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Journal ArticleDOI

Carrageenan: A Wonder Polymer from Marine Algae for Potential Drug Delivery Applications

28 Feb 2019-Current Pharmaceutical Design (Curr Pharm Des)-Vol. 25, Iss: 11, pp 1172-1186
TL;DR: Carrageenans are establishing their worth recently as potential drug carriers owing to their varied range of properties and the constraint of low mechanical strength of reversible gels can be easily eradicated using chemical crosslinking techniques.

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Abstract: Background With the advancement in the field of medical science, the idea of sustained release of the therapeutic agents in the patient's body has remained a major thrust for developing advanced drug delivery systems (DDSs). The critical requirement for fabricating these DDSs is to facilitate the delivery of their cargos in a spatio-temporal and pharmacokinetically-controlled manner. Albeit the synthetic polymer-based DDSs normally address the above-mentioned conditions, their potential cytotoxicity and high cost have ultimately constrained their success. Consequently, the utilization of natural polymers for the fabrication of tunable DDSs owing to their biocompatible, biodegradable, and non-toxic nature can be regarded as a significant stride in the field of drug delivery. Marine environment serves as an untapped resource of varied range of materials such as polysaccharides, which can easily be utilized for developing various DDSs. Methods Carrageenans are the sulfated polysaccharides that are extracted from the cell wall of red seaweeds. They exhibit an assimilation of various biological activities such as anti-thrombotic, anti-viral, anticancer, and immunomodulatory properties. The main aim of the presented review is threefold. The first one is to describe the unique physicochemical properties and structural composition of different types of carrageenans. The second is to illustrate the preparation methods of the different carrageenan-based macro- and micro-dimensional DDSs like hydrogels, microparticles, and microspheres respectively. Fabrication techniques of some advanced DDSs such as floating hydrogels, aerogels, and 3-D printed hydrogels have also been discussed in this review. Next, considerable attention has been paid to list down the recent applications of carrageenan-based polymeric architectures in the field of drug delivery. Results Presence of structural variations among the different carrageenan types helps in regulating their temperature and ion-dependent sol-to-gel transition behavior. The constraint of low mechanical strength of reversible gels can be easily eradicated using chemical crosslinking techniques. Carrageenan based-microdimesional DDSs (e.g. microspheres, microparticles) can be utilized for easy and controlled drug administration. Moreover, carrageenans can be fabricated as 3-D printed hydrogels, floating hydrogels, and aerogels for controlled drug delivery applications. Conclusion In order to address the problems associated with many of the available DDSs, carrageenans are establishing their worth recently as potential drug carriers owing to their varied range of properties. Different architectures of carrageenans are currently being explored as advanced DDSs. In the near future, translation of carrageenan-based advanced DDSs in the clinical applications seems inevitable.

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Topics: Drug delivery (51%)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Vida Šimat1, Nariman Elabed2, Piotr Kulawik3, Zafer Ceylan4  +5 moreInstitutions (6)
09 Dec 2020-Marine Drugs
TL;DR: This review is an update on the recent studies of functional seafood compounds focusing on their potential use as nutraceuticals and health benefits.

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Abstract: The oceans have been the Earth's most valuable source of food. They have now also become a valuable and versatile source of bioactive compounds. The significance of marine organisms as a natural source of new substances that may contribute to the food sector and the overall health of humans are expanding. This review is an update on the recent studies of functional seafood compounds (chitin and chitosan, pigments from algae, fish lipids and omega-3 fatty acids, essential amino acids and bioactive proteins/peptides, polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, and minerals) focusing on their potential use as nutraceuticals and health benefits.

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23 citations


Cites background from "Carrageenan: A Wonder Polymer from ..."

  • ...It has various biological activities such as anti-thrombotic, anticancer, anti-viral, and immunomodulatory [77]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Algae is abundantly present in our ecosystems and can be easily extracted and used for production of biopolymers. Algae does not produce any anthropogenic, harmful effects, has a good growth rate, and cultivable in wastewater. This literature elucidates the potential of algae biomass by comparing various seaweed and microalgae strains. The routes for biopolymer production were portrayed and their novel methods of isolation such as microwave assisted, ultrasound assisted, and subcritical water assisted extraction are discussed in detail. These novel methods are observed to be highly efficient compared to conventional solvent extraction, with the microwave assisted and ultrasound assisted processes yielding 33% and 5% more biopolymer respectively than the conventional method. Biopolymers are used in variety of applications such as environmental remediation, adsorbent and antioxidant. Biopolymer is shown to be highly effective in the removal of potentially toxic elements and is seen to extract more than 40 mg PTE/g biopolymer.

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16 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Lili Liang1, Ashiq Ahamed2, Ashiq Ahamed1, Liya Ge1  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
21 Aug 2020-ChemPlusChem
TL;DR: This review distinguishes the research advances in terms of innovative materials exhibiting antiviral activities that take advantage of fast‐developing nanotechnology and biopolymer technology.

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Abstract: The rise in human pandemics demands prudent approaches in antiviral material development for disease prevention and treatment via effective protective equipment and therapeutic strategy. However, the current state of the antiviral materials research is predominantly aligned towards drug development and its related areas, catering to the field of pharmaceutical technology. This review distinguishes the research advances in terms of innovative materials exhibiting antiviral activities that take advantage of fast-developing nanotechnology and biopolymer technology. Essential concepts of antiviral principles and underlying mechanisms are illustrated, followed with detailed descriptions of novel antiviral materials including inorganic nanomaterials, organic nanomaterials and biopolymers. The biomedical applications of the antiviral materials are also elaborated based on the specific categorization. Challenges and future prospects are discussed to facilitate the research and development of protective solutions and curative treatments.

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10 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
31 May 2020-Marine Drugs
TL;DR: The materials presented in the review indicate that seaweed extracts and polysaccharides are effective candidates for the development of drugs, biological food additives, and functional nutrition products for the treatment and prevention of IBD.

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Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a serious public health problem worldwide. Current therapeutic strategies that use anti-inflammatory drugs, immunosuppressants, and biological treatments are often ineffective and have adverse health effects. In this regard, the use of natural compounds aimed at key pathogenic therapeutic targets in IBD attracts universal attention. Seaweed is a valuable source of structurally diverse biologically active compounds. The materials presented in the review indicate that seaweed extracts and polysaccharides are effective candidates for the development of drugs, biological food additives, and functional nutrition products for the treatment and prevention of IBD. The structural features of algal polysaccharides provide the possibility of exposure to therapeutic targets of IBD, including proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, nuclear factor NF-kB, intestinal epithelial cells, reactive oxygen and nitrogen. Further study of the relationship between the effect of polysaccharides from different types of algae, with different structure and molecular weights on immune and epithelial cells, intestinal microorganisms will contribute to a deeper understanding of their mechanisms and will help in the development of drugs, dietary supplements, functional foods for the treatment of patients with IBD.

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7 citations


Cites background from "Carrageenan: A Wonder Polymer from ..."

  • ...immunomodulating, antioxidant, antitoxic, antiviral, antitumor and anticoagulant properties [61]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A plethora of applications using polysaccharides have been developed in recent years due to their availability as well as their frequent nontoxicity and biodegradability. These polymers are usually obtained from renewable sources or are byproducts of industrial processes, thus, their use is collaborative in waste management and shows promise for an enhanced sustainable circular economy. Regarding the development of novel delivery systems for biotherapeutics, the potential of polysaccharides is attractive for the previously mentioned properties and also for the possibility of chemical modification of their structures, their ability to form matrixes of diverse architectures and mechanical properties, as well as for their ability to maintain bioactivity following incorporation of the biomolecules into the matrix. Biotherapeutics, such as proteins, growth factors, gene vectors, enzymes, hormones, DNA/RNA, and antibodies are currently in use as major therapeutics in a wide range of pathologies. In the present review, we summarize recent progress in the development of polysaccharide-based hydrogels of diverse nature, alone or in combination with other polymers or drug delivery systems, which have been implemented in the delivery of biotherapeutics in the pharmaceutical and biomedical fields.

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4 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Zonghua Liu1, Yanpeng Jiao1, Wang Yifei1, Changren Zhou1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
TL;DR: In this review, four mechanisms are introduced to prepare polysaccharides-based nanoparticles, that is, covalent crosslinking, ionic crossl linking, polyelectrolyte complex, and the self-assembly of hydrophobically modified poly Saccharides.

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Abstract: Natural polysaccharides, due to their outstanding merits, have received more and more attention in the field of drug delivery systems. In particular, polysaccharides seem to be the most promising materials in the preparation of nanometeric carriers. This review relates to the newest developments in the preparation of polysaccharides-based nanoparticles. In this review, four mechanisms are introduced to prepare polysaccharides-based nanoparticles, that is, covalent crosslinking, ionic crosslinking, polyelectrolyte complex, and the self-assembly of hydrophobically modified polysaccharides.

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1,329 citations


BookDOI
01 Jan 2009-
Abstract: Introduction. Agar. Starch. Gelatin. Carrageenan. Xanthum Gum. Gellan Gum. Gallactomannans. Gum Arabic. Pectins. Milk Proteins. Cellulosis. Tragacanth and Karaya. Xyloglucan. Curdlan. Glucans. Soluble Soybean Polysaccharide. Bacterial Cellulose. Microcrystalline Cellulose. Gums for Coating and Adhesives.Chitosan Hydrogels. Alginates. Frutafit-Inulin. The CRC Emulsifying Biopolymer.

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1,194 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review describes important aspects of carrageenans related to their industrial/therapeutic applications, physicochemical properties and structural analysis and indicates that these polysaccharides may offer some protection against HIV infection.

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Abstract: Carrageenans are sulphated linear polysaccharides of d -galactose and 3,6-anhydro- d -galactose extracted from certain red seaweeds of the Rhodophyceae class. They have been extensively used in the food industry as thickening, gelling and protein-suspending agents, and more recently by the pharmaceutical industry as excipient in pills and tablets. Besides the well-known biological activities related to inflammatory and immune responses, carrageenans are potent inhibitors of herpes and HPV viruses and there are indications that these polysaccharides may offer some protection against HIV infection. Thus, this review describes important aspects of carrageenans related to their industrial/therapeutic applications, physicochemical properties and structural analysis. Moreover, chemical modifications of carrageenans that can lead to prototypes with potential application for the treatment of several diseases, such as herpes, HPV and AIDS, will be outlined.

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802 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
08 Feb 2011-Marine Drugs
TL;DR: The present paper will provide an update on the structural chemistry of the major sulfated polysaccharides synthesized by seaweeds including the galactans, ulvans, and fucans and the recent findings on the anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antiviral, immuno-inflammatory, antilipidemic and antioxidant activities of sulfated Polysaccharide and their potential for therapeutic application.

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Abstract: Sulfated polysaccharides and their lower molecular weight oligosaccharide derivatives from marine macroalgae have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities. The present paper will review the recent progress in research on the structural chemistry and the bioactivities of these marine algal biomaterials. In particular, it will provide an update on the structural chemistry of the major sulfated polysaccharides synthesized by seaweeds including the galactans (e.g., agarans and carrageenans), ulvans, and fucans. It will then review the recent findings on the anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antiviral, immuno-inflammatory, antilipidemic and antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharides and their potential for therapeutic application.

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710 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review focuses on the state-of-the-art of the production of polysaccharide-based aerogels with emphasis on the influence of processing parameters on the resulting end material properties.

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Abstract: Polysaccharides are regarded as key ingredients for the production of bio-based materials in life sciences (e.g., food, cosmetics, medical devices, pharmaceutics). The biodegradability and biocompatibility of these biopolymers, coupled to the large variety of chemical functionalities they encompass, make them promising carriers for drug delivery systems. Aerogels are a special class of nanoporous materials with growing interest in biomedical and pharmaceutical applications due to their open pore structure and high surface area. Polysaccharide-based aerogels result in highly porous ( ɛ = 90–99%), lightweight ( ρ = 0.07–0.46 g/cm 3 ) drug carriers with high surface area ( S a = 70–680 m 2 /g), able to provide enhanced drug bioavailability and drug loading capacity. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art of the production of polysaccharide-based aerogels with emphasis on the influence of processing parameters on the resulting end material properties. Case studies on polysaccharide-based aerogels from several sources and own results as well as their behavior regarding drug loading capacity and release are described.

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513 citations


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