan 1980-

698 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/LT.24679
Abstract: Improvements in the management of patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT) have resulted in a significant increase in survival in recent years. Cardiac disease is now the leading cause of early mortality, and the stress of major surgery, hemodynamic shifts, and the possibilities of hemorrhage or reperfusion syndrome require the recipient to have good baseline cardiac function. The prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) is increasing in LT candidates, especially in those with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In assessing LT recipients, we suggest a management paradigm of "quadruple assessment" to include (1) history, examination, and electrocardiogram; (2) transthoracic echocardiogram; (3) functional testing; and (4) where appropriate, direct assessment of CAD. The added value of functional testing, such as cardiopulmonary exercise testing, has been shown to be able to predict posttransplant complications independently of the presence of CV disease. This approach gives the assessment team the greatest chance of detecting and preventing complications related to CAD. Liver Transplantation 23 386-395 2017 AASLD.

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38 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S12350-015-0303-4
Rami Doukky1, Ibtihaj Fughhi2, Tania Campagnoli2, Marwan Wassouf2  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: The prognostic value of regadenoson SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) has not been specifically studied in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We prospectively followed ESRD patients enrolled in the ASSUAGE and ASSUAGE-CKD trials in which they received regadenoson-stress 99mTc-tetrofosmin SPECT-MPI. Images were semiquantitatively analyzed by an investigator blinded to clinical and outcome data. Patients were followed for cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), and coronary revascularization (CR). Revascularizations occurring >90 days post-MPI were considered “late” events. Survival analysis was performed using Cox regression models, adjusting for age, gender, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, and known coronary artery disease. We analyzed 303 patients (mean age 54 years; 64% men), who were followed for 35 ± 10 months. Adjusting for clinical covariates, abnormal regadenoson-stress MPI (SSS ≥ 4) was associated with increased risk of the composite of cardiac death or MI (23.9% vs 14.4%; HR 1.88; CI 1.04-3.41; P = .037) and the composite of cardiac death, MI, or late CR (27.3% vs 16.7%; HR 1.80; CI 1.03-3.14; P = .039). Adjusting for clinical covariates, regadenoson-induced myocardial ischemia (SDS ≥ 2) was associated with increased rate of the composite endpoint of cardiac death, MI, or CR (33.3% vs 16.9%; HR 1.97; CI 1.19-3.27; P = .008). Regadenoson-stress SPECT-MPI provides a significant prognostic value in patients with ESRD. ESRD patients with normal SPECT-MPI have relatively high adverse event rates.

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Topics: End stage renal disease (58%), Myocardial infarction (57%), Coronary artery disease (55%) ... show more

37 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S12350-015-0234-0
Abstract: Blunted heart rate response (HRR) to vasodilator stress agents is associated with worse outcomes. There are limited data assessing the effect of impaired HRR to regadenoson among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). We prospectively followed patients with ESRD enrolled in the ASSUAGE and ASSUAGE-CKD trials. HRR was defined as 100*(peak stress heart rate-resting heart rate)/resting heart rate. Study cohort was dichotomized to blunted and normal HRR groups according to an established median HRR value 90 days) coronary revascularization. There were 303 patients followed for 35 ± 10 months. In the entire cohort, there was a stepwise increase in the rates of death and all secondary endpoints with worsening HRR (P values ≤.001). Blunted HRR (<28%) was associated with increased risk of death (unadjusted hazard ratio 4.10 [1.98-8.46], P < .001) and all secondary endpoints (P ≤ .001). After multivariate adjustment, HRR remained an independent predictor of mortality and secondary endpoints whether used as continuous or dichotomous variable, and added incremental prognostic value for all-cause death (P = .046). Blunted HRR was associated with increased event rate among patients with normal myocardial perfusion (P = .001) and abnormal perfusion (P = .053). In the propensity-matched cohort of 132 patients (66 in each group), blunted HRR was associated with significant increase in all-cause death (21% vs. 5%, HR 5.09 [1.46-17.7], P=.011), and similarly for the secondary endpoints. Blunted HRR (<28%) to regadenoson is a strong and independent predictor of death and cardiovascular events in patients with ESRD and adds incremental prognostic value.

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Topics: End stage renal disease (54%), Regadenoson (54%), Myocardial perfusion imaging (51%) ... show more

31 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1161/01.CIR.89.3.1446
01 Mar 1994-Circulation
Abstract: Infection control is important to the well-being of our patients and for that reason we have infection control procedures in place. Keeping your hands clean is an effective way of preventing the spread of infections. We ask that you, and anyone visiting you, use the hand sanitiser available at the entrance to every ward before coming in to or after leaving the ward. In some situations hands may need to be washed at the sink using soap and water rather than using the hand sanitiser. Staff will let you know if this is the case.

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30 Citations


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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA041031
Abstract: Background End-stage renal disease substantially increases the risks of death, cardiovascular disease, and use of specialized health care, but the effects of less severe kidney dysfunction on these outcomes are less well defined. Methods We estimated the longitudinal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) among 1,120,295 adults within a large, integrated system of health care delivery in whom serum creatinine had been measured between 1996 and 2000 and who had not undergone dialysis or kidney transplantation. We examined the multivariable association between the estimated GFR and the risks of death, cardiovascular events, and hospitalization. Results The median follow-up was 2.84 years, the mean age was 52 years, and 55 percent of the group were women. After adjustment, the risk of death increased as the GFR decreased below 60 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area: the adjusted hazard ratio for death was 1.2 with an estimated GFR of 45 to 59 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 (95 percent confidence interval, 1....

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Topics: Renal function (61%), Kidney disease (59%), Dialysis (55%) ... show more

8,832 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMRA043430
Göran K. Hansson1Institutions (1)
Abstract: ecent research has shown that inflammation plays a key role in coronary artery disease (CAD) and other manifestations of atherosclerosis. Immune cells dominate early atherosclerotic lesions, their effector molecules accelerate progression of the lesions, and activation of inflammation can elicit acute coronary syndromes. This review highlights the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic CAD. It will recount the evidence that atherosclerosis, the main cause of CAD, is an inflammatory disease in which immune mechanisms interact with metabolic risk factors to initiate, propagate, and activate lesions in the arterial tree. A decade ago, the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and hypertension was expected to eliminate CAD by the end of the 20th century. Lately, however, that optimistic prediction has needed revision. Cardiovascular diseases are expected to be the main cause of death globally within the next 15 years owing to a rapidly increasing prevalence in developing countries and eastern Europe and the rising incidence of obesity and diabetes in the Western world. 1 Cardiovascular diseases cause 38 percent of all deaths in North America and are the most common cause of death in European men under 65 years of age and the second most common cause in women. These facts force us to revisit cardiovascular disease and consider new strategies for prediction, prevention, and treatment.

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Topics: Coronary artery disease (54%), Cause of death (52%), Disease (52%)

7,029 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000095676.90936.80
28 Oct 2003-Circulation
Abstract: Chronic kidney disease1 (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. In the United States, there is a rising incidence and prevalence of kidney failure, with poor outcomes and high cost. The number of individuals with kidney failure treated by dialysis and transplantation exceeded 320 000 in 1998 and is expected to surpass 650 000 by 2010.1,2 There is an even higher prevalence of earlier stages of CKD (Table 1).1,3 Kidney failure requiring treatment with dialysis or transplantation is the most visible outcome of CKD. However, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is also frequently associated with CKD, which is important because individuals with CKD are more likely to die of CVD than to develop kidney failure,4 CVD in CKD is treatable and potentially preventable, and CKD appears to be a risk factor for CVD. In 1998, the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Renal Disease issued a report emphasizing the high risk of CVD in CKD.5 This report showed that there was a high prevalence of CVD in CKD and that mortality due to CVD was 10 to 30 times higher in dialysis patients than in the general population (Figure 1 and Table 2).6–18 The task force recommended that patients with CKD be considered in the “highest risk group” for subsequent CVD events and that treatment recommendations based on CVD risk stratification should take into account the highest-risk status of patients with CKD. View this table: TABLE 1. Stages of CKD Figure 1. Cardiovascular mortality defined by death due to arrhythmias, cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, atherosclerotic heart disease, and pulmonary edema in general population (GP; National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] multiple cause of mortality data files International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision [ICD 9] codes 402, 404, 410 to 414, and …

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Topics: Kidney disease (65%), Dialysis (57%), Risk factor (53%) ... show more

3,822 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA0807611
Abstract: Background In patients with multivessel coronary artery disease who are undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary angiography is the standard method for guiding the placement of the stent. It is unclear whether routine measurement of fractional flow reserve (FFR; the ratio of maximal blood flow in a stenotic artery to normal maximal flow), in addition to angiography, improves outcomes. Methods In 20 medical centers in the United States and Europe, we randomly assigned 1005 patients with multivessel coronary artery disease to undergo PCI with implantation of drug-eluting stents guided by angiography alone or guided by FFR measurements in addition to angiography. Before randomization, lesions requiring PCI were identified on the basis of their angiographic appearance. Patients assigned to angiography-guided PCI underwent stenting of all indicated lesions, whereas those assigned to FFR-guided PCI underwent stenting of indicated lesions only if the FFR was 0.80 or less. The primary end point was the rate of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and repeat revascularization at 1 year. Results The mean (±SD) number of indicated lesions per patient was 2.7±0.9 in the angiography group and 2.8±1.0 in the FFR group (P = 0.34). The number of stents used per patient was 2.7±1.2 and 1.9±1.3, respectively (P<0.001). The 1-year event rate was 18.3% (91 patients) in the angiography group and 13.2% (67 patients) in the FFR group (P = 0.02). Seventy-eight percent of the patients in the angiography group were free from angina at 1 year, as compared with 81% of patients in the FFR group (P = 0.20). Conclusions Routine measurement of FFR in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease who are undergoing PCI with drug-eluting stents significantly reduces the rate of the composite end point of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and repeat revascularization at 1 year. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00267774.)

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3,076 Citations