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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-20-0987

CD4 T Cell–Dependent Rejection of Beta-2 Microglobulin Null Mismatch Repair–Deficient Tumors

02 Mar 2021-Cancer Discovery (American Association for Cancer Research)-Vol. 11, Iss: 7, pp 1844-1859
Abstract: Inactivation of beta-2 microglobulin (B2M) is considered a determinant of resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPi) in melanoma and lung cancers. In contrast, B2M loss does not appear to affect response to ICPis in mismatch repair–deficient (MMRd) colorectal tumors where biallelic inactivation of B2M is frequently observed. We inactivated B2m in multiple murine MMRd cancer models. Although MMRd cells would not readily grow in immunocompetent mice, MMRd B2m null cells were tumorigenic and regressed when treated with anti–PD-1 and anti-CTLA4. The efficacy of ICPis against MMRd B2m null tumors did not require CD8+ T cells but relied on the presence of CD4+ T cells. Human tumors expressing low levels of B2M display increased intratumoral CD4+ T cells. We conclude that B2M inactivation does not blunt the efficacy of ICPi in MMRd tumors, and we identify a unique role for CD4+ T cells in tumor rejection. Significance: B2M alterations, which impair antigen presentation, occur frequently in microsatellite-unstable colorectal cancers. Although in melanoma and lung cancers B2M loss is a mechanism of resistance to immune checkpoint blockade, we show that MMRd tumors respond to ICPis through CD4+ T-cell activation. This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1601

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Topics: Null cell (55%), Immune checkpoint (54%), CD8 (51%) ... show more
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10 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S43018-021-00210-Y
01 May 2021-
Abstract: Several current immunotherapy approaches target private neoantigens derived from mutations that are unique to individual patients’ tumors. However, immunotherapeutic agents can also be developed against public neoantigens derived from recurrent mutations in cancer driver genes. The latter approaches target proteins that are indispensable for tumor growth, and each therapeutic agent can be applied to numerous patients. Here we review the opportunities and challenges involved in the identification of suitable public neoantigen targets and the development of therapeutic agents targeting them. Zhou and colleagues discuss the opportunities and challenges in targeting public neoantigens for cancer immunotherapy.

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Topics: Cancer immunotherapy (52%), Cancer (51%)

5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CANCERS13112638
27 May 2021-Cancers
Abstract: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) represent an effective therapeutic strategy for several different types of solid tumors and are remarkably effective in mismatch repair deficient (MMRd) tumors, including colorectal cancer (CRC). The prevalent view is that the elevated and dynamic neoantigen burden associated with the mutator phenotype of MMRd fosters enhanced immune surveillance of these cancers. In addition, recent findings suggest that MMRd tumors have increased cytosolic DNA, which triggers the cGAS STING pathway, leading to interferon-mediated immune response. Unfortunately, approximately 30% of MMRd CRC exhibit primary resistance to CPIs, while a substantial fraction of tumors acquires resistance after an initial benefit. Profiling of clinical samples and preclinical studies suggests that alterations in the Wnt and the JAK-STAT signaling pathways are associated with refractoriness to CPIs. Intriguingly, mutations in the antigen presentation machinery, such as loss of MHC or Beta-2 microglobulin (B2M), are implicated in initial immune evasion but do not impair response to CPIs. In this review, we outline how understanding the mechanistic basis of immune evasion and CPI resistance in MMRd CRC provides the rationale for innovative strategies to increase the subset of patients benefiting from CPIs.

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3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FONC.2021.669774
Elena Busch1, Aysel Ahadova2, Kosima Kosmalla2, Lena Bohaumilitzky2  +11 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) shows remarkable clinical effects in patients with metastatic microsatellite-unstable (MSI) cancer. However, markers identifying potential non-responders are missing. We examined the prevalence of Beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) mutations, a common immune evasion mechanism, in stage IV MSI gastrointestinal cancer and its influence on metastatic pattern and patients' survival under ICB. Twenty-five patients with metastatic, MSI gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma were included. Eighteen patients received ICB with pembrolizumab and one patient with nivolumab/ipilimumab. Sequencing was performed to determine B2M mutation status. B2M mutations and loss of B2M expression were detected in 6 out of 25 stage IV MSI cancers. B2M mutations were strongly associated with exclusively peritoneal/peritoneal and lymph node metastases (p=0.0055). However, no significant differences in therapy response (25% vs. 46.6%, p>0.99) and survival (median PFS: 19.5 vs 33.0 months, p=0.74; median OS 39 months vs. not reached, p>0.99) were observed between B2M-mutant and B2M-wild type tumor patients. Among metastatic MSI GI cancers, B2M-mutant tumors represent a biologically distinct disease with distinct metastatic patterns. To assess ICB response in B2M-mutant MSI cancer patients, future studies need to account for the fact that baseline survival of patients with B2M-mutant MSI cancer may be longer than of patients with B2M-wild type MSI cancer.

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Topics: Cancer (55%), Pembrolizumab (53%), Nivolumab (53%) ... show more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1053/J.GASTRO.2021.06.064
29 Jun 2021-Gastroenterology
Abstract: Background & Aims Colorectal cancer (CRC) shows variable response to immune checkpoint blockade, which can only partially be explained by high tumor mutational burden (TMB). We conducted an integrated study of the cancer tissue and associated tumor microenvironment (TME) from patients treated with pembrolizumab (KEYNOTE 177 clinical trial) or nivolumab to dissect the cellular and molecular determinants of response to anti- programmed cell death 1 (PD1) immunotherapy. Methods We selected multiple regions per tumor showing variable T-cell infiltration for a total of 738 regions from 29 patients, divided into discovery and validation cohorts. We performed multiregional whole-exome and RNA sequencing of the tumor cells and integrated these with T-cell receptor sequencing, high-dimensional imaging mass cytometry, detection of programmed death-ligand 1 (PDL1) interaction in situ, multiplexed immunofluorescence, and computational spatial analysis of the TME. Results In hypermutated CRCs, response to anti-PD1 immunotherapy was not associated with TMB but with high clonality of immunogenic mutations, clonally expanded T cells, low activation of Wnt signaling, deregulation of the interferon gamma pathway, and active immune escape mechanisms. Responsive hypermutated CRCs were also rich in cytotoxic and proliferating PD1+CD8 T cells interacting with PDL1+ antigen-presenting macrophages. Conclusions Our study clarified the limits of TMB as a predictor of response of CRC to anti-PD1 immunotherapy. It identified a population of antigen-presenting macrophages interacting with CD8 T cells that consistently segregate with response. We therefore concluded that anti-PD1 agents release the PD1-PDL1 interaction between CD8 T cells and macrophages to promote cytotoxic antitumor activity.

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Topics: T cell (56.99%), Immunotherapy (56.99%), Tumor microenvironment (56%) ... show more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS22136741
Elena Shklovskaya1, Helen Rizos1Institutions (1)
Abstract: It is now well accepted that the immune system can control cancer growth. However, tumors escape immune-mediated control through multiple mechanisms and the downregulation or loss of major histocompatibility class (MHC)-I molecules is a common immune escape mechanism in many cancers. MHC-I molecules present antigenic peptides to cytotoxic T cells, and MHC-I loss can render tumor cells invisible to the immune system. In this review, we examine the dysregulation of MHC-I expression in cancer, explore the nature of MHC-I-bound antigenic peptides recognized by immune cells, and discuss therapeutic strategies that can be used to overcome MHC-I deficiency in solid tumors, with a focus on the role of natural killer (NK) cells and CD4 T cells.

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Topics: MHC class I (63%), Immune system (61%), Major histocompatibility complex (60%) ... show more

1 Citations


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61 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-12-0095
Ethan Cerami1, Jianjiong Gao, Ugur Dogrusoz, Benjamin Gross  +11 moreInstitutions (1)
01 May 2012-Cancer Discovery
Abstract: The cBio Cancer Genomics Portal (http://cbioportal.org) is an open-access resource for interactive exploration of multidimensional cancer genomics data sets, currently providing access to data from more than 5,000 tumor samples from 20 cancer studies. The cBio Cancer Genomics Portal significantly lowers the barriers between complex genomic data and cancer researchers who want rapid, intuitive, and high-quality access to molecular profiles and clinical attributes from large-scale cancer genomics projects and empowers researchers to translate these rich data sets into biologic insights and clinical applications.

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8,873 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCISIGNAL.2004088
02 Apr 2013-Science Signaling
Abstract: The cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics (http://cbioportal.org) provides a Web resource for exploring, visualizing, and analyzing multidimensional cancer genomics data. The portal reduces molecular profiling data from cancer tissues and cell lines into readily understandable genetic, epigenetic, gene expression, and proteomic events. The query interface combined with customized data storage enables researchers to interactively explore genetic alterations across samples, genes, and pathways and, when available in the underlying data, to link these to clinical outcomes. The portal provides graphical summaries of gene-level data from multiple platforms, network visualization and analysis, survival analysis, patient-centric queries, and software programmatic access. The intuitive Web interface of the portal makes complex cancer genomics profiles accessible to researchers and clinicians without requiring bioinformatics expertise, thus facilitating biological discoveries. Here, we provide a practical guide to the analysis and visualization features of the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics.

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8,134 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1500596
Dung T. Le, Jennifer N. Uram1, Hao Wang2, Bjarne Bartlett3  +33 moreInstitutions (6)
Abstract: BackgroundSomatic mutations have the potential to encode “non-self” immunogenic antigens. We hypothesized that tumors with a large number of somatic mutations due to mismatch-repair defects may be susceptible to immune checkpoint blockade. MethodsWe conducted a phase 2 study to evaluate the clinical activity of pembrolizumab, an anti–programmed death 1 immune checkpoint inhibitor, in 41 patients with progressive metastatic carcinoma with or without mismatch-repair deficiency. Pembrolizumab was administered intravenously at a dose of 10 mg per kilogram of body weight every 14 days in patients with mismatch repair–deficient colorectal cancers, patients with mismatch repair–proficient colorectal cancers, and patients with mismatch repair–deficient cancers that were not colorectal. The coprimary end points were the immune-related objective response rate and the 20-week immune-related progression-free survival rate. ResultsThe immune-related objective response rate and immune-related progression-free survival ...

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Topics: Pembrolizumab (55%), PMS2 (54%), Immune checkpoint (54%) ... show more

5,399 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1302369
Abstract: A total of 53 patients received concurrent therapy with nivolumab and ipilimumab, and 33 received sequenced treatment. The objective-response rate (according to modified World Health Organization criteria) for all patients in the concurrent-regimen group was 40%. Evidence of clinical activity (conventional, unconfirmed, or immune-related response or stable disease for ≥24 weeks) was observed in 65% of patients. At the maximum doses that were associated with an acceptable level of adverse events (nivolumab at a dose of 1 mg per kilogram of body weight and ipilimumab at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram), 53% of patients had an objective response, all with tumor reduction of 80% or more. Grade 3 or 4 adverse events related to therapy occurred in 53% of patients in the concurrent-regimen group but were qualitatively similar to previous experience with monotherapy and were generally reversible. Among patients in the sequenced-regimen group, 18% had grade 3 or 4 adverse events related to therapy and the objective-response rate was 20%. CONCLUSIONS Concurrent therapy with nivolumab and ipilimumab had a manageable safety profile and provided clinical activity that appears to be distinct from that in published data on monotherapy, with rapid and deep tumor regression in a substantial proportion of patients. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb and Ono Pharmaceutical; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01024231.)

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Topics: Nivolumab (63%), Ipilimumab (61%)

3,483 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NMETH.3337
01 May 2015-Nature Methods
Abstract: We introduce CIBERSORT, a method for characterizing cell composition of complex tissues from their gene expression profiles When applied to enumeration of hematopoietic subsets in RNA mixtures from fresh, frozen and fixed tissues, including solid tumors, CIBERSORT outperformed other methods with respect to noise, unknown mixture content and closely related cell types CIBERSORT should enable large-scale analysis of RNA mixtures for cellular biomarkers and therapeutic targets (http://cibersortstanfordedu/)

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3,483 Citations


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