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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Cauchy-Euler model, cellular automata simulation of the rate of recovery of the infected airway from COPD

TL;DR: This paper mathematically model the deposition of the inhaled drug on the infected airway into Cauchy-Euler differential equation and use Visual Basic to simulate the evolution of the recovery of the inflamed airway.
Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with the respiratory system. COPD is often treated with inhalers whose two major ingredients are the bronchodilators and the steroids. In this paper we mathematically model the deposition of the inhaled drug on the infected airway into Cauchy-Euler differential equation and use Visual Basic to simulate the evolution of the recovery of the inflamed airway.
Citations
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Dissertation
01 Jul 2013
TL;DR: The result obtained from the proposed LDP model compared to other competitive LDP models has higher accuracy and less computation time, and the results showed that there is a direct relationship between the temperature and the diffusion speed.
Abstract: Recently, the prediction of the dynamical behavior of Liquid Diffusion Phenomenon (LDP) has been used in many applications especially in physical and biological fields. Many models have been proposed to predict the LDP behavior, but most of them require complex mathematical calculations causing computation time consumption. This thesis proposes a dynamical behavior prediction algorithm using Cellular Automata (CA) to model the LDP. A real liquid diffusion phenomenon is recorded whereas the observed images are later extracted for comparing purpose with the predicted phenomenon. First, a mathematical method is proposed in order to track and then analyze the real diffusion behavior. This method has used thousands of original images. Then, thousands of images, as the same number of original images, are created by the CA-based algorithm. In this study, the diffusion speed of the predicted LDP is also computed by using a mathematical proposed algorithm which is the Diffusion Speed Algorithm (DSA). Finally, three benchmark strategies are used in order to compare the predicted images to the original images, which are:pixel intensity, Region-of-Diffusion (ROD) area, and ROD shape. The experiments of this thesis are divided into original and predicted images. The original images are classified into three groups based on the temperature used, which are: ±18 °C, ±24 °C, and ±30 °C. Each temperature-based experiment contains five levels of the height of droplets source. The diffusion time has been equal to 32 seconds with 15 fps comprising 480 images per each experiment. On the other hand,the predicted images are similarly classified. There will be 15 predicted experiments created by the proposed CA algorithm. The whole predicted images are compared to their corresponding original ones. Under the experiments samples, there are 30 processed experiments comprising 14400 original and predicted images. The obtained results show that the averaged similarity percentage is equal to 94.4%. Additionally,the average computation time needed to complete processing a single experiment is 1.3 second. The result obtained from the proposed LDP model compared to other competitive LDP models has higher accuracy and less computation time. The results also show that the proposed LDP model is about 15 times faster than a neural network-based model. A detailed study to explore the effects and relationships between the model‟s parameters such as temperature and liquids‟ viscosity has been performed. The results showed that there is a direct relationship between the temperature and the diffusion speed.

1 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2019
TL;DR: Second-order ODEs explicitly contain a second derivative term, but no higher derivatives as mentioned in this paper, and the quantities of the second derivative may not appear explicitly in a second order ODE.
Abstract: Second-order ODEs explicitly contain a second derivative term, but no higher derivatives These equations are of the form \(F\left( {x,\,y,\,y^{\prime } ,y^{\prime\prime } } \right) = 0\) The quantities \(x,\,y,\,y^{\prime }\) may not appear explicitly in a second-order ODE, such as in the equation, \(y^{\prime \prime } = 3\)
References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is recommended that spirometry is required for the clinical diagnosis of COPD to avoid misdiagnosis and to ensure proper evaluation of severity of airflow limitation.
Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains a major public health problem. It is the fourth leading cause of chronic morbidity and mortality in the United States, and is projected to rank fifth in 2020 in burden of disease worldwide, according to a study published by the World Bank/World Health Organization. Yet, COPD remains relatively unknown or ignored by the public as well as public health and government officials. In 1998, in an effort to bring more attention to COPD, its management, and its prevention, a committed group of scientists encouraged the U.S. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the World Health Organization to form the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Among the important objectives of GOLD are to increase awareness of COPD and to help the millions of people who suffer from this disease and die prematurely of it or its complications. The first step in the GOLD program was to prepare a consensus report, Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of COPD, published in 2001. The present, newly revised document follows the same format as the original consensus report, but has been updated to reflect the many publications on COPD that have appeared. GOLD national leaders, a network of international experts, have initiated investigations of the causes and prevalence of COPD in their countries, and developed innovative approaches for the dissemination and implementation of COPD management guidelines. We appreciate the enormous amount of work the GOLD national leaders have done on behalf of their patients with COPD. Despite the achievements in the 5 years since the GOLD report was originally published, considerable additional work is ahead of us if we are to control this major public health problem. The GOLD initiative will continue to bring COPD to the attention of governments, public health officials, health care workers, and the general public, but a concerted effort by all involved in health care will be necessary.

17,023 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Progression of COPD is associated with the accumulation of inflammatory mucous exudates in the lumen and infiltration of the wall by innate and adaptive inflammatory immune cells that form lymphoid follicles, coupled to a repair or remodeling process that thickens the walls of these airways.
Abstract: Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major public health problem associated with long-term exposure to toxic gases and particles. We examined the evolution of the pathological effects of airway obstruction in patients with COPD. Methods The small airways were assessed in surgically resected lung tissue from 159 patients — 39 with stage 0 (at risk), 39 with stage 1, 22 with stage 2, 16 with stage 3, and 43 with stage 4 (very severe) COPD, according to the classification of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Results The progression of COPD was strongly associated with an increase in the volume of tissue in the wall (P<0.001) and the accumulation of inflammatory mucous exudates in the lumen (P<0.001) of the small airways. The percentage of the airways that contained polymorphonuclear neutrophils (P<0.001), macrophages (P<0.001), CD4 cells (P=0.02), CD8 cells (P=0.038), B cells (P<0.001), and lymphoid aggregates containing follicles (P=0.003) and the abs...

3,401 citations

01 Jan 1983
TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that all one-dimensional cellular automata fall into four distinct universality classes: limit points, limit cycles, chaotic attractors, and limit cycles.
Abstract: Cellular automata are discrete dynamical systems with simple construction but complex self-organizing behaviour. Evidence is presented that all one-dimensional cellular automata fall into four distinct universality classes. Characterizations of the structures generated in these classes are discussed. Three classes exhibit behaviour analogous to limit points, limit cycles and chaotic attractors. The fourth class is probably capable of universal computation, so that properties of its infinite time behaviour are undecidable.

1,709 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Evidence is presented that all one-dimensional cellular automata fall into four distinct universality classes, and one class is probably capable of universal computation, so that properties of its infinite time behaviour are undecidable.

1,692 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Although growth rates were significantly reduced during the first years of budesonide treatment, these changes in growth rate were not significantly associated with adult height.
Abstract: Background Short-term studies have shown that inhaled corticosteroids may reduce the growth of children with asthma. However, the effect of long-term treatment on adult height is uncertain. Methods We conducted a prospective study in children with asthma to examine the effect of long-term treatment with inhaled budesonide on adult height. We report on 211 children who have attained adult height: 142 budesonide-treated children with asthma, 18 control patients with asthma who have never received inhaled corticosteroids, and 51 healthy siblings of patients in the budesonide group, who also served as controls. Results The children in the budesonide group attained adult height after a mean of 9.2 years of budesonide treatment (range, 3 to 13) at a mean daily dose of 412 μg (range, 110 to 877). The mean cumulative dose of budesonide was 1.35 g (range, 0.41 to 3.99). The mean differences between the measured and target adult heights were +0.3 cm (95 percent confidence interval, –0.6 to +1.2) for the budesonide-...

506 citations