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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PNPBP.2020.110163

CB1 allosteric modulators and their therapeutic potential in CNS disorders.

02 Mar 2021-Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry (Elsevier)-Vol. 106, pp 110163-110163
Abstract: CB1 is the most abundant GPCR found in the mammalian brain. It has garnered considerable attention as a potential therapeutic drug target. CB1 is involved in a wide range of physiological and psychiatric processes and has the potential to be targeted in a wide range of disease states. However, most of the selective and non-selective synthetic CB1 agonists and antagonists/inverse agonists developed to date are primarily used as research tools. No novel synthetic cannabinoids are currently in the clinic for use in psychiatric illness; synthetic analogues of the phytocannabinoid THC are on the market to treat nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy, along with off-label use for pain. Novel strategies are being explored to target CB1, but with emphasis on the elimination or mitigation of the potential psychiatric adverse effects that are observed by central agonism/antagonism of CB1. New pharmacological options are being pursued that may avoid these adverse effects while preserving the potential therapeutic benefits of CB1 modulation. Allosteric modulation of CB1 is one such approach. In this review, we will summarize and critically analyze both the in vitro characterization and in vivo validation of CB1 allosteric modulators developed to date, with a focus on CNS therapeutic effects.

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Topics: Allosteric modulator (51%)
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8 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PNPBP.2020.110235
Abstract: Altered interactions between endocannabinoid and glutamate signaling may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and acute psychosis. As cognitive disturbances are involved in schizophrenia, increased understanding of the roles of these neurotransmitter systems in cognition may lead to the development of novel therapeutics for disorder. In the present study, we examined the effects of a recently synthesized cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) positive allosteric modulator GAT211 in a rodent model of acute psychosis induced by systemic treatment with MK-801. To assess cognitive function, we used the Five-Choice Serial Reaction Time (5CSRT) task, conducted in touchscreen-equipped operant conditioning chambers. Our measures of primary interest were accuracy – indicative of visual attentional capacity – and the number of premature responses – indicative of impulsivity. We also measured latencies, omissions, and perseverative responding during all test sessions. Thirteen adult male Long Evans rats were trained on the 5CSRT and were then tested using a repeated measures design with acute MK-801 (0 or 0.15 mg/kg, i.p.) and GAT211 (0, 3, or 10 mg/kg, i.p.) administration. Acute MK-801 severely impaired accuracy, increased omissions, and increased the number of premature responses. MK-801 also significantly increased correct response latencies, without significant effects on incorrect or reward correction latencies. GAT211 had no significant effects when administered alone, or in combination with acute MK-801. These data confirm the dramatic effects of acute MK-801 treatment on behavioral measures of attention and impulsivity. Continued investigation of CB1R positive allosteric modulators as potential treatments for the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia and related disorders should be pursued in other rodent models.

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Topics: Impulsivity (57%), Schizophrenia (53%), Serial reaction time (51%)

4 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S00213-020-05755-X
Dan L. McElroy1, Andrew J. Roebuck2, Gavin A. Scott3, Quentin Greba1  +6 moreInstitutions (5)
13 Jan 2021-Psychopharmacology
Abstract: Antipsychotics help alleviate the positive symptoms associated with schizophrenia; however, their debilitating side effects have spurred the search for better treatment options. Novel compounds can be screened for antipsychotic potential in neuronal cell cultures and following acute N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blockade with non-competitive antagonists such as MK-801 in rodent behavioral models. Given the known interactions between NMDA receptors and type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R), compounds that modulate CB1Rs may have therapeutic potential for schizophrenia. This study assessed whether the CB1R positive allosteric modulator GAT211, when compared to ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), has potential to reduce psychiatric behavioral phenotypes following acute MK-801 treatment in rats, and block hyperdopaminergic signalling associated with those behaviors. The effects of GAT211 and THC on cellular signaling were compared in Neuro2a cells, and behavioral effects of GAT211 and THC on altered locomotor activity and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response caused by acute MK-801 treatment were assessed in male, Long Evans rats. GAT211 limited dopamine D2 receptor-mediated extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in Neuro2a cells, whereas THC did not. As expected, acute MK-801 (0.15 mg/kg) produced a significant increase in locomotor activity and impaired PPI. GAT211 treatment alone (0.3–3.0 mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced locomotor activity and the acoustic startle response. GAT211 (3.0 mg/kg) also prevented hyperlocomotion caused by MK-801 but did not significantly affect PPI impairments. Taken together, these findings support continued preclinical research regarding the usefulness of CB1R positive allosteric modulators as antipsychotics.

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Topics: Allosteric modulator (55%), Dopamine receptor D2 (55%), Cannabinoid receptor (54%) ... read more

3 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.NEUROPHARM.2021.108611
01 Aug 2021-Neuropharmacology
Abstract: The type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) is a promising drug target for a wide range of diseases. However, many existing and novel candidate ligands for CB1 have shown only limited therapeutic potential. Indeed, no ligands are currently approved for the clinic except formulations of the phytocannabinoids Δ9-THC and CBD and a small number of analogues. A key limitation of many promising CB1 ligands are their on-target adverse effects, notably including psychoactivity (agonists) and depression/suicidal ideation (inverse agonists). Recent drug development attempts have therefore focussed on altering CB1 signalling profiles in two ways. Firstly, with compounds that enhance or reduce the signalling of endogenous (endo-) cannabinoids, namely allosteric modulators. Secondly, with compounds that probe the capability of selectively targeting specific cellular signalling pathways that may mediate therapeutic effects using biased ligands. This review will summarise the current paradigm of CB1 signalling in terms of the intracellular transduction pathways acted on by the receptor. The development of compounds that selectively activate CB1 signalling pathways, whether allosterically or via orthosteric agonist bias, will also be addressed.

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Topics: Functional selectivity (54%)

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PHRS.2021.105729
Gerwyn Morris1, Ken Walder1, Stefan Kloiber2, Stefan Kloiber3  +9 moreInstitutions (6)
Abstract: The endocannabinoid system (ECS) comprises two cognate endocannabinoid receptors referred to as CB1R and CB2R. ECS dysregulation is apparent in neurodegenerative/neuro-psychiatric disorders including but not limited to schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and potentially bipolar disorder. The aim of this paper is to review mechanisms whereby both receptors may interact with neuro-immune and neuro-oxidative pathways, which play a pathophysiological role in these disorders. CB1R is located in the presynaptic terminals of GABAergic, glutamatergic, cholinergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic neurons where it regulates the retrograde suppression of neurotransmission. CB1R plays a key role in long-term depression, and, to a lesser extent, long-term potentiation, thereby modulating synaptic transmission and mediating learning and memory. Optimal CB1R activity plays an essential neuroprotective role by providing a defense against the development of glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, which is achieved, at least in part, by impeding AMPA-mediated increase in intracellular calcium overload and oxidative stress. Moreover, CB1R activity enables optimal neuron-glial communication and the function of the neurovascular unit. CB2R receptors are detected in peripheral immune cells and also in central nervous system regions including the striatum, basal ganglia, frontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala as well as the ventral tegmental area. CB2R upregulation inhibits the presynaptic release of glutamate in several brain regions. CB2R activation also decreases neuroinflammation partly by mediating the transition from a predominantly neurotoxic "M1" microglial phenotype to a more neuroprotective "M2" phenotype. CB1R and CB2R are thus novel drug targets for the treatment of neuro-immune and neuro-oxidative disorders including schizophrenia and affective disorders.

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Topics: Neuroprotection (59%), Long-term depression (58%), Endocannabinoid system (57%) ... read more

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/JNE.13034
Abstract: Pregnenolone is a steroid with specific characteristics, being the first steroid to be synthesised from cholesterol at all sites of steroidogenesis, including the brain. For many years, pregnenolone was defined as an inactive precursor of all steroids because no specific target had been discovered. However, over the last decade, it has become a steroid of interest because it has been recognised as being a biomarker for brain-related disorders through the development of metabolomic approaches and advanced analytical methods. In addition, physiological roles for pregnenolone emerged when specific targets were discovered. In this review, we highlight the discovery of the selective interaction of pregnenolone with the type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R). After describing the specific characteristic of CB1Rs, we discuss the newly discovered mechanisms of their regulation by pregnenolone. In particular, we describe the action of pregnenolone as a negative allosteric modulator and a specific signalling inhibitor of the CB1R. These particular characteristics of pregnenolone provide a great strategic opportunity for therapeutic development in CB1-related disorders. Finally, we outline new perspectives using innovative genetic tools for the discovery of original regulatory mechanisms of pregnenolone on CB1-related functions.

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Topics: Pregnenolone (69%)

References
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175 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/346561A0
09 Aug 1990-Nature
Abstract: Marijuana and many of its constituent cannabinoids influence the central nervous system (CNS) in a complex and dose-dependent manner. Although CNS depression and analgesia are well documented effects of the cannabinoids, the mechanisms responsible for these and other cannabinoid-induced effects are not so far known. The hydrophobic nature of these substances has suggested that cannabinoids resemble anaesthetic agents in their action, that is, they nonspecifically disrupt cellular membranes. Recent evidence, however, has supported a mechanism involving a G protein-coupled receptor found in brain and neural cell lines, and which inhibits adenylate cyclase activity in a dose-dependent, stereoselective and pertussis toxin-sensitive manner. Also, the receptor is more responsive to psychoactive cannabinoids than to non-psychoactive cannabinoids. Here we report the cloning and expression of a complementary DNA that encodes a G protein-coupled receptor with all of these properties. Its messenger RNA is found in cell lines and regions of the brain that have cannabinoid receptors. These findings suggest that this protein is involved in cannabinoid-induced CNS effects (including alterations in mood and cognition) experienced by users of marijuana.

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Topics: Cannabinoid receptor type 2 (64%), Cannabinoid (61%), Cns depression (61%) ... read more

4,608 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/365061A0
02 Sep 1993-Nature
Abstract: THE major active ingredient of marijuana, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabi-nol (Δ9-THC), has been used as a psychoactive agent for thousands of years. Marijuana, and Δ9-THC, also exert a wide range of other effects including analgesia, anti-inflammation, immunosuppression, anticonvulsion, alleviation of intraocular pressure in glaucoma, and attenuation of vomiting1. The clinical application of cannabinoids has, however, been limited by their psychoactive effects, and this has led to interest in the biochemical bases of their action. Progress stemmed initially from the synthesis of potent derivatives of δ9-THC4,5, and more recently from the cloning of a gene encoding a G-protein-coupled receptor for cannabinoids6. This receptor is expressed in the brain but not in the periphery, except for a low level in testes. It has been proposed that the non-psychoactive effects of cannabinoids are either mediated centrally or through direct interaction with other, non-receptor proteins1,7,8. Here we report the cloning of a receptor for cannabinoids that is not expressed in the brain but rather in macrophages in the marginal zone of spleen.

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Topics: Cannabinoid receptor type 2 (58%), Cannabinoid (57%), WIN 55,212-2 (56%) ... read more

4,503 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0014-5793(94)00773-X
22 Aug 1994-FEBS Letters
Abstract: SR141716A is the first selective and orally active antagonist of the brain cannabinoid receptor. This compound displays nanomolar affinity for the central cannabinoid receptor but is not active on the peripheral cannabinoid receptor. In vitro, SR141716A antagonises the inhibitory effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists on both mouse vas deferens contractions and adenylyl cyclase activity in rat brain membranes. After intraperitoneal or oral administration SR141716A antagonises classical pharmacological and behavioural effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists. This compound should prove to be a powerful tool for investigating the in vivo functions of the anandamide/cannabinoid system.

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1,735 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1432-1033.1995.TB20780.X
01 Aug 1995-FEBS Journal
Abstract: Two proteins with seven transmembrane-spanning domains typical of guanosine-nucleotide-binding-protein-coupled receptors have been identified as cannabinoid receptors; the central cannabinoid receptor, CB1, and the peripheral cannabinoid receptor, CB2, initially described in rat brain and spleen, respectively. Here, we report the distribution patterns for both CB1 and CB2 transcripts in human immune cells and in several human tissues, as analysed using a highly sensitive and quantitative PCR-based method. CB1 was mainly expressed in the central nervous system and, to a lower extent, in several peripheral tissues such as adrenal gland, heart, lung, prostate, uterus, ovary, testis, bone marrow, thymus and tonsils. In contrast, the CB2 gene, which is not expressed in the brain, was particularly abundant in immune tissues, with an expression level 10-100-fold higher than that of CB1. Although CB2 mRNA was also detected in some other peripheral tissues, its level remained very low. In spleen and tonsils, the CB2 mRNA content was equivalent to that of CB1 mRNA in the central nervous system. Among the main human blood cell subpopulations, the distribution pattern of the CB2 mRNA displayed important variations. The rank order of CB2 mRNA levels in these cells was B-cells > natural killer cells >> monocytes > polymorphonuclear neutrophil cells > T8 cells > T4 cells. The same rank order was also established in human cell lines belonging to the myeloid, monocytic and lymphoid lineages. The prevailing expression of the CB2 gene in immune tissues was confirmed by Northern-blot analysis. In addition, the expression of the CB2 protein was demonstrated by an immunohistological analysis performed on tonsil sections using specific anti-(human CB2) IgG; this experiment showed that CB2 expression was restricted to B-lymphocyte-enriched areas of the mantle of secondary lymphoid follicles. These results suggest that (a) CB1 and CB2 can be considered as tissue-selective antigens of the central nervous system and immune system, respectively, and (b) cannabinoids may exert specific receptor-mediated actions on the immune system through the CB2 receptor.

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Topics: Immune receptor (61%), Cannabinoid receptor type 2 (60%), Immune system (58%) ... read more

1,529 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)66374-X
Luc Van Gaal, Aila Rissanen1, André Scheen2, Olivier Ziegler  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
16 Apr 2005-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background In animal models, cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB 1 ) blockade produces a lean phenotype, with resistance to diet-induced obesity and associated dyslipidaemia. We assessed the effect of rimonabant, a selective CB 1 blocker, on bodyweight and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight or obese patients. Methods patients with body-mass index 30 kg/m 2 or greater, or body-mass index greater than 27 kg/m 2 with treated or untreated dyslipidaemia, hypertension, or both, were randomised to receive double-blind treatment with placebo, 5 mg rimonabant, or 20 mg rimonabant once daily in addition to a mild hypocaloric diet (600 kcal/day deficit). The primary efficacy endpoint was weight change from baseline after 1 year of treatment in the intention-to-treat population. Findings Weight loss at 1 year was significantly greater in patients treated with rimonabant 5 mg (mean −3·4 kg [SD 5·7]; p=0·002 vs placebo) and 20 mg (−6·6 kg [7·2]; p Interpretation CB 1 blockade with rimonabant 20 mg, combined with a hypocaloric diet over 1 year, promoted significant decrease of bodyweight and waist circumference, and improvement in cardiovascular risk factors.

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Topics: Rimonabant (64%), Weight change (55%), Weight loss (52%) ... read more

1,464 Citations