Open access•Posted Content•

Abstract: We propose a categorical semantics of gradient-based machine learning algorithms in terms of lenses, parametrised maps, and reverse derivative categories. This foundation provides a powerful explanatory and unifying framework: it encompasses a variety of gradient descent algorithms such as ADAM, AdaGrad, and Nesterov momentum, as well as a variety of loss functions such as as MSE and Softmax cross-entropy, shedding new light on their similarities and differences. Our approach to gradient-based learning has examples generalising beyond the familiar continuous domains (modelled in categories of smooth maps) and can be realized in the discrete setting of boolean circuits. Finally, we demonstrate the practical significance of our framework with an implementation in Python.

... read more

Topics: Gradient descent (59%), Categorical variable (54%), Softmax function (54%)

More

6 results found

•••

Abstract: We introduce diagrammatic differentiation for tensor calculus by generalising the dual number construction from rigs to monoidal categories. Applying this to ZX diagrams, we show how to calculate diagrammatically the gradient of a linear map with respect to a phase parameter. For diagrams of parametrised quantum circuits, we get the well-known parameter-shift rule at the basis of many variational quantum algorithms. We then extend our method to the automatic differentation of hybrid classical-quantum circuits, using diagrams with bubbles to encode arbitrary non-linear operators. Moreover, diagrammatic differentiation comes with an open-source implementation in DisCoPy, the Python library for monoidal categories. Diagrammatic gradients of classical-quantum circuits can then be simplified using the PyZX library and executed on quantum hardware via the tket compiler. This opens the door to many practical applications harnessing both the structure of string diagrams and the computational power of quantum machine learning.

... read more

Topics: Quantum machine learning (61%), Quantum algorithm (58%), Diagrammatic reasoning (56%)

3 Citations

••

Abstract: Over the past two decades machine learning has permeated almost every realm of technology. At the same time, many researchers have begun using category theory as a unifying language, facilitating communication between different scientific disciplines. It is therefore unsurprising that there is a burgeoning interest in applying category theory to machine learning. We aim to document the motivations, goals and common themes across these applications. We touch on gradient-based learning, probability, and equivariant learning.

... read more

Topics: Category theory (52%)

2 Citations

••

Abstract: There is an analogy that is often made between deep neural networks and actual brains, suggested by the nomenclature itself: the "neurons" in deep neural networks should correspond to neurons (or nerve cells, to avoid confusion) in the brain. We claim, however, that this analogy doesn't even type check: it is structurally flawed. In agreement with the slightly glib summary of Hebbian learning as "cells that fire together wire together", this article makes the case that the analogy should be different. Since the "neurons" in deep neural networks are managing the changing weights, they are more akin to the synapses in the brain; instead, it is the wires in deep neural networks that are more like nerve cells, in that they are what cause the information to flow. An intuition that nerve cells seem like more than mere wires is exactly right, and is justified by a precise category-theoretic analogy which we will explore in this article. Throughout, we will continue to highlight the error in equating artificial neurons with nerve cells by leaving "neuron" in quotes or by calling them artificial neurons.
We will first explain how to view deep neural networks as nested dynamical systems with a very restricted sort of interaction pattern, and then explain a more general sort of interaction for dynamical systems that is useful throughout engineering, but which fails to adapt to changing circumstances. As mentioned, an analogy is then forced upon us by the mathematical formalism in which they are both embedded. We call the resulting encompassing generalization deeply interacting learning systems: they have complex interaction as in control theory, but adaptation to circumstances as in deep neural networks.

... read more

Topics: Hebbian theory (53%), Analogy (50%)

••

Abstract: We formalize the simulation paradigm of cryptography in terms of category theory and show that protocols secure against abstract attacks form a symmetric monoidal category, thus giving an abstract model of composable security definitions in cryptography. Our model is able to incorporate computational security, set-up assumptions and various attack models such as colluding or independently acting subsets of adversaries in a modular, flexible fashion. We conclude by using string diagrams to rederive no-go results concerning the limits of bipartite and tripartite cryptography, ruling out e.g. composable commitments and broadcasting. On the way, we exhibit two categorical constructions of resource theories that might be of independent interest: one capturing resources shared among n parties and one capturing resource conversions that succeed asymptotically.

... read more

Topics: Cryptography (57%), Symmetric monoidal category (53%), Attack model (51%) ... read more

••

Abstract: We study the two dual quantum information effects to manipulate the amount of information in quantum computation: hiding and allocation. The resulting type-and-effect system is fully expressive for irreversible quantum computing, including measurement. We provide universal categorical constructions that semantically interpret this arrow metalanguage with choice, starting with any rig groupoid interpreting the reversible base language. Several properties of quantum measurement follow in general, and we translate quantum flow charts into our language. The semantic constructions turn the category of unitaries between Hilbert spaces into the category of completely positive trace-preserving maps, and they turn the category of bijections between finite sets into the category of functions with chosen garbage. Thus they capture the fundamental theorems of classical and quantum reversible computing of Toffoli and Stinespring.

... read more

Topics: Quantum information (64%), Quantum computer (61%), Toffoli gate (56%) ... read more

More

40 results found

••

01 Jan 2015-

Abstract: We introduce Adam, an algorithm for first-order gradient-based optimization of stochastic objective functions, based on adaptive estimates of lower-order moments. The method is straightforward to implement, is computationally efficient, has little memory requirements, is invariant to diagonal rescaling of the gradients, and is well suited for problems that are large in terms of data and/or parameters. The method is also appropriate for non-stationary objectives and problems with very noisy and/or sparse gradients. The hyper-parameters have intuitive interpretations and typically require little tuning. Some connections to related algorithms, on which Adam was inspired, are discussed. We also analyze the theoretical convergence properties of the algorithm and provide a regret bound on the convergence rate that is comparable to the best known results under the online convex optimization framework. Empirical results demonstrate that Adam works well in practice and compares favorably to other stochastic optimization methods. Finally, we discuss AdaMax, a variant of Adam based on the infinity norm.

... read more

Topics: Stochastic optimization (63%), Convex optimization (54%), Rate of convergence (52%) ... read more

78,539 Citations

••

01 Jan 1998-

Abstract: Multilayer neural networks trained with the back-propagation algorithm constitute the best example of a successful gradient based learning technique. Given an appropriate network architecture, gradient-based learning algorithms can be used to synthesize a complex decision surface that can classify high-dimensional patterns, such as handwritten characters, with minimal preprocessing. This paper reviews various methods applied to handwritten character recognition and compares them on a standard handwritten digit recognition task. Convolutional neural networks, which are specifically designed to deal with the variability of 2D shapes, are shown to outperform all other techniques. Real-life document recognition systems are composed of multiple modules including field extraction, segmentation recognition, and language modeling. A new learning paradigm, called graph transformer networks (GTN), allows such multimodule systems to be trained globally using gradient-based methods so as to minimize an overall performance measure. Two systems for online handwriting recognition are described. Experiments demonstrate the advantage of global training, and the flexibility of graph transformer networks. A graph transformer network for reading a bank cheque is also described. It uses convolutional neural network character recognizers combined with global training techniques to provide record accuracy on business and personal cheques. It is deployed commercially and reads several million cheques per day.

... read more

Topics: Neocognitron (64%), Intelligent character recognition (64%), Artificial neural network (60%) ... read more

34,930 Citations

•••

08 Dec 2014-

Abstract: We propose a new framework for estimating generative models via an adversarial process, in which we simultaneously train two models: a generative model G that captures the data distribution, and a discriminative model D that estimates the probability that a sample came from the training data rather than G. The training procedure for G is to maximize the probability of D making a mistake. This framework corresponds to a minimax two-player game. In the space of arbitrary functions G and D, a unique solution exists, with G recovering the training data distribution and D equal to ½ everywhere. In the case where G and D are defined by multilayer perceptrons, the entire system can be trained with backpropagation. There is no need for any Markov chains or unrolled approximate inference networks during either training or generation of samples. Experiments demonstrate the potential of the framework through qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the generated samples.

... read more

Topics: Generative model (64%), Discriminative model (54%), Approximate inference (53%) ... read more

29,410 Citations

••

Abstract: We describe a new learning procedure, back-propagation, for networks of neurone-like units. The procedure repeatedly adjusts the weights of the connections in the network so as to minimize a measure of the difference between the actual output vector of the net and the desired output vector. As a result of the weight adjustments, internal ‘hidden’ units which are not part of the input or output come to represent important features of the task domain, and the regularities in the task are captured by the interactions of these units. The ability to create useful new features distinguishes back-propagation from earlier, simpler methods such as the perceptron-convergence procedure1.

... read more

19,542 Citations

••

Abstract: We present a new family of subgradient methods that dynamically incorporate knowledge of the geometry of the data observed in earlier iterations to perform more informative gradient-based learning. Metaphorically, the adaptation allows us to find needles in haystacks in the form of very predictive but rarely seen features. Our paradigm stems from recent advances in stochastic optimization and online learning which employ proximal functions to control the gradient steps of the algorithm. We describe and analyze an apparatus for adaptively modifying the proximal function, which significantly simplifies setting a learning rate and results in regret guarantees that are provably as good as the best proximal function that can be chosen in hindsight. We give several efficient algorithms for empirical risk minimization problems with common and important regularization functions and domain constraints. We experimentally study our theoretical analysis and show that adaptive subgradient methods outperform state-of-the-art, yet non-adaptive, subgradient algorithms.

... read more

Topics: Subgradient method (69%), Online machine learning (63%), Empirical risk minimization (59%) ... read more

6,957 Citations