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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/RHEUMATOLOGY/KEAA374

Cardiovascular risk and mortality in rheumatoid arthritis compared with diabetes mellitus and the general population

02 Mar 2021-Rheumatology (Oxford Academic)-Vol. 60, Iss: 3, pp 1400-1409
Abstract: Objectives To compare risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in patients with incident RA, diabetes mellitus (DM) and the general population (GP). Methods Patients diagnosed with incident RA were matched 1:5 by age, sex and year of RA diagnosis with the GP. In the same period, patients with incident DM were included. Outcomes were heart failure (HF), myocardial infarction (MI), coronary revascularization, stroke, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and death up to 10 years after diagnosis. Results We included 15 032 patients with incident RA, 301 246 patients with DM and 75 160 persons from the GP. RA patients had an increased risk of HF [hazard ratio (HR) 1.51, 95% CI: 1.38, 1.64], MI (HR 1.58, 95% CI: 1.43, 1.74), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI; HR 1.44, 95% CI: 1.27, 1.62), coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG; HR 1.30, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.62) and stroke (HR 1.22, 95% CI: 1.12-1.33) compared with the GP. However, the 10-year all-cause mortality was at the same level as observed in the GP. Cardiac death and MACE were increased in RA compared with the GP. When compared with patients with DM, RA patients had a lower adjusted risk of HF (HR 0.79, 95% CI: 0.73, 0.85), CABG (HR 0.62, 95% CI: 0.51, 0.76) and stroke (HR 0.82, 95% CI: 0.76, 0.89), and similar risk of MI and PCI. DM patients had the highest risk of 10-year mortality, cardiac death and MACE. Conclusion This study demonstrates that RA is associated with an increased risk of HF, MI, stroke and coronary revascularization than found in the GP but without reaching the risk levels observed in DM patients.

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Topics: Percutaneous coronary intervention (53%), Myocardial infarction (53%), Mace (52%) ... show more
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.15537/SMJ.2021.42.8.918
Ali S M Jawad1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Salem and Zahran[1][1] conducted a cross sectional study investigating the role of VCAM-1 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), its relation to disease activity, oxidative stress and systemic inflammation.[1][1] They studied 50 patients with early newly diagnosed RA (less than 6 month duration

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Topics: Rheumatoid arthritis (54%)

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1136/ANNRHEUMDIS-2021-220125
Abstract: Objective Examine the association of methotrexate (MTX) use with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using marginal structural models (MSM) and determine if CVD risk is mediated through modification of disease activity. Methods We identified incident CVD events (coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, heart failure (HF) hospitalisation, CVD death) within a multicentre, prospective cohort of US Veterans with RA. A 28-joint Disease Activity Score with C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) was collected at regular visits and medication exposures were determined by linking to pharmacy dispensing data. MSMs were used to estimate the treatment effect of MTX on risk of incident CVD, accounting for time-varying confounders between receiving MTX and CVD events. A mediation analysis was performed to estimate the indirect effects of methotrexate on CVD risk through modification of RA disease activity. Results Among 2044 RA patients (90% male, mean age 63.9 years, baseline DAS28-CRP 3.6), there were 378 incident CVD events. Using MSM, MTX use was associated with a 24% reduced risk of composite CVD events (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.99) including a 57% reduction in HF hospitalisations (HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.77). Individual associations with CAD, stroke and CVD death were not statistically significant. In mediation analyses, there was no evidence of indirect effects of MTX on CVD risk through disease activity modification (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.32). Conclusions MTX use in RA was associated with a reduced risk of CVD events, particularly HF-related hospitalisations. These associations were not mediated through reductions in RA disease activity, suggesting alternative MTX-related mechanisms may modify CVD risk in this population.

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Topics: Population (51%)

Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: Objective To assess the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) at and prior to diagnosis in people with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and subsequent CVD in these patients. Methods A retrospective case–control study using a large English primary care database. People with RA (n=6591) diagnosed between 2004 and 2016 (inclusive) were identified using a validated algorithm, matched 1:1 by age and gender to those without RA (n=6591) and followed for a median of 5.4 years. We assessed differences in CVD at, before and after diagnosis, and the impact of traditional and RA-related risk factors (C reactive protein, RA-related autoantibodies and medication use) on incident CVD (a composite of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke or heart failure). Results RA cases and their matched controls were both of mean age 58.7 (SD 15.5) at cohort entry, and 67.5% were female. Some CVD risk factors were more common at RA diagnosis including smoking and diabetes; however, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were lower in patients with RA. CVD was more common in RA at cohort entry; stroke (3.9% vs 2.7%, p Conclusions An excess of stroke and heart failure occurs before diagnosis of RA. There is excess risk for further cardiovascular events after diagnosis, which is not explained by differences in traditional CVD or RA-related risk factors at diagnosis.

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Topics: Cohort (51%), Absolute risk reduction (50%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1136/RMDOPEN-2021-001694
01 Nov 2021-RMD Open
Abstract: Objectives To compare current all-cause mortality rates in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and systemic sclerosis (SSc) versus general population. Methods In this population-based, retrospective cohort study, anonymised data on 11 186 586 citizens, including all patients with RA (42 735, 79% female), AS (9707, 43% female), PsA (13 779, 55% female), SLE (10 440, 89% female) and SSc (2277, 88% female), (median age of 64/47/54/53/59 years at study entry, respectively), under prescribed treatment between 2015 and 2019, were extracted from the electronic database covering nearly 99% of the Greek population. Results After 1:5 (patients:general population) matching for gender/age, we found that survival was worse in SSc, followed by SLE and inflammatory arthritis. Compared with the general population HRs for death increased from the first 3 years to 5 years of observation possibly due to increases in disease duration: RA (from 0.63 to 1.13 (95% CI: 1.05 to 1.22), AS (from 0.62 to 1.01, (95% CI: 0.76 to 1.33)), PsA (from 0.68 to 1.06, (95% CI: 0.88 to 1.28)), SLE (from 1.52 to 1.98, (95% CI: 1.67 to 2.33)) and SSc (from 2.27 to 4.24, (95% CI: 3.19 to 5.63)). In both SLE and SSc mortality was increased in men than women and in patients younger than 50 years. Conclusions Survival rates over 5 years in inflammatory arthritis under treatment are currently becoming comparable (AS/PsA) or slightly higher (RA) than those of the general population. However, all-cause mortality is almost twofold and fourfold higher in SLE and SSc, respectively, being even higher for male and younger patients.

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Topics: Population (55%), Mortality rate (52%), Inflammatory arthritis (52%) ... show more

References
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44 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0021-9681(87)90171-8
Abstract: The objective of this study was to develop a prospectively applicable method for classifying comorbid conditions which might alter the risk of mortality for use in longitudinal studies. A weighted index that takes into account the number and the seriousness of comorbid disease was developed in a cohort of 559 medical patients. The 1-yr mortality rates for the different scores were: "0", 12% (181); "1-2", 26% (225); "3-4", 52% (71); and "greater than or equal to 5", 85% (82). The index was tested for its ability to predict risk of death from comorbid disease in the second cohort of 685 patients during a 10-yr follow-up. The percent of patients who died of comorbid disease for the different scores were: "0", 8% (588); "1", 25% (54); "2", 48% (25); "greater than or equal to 3", 59% (18). With each increased level of the comorbidity index, there were stepwise increases in the cumulative mortality attributable to comorbid disease (log rank chi 2 = 165; p less than 0.0001). In this longer follow-up, age was also a predictor of mortality (p less than 0.001). The new index performed similarly to a previous system devised by Kaplan and Feinstein. The method of classifying comorbidity provides a simple, readily applicable and valid method of estimating risk of death from comorbid disease for use in longitudinal studies. Further work in larger populations is still required to refine the approach because the number of patients with any given condition in this study was relatively small.

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Topics: Risk of mortality (53%), Prospective cohort study (53%), Comorbidity (53%) ... show more

34,129 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/1403494810387965
Carsten Bøcker Pedersen1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Introduction: The Danish Civil Registration System (CRS) was established in 1968, and all persons alive and living in Denmark were registered for administrative use. Content: CRS includes individual information on the unique personal identification number, name, gender, date of birth, place of birth, citizenship, identity of parents and continuously updated information on vital status, place of residence and spouses. Validity and coverage: Since 1968, CRS has recorded current and historical information on all persons living in Denmark. Among persons born in Denmark in 1960 or later it contains complete information on maternal identity. For women born in Denmark in April 1935 or later it contains complete information on all their children. CRS contains complete information on immigrations and emigrations from 1969 onwards, permanent residence in a Danish municipality from 1971 onwards, and full address in Denmark from 1977 onwards. Conclusion: CRS in connection with other registers and biobanks will continue to provide the basis for significant knowledge relevant to the aetiological understanding and possible prevention of human diseases.

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Topics: Place of birth (55%), Poison control (53%), Population (50%)

3,078 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/EURHEARTJ/EHY394

2,681 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.2147/CLEP.S91125
Abstract: Background The Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR) is one of the world’s oldest nationwide hospital registries and is used extensively for research. Many studies have validated algorithms for identifying health events in the DNPR, but the reports are fragmented and no overview exists.

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1,860 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/ART.1780370408
Frederick Wolfe1, Donald M. Mitchell2, John Sibley2, James F. Fries3  +6 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Objective. To determine the risk and causes of death and to quantify mortality predictors in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. RA patients (n = 3,501) from 4 centers (Saskatoon n = 905, Wichita n = 1,405, Stanford n = 886, and Santa Clara n = 305) were followed for up to 35 years; 922 patients died. Results. The overall standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 2.26 (Saskatoon 2.24, Wichita 1.98, Stanford 3.08, Santa Clara 2.18) and increased with time. Mortality was strikingly increased for specific causes: infection, lymphoproliferative malignancy, gastroenterologic, and RA. In addition, as an effect of the SMR of 2.26, the expected number of deaths was increased nonspecifically across all causes (except cancer), with a large excess of deaths attributable to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Independent predictors of mortality included age, education, male sex, function, rheumatoid factor, nodules, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, joint count, and prednisone use.

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1,269 Citations