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Journal ArticleDOI

CdIn2S4 Nanotubes and “Marigold” Nanostructures: A Visible‐Light Photocatalyst

04 Jul 2006-Advanced Functional Materials (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)-Vol. 16, Iss: 10, pp 1349-1354
TL;DR: In this article, a chemically stable cubic spinel nanostructured CdIn2S4 prepared by a facile hydrothermal method is reported as a visible-light driven photocatalyst.
Abstract: Nanostructured photocatalysts with high activity are sought for solar production of hydrogen. Spinel semiconductors with different nanostructures and morphologies have immense importance for photocatalytic and other potential applications. Here, a chemically stable cubic spinel nanostructured CdIn2S4 prepared by a facile hydrothermal method is reported as a visible-light driven photocatalyst. A pretty, marigold-like morphology is observed in aqueous-mediated CdIn2S4, whereas nanotubes of good crystallinity, 25 nm in diameter, are obtained in methanol-mediated CdIn2S4. The aqueous- and methanol-mediated CdIn2S4 products show excellent photocatalytic activity compared to other organic mediated samples, and this is attributed to their high degree of crystallinity. The CdIn2S4 photocatalyst gives quantum yields of 16.8 % (marigold-like morphology) and 17.1 % (nanotubes) at 500 nm, respectively, for the H2 evolution reaction. The details of the characteristics of the photocatalyst, such as crystal and band structure, are reported. Considering the importance of hydrogen energy, CdIn2S4 will be an excellent candidate as a catalyst for “photohydrogen” production under visible light. Being a nanostructured chalcogenide semiconductor, CdIn2S4 will have other potential prospective applications, such as in solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and optoelectronic devices.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Approaches to Modifying the Electronic Band Structure for Visible-Light Harvesting and its Applications d0 Metal Oxide Photocatalysts 6518 4.4.1.
Abstract: 2.3. Evaluation of Photocatalytic Water Splitting 6507 2.3.1. Photocatalytic Activity 6507 2.3.2. Photocatalytic Stability 6507 3. UV-Active Photocatalysts for Water Splitting 6507 3.1. d0 Metal Oxide Photocatalyts 6507 3.1.1. Ti-, Zr-Based Oxides 6507 3.1.2. Nb-, Ta-Based Oxides 6514 3.1.3. W-, Mo-Based Oxides 6517 3.1.4. Other d0 Metal Oxides 6518 3.2. d10 Metal Oxide Photocatalyts 6518 3.3. f0 Metal Oxide Photocatalysts 6518 3.4. Nonoxide Photocatalysts 6518 4. Approaches to Modifying the Electronic Band Structure for Visible-Light Harvesting 6519

6,332 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A variety of strategies such as structural tuning, composition control, doping, hybrid structures, heterostructures, defect control, temperature effects and porosity effects on metal sulfide nanocrystals are discussed and how they are exploited to enhance performance and develop future energy materials.
Abstract: In recent years, nanocrystals of metal sulfide materials have attracted scientific research interest for renewable energy applications due to the abundant choice of materials with easily tunable electronic, optical, physical and chemical properties. Metal sulfides are semiconducting compounds where sulfur is an anion associated with a metal cation; and the metal ions may be in mono-, bi- or multi-form. The diverse range of available metal sulfide materials offers a unique platform to construct a large number of potential materials that demonstrate exotic chemical, physical and electronic phenomena and novel functional properties and applications. To fully exploit the potential of these fascinating materials, scalable methods for the preparation of low-cost metal sulfides, heterostructures, and hybrids of high quality must be developed. This comprehensive review indicates approaches for the controlled fabrication of metal sulfides and subsequently delivers an overview of recent progress in tuning the chemical, physical, optical and nano- and micro-structural properties of metal sulfide nanocrystals using a range of material fabrication methods. For hydrogen energy production, three major approaches are discussed in detail: electrocatalytic hydrogen generation, powder photocatalytic hydrogen generation and photoelectrochemical water splitting. A variety of strategies such as structural tuning, composition control, doping, hybrid structures, heterostructures, defect control, temperature effects and porosity effects on metal sulfide nanocrystals are discussed and how they are exploited to enhance performance and develop future energy materials. From this literature survey, energy conversion currently relies on a limited range of metal sulfides and their composites, and several metal sulfides are immature in terms of their dissolution, photocorrosion and long-term durability in electrolytes during water splitting. Future research directions for innovative metal sulfides should be closely allied to energy and environmental issues, along with their advanced characterization, and developing new classes of metal sulfide materials with well-defined fabrication methods.

685 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The newly-prepared plasmonic photocatalyst Ag section signAgBr has a strong absorption in the visible region and shows high efficiency in the photodegradation of organic pollutants under visible light.
Abstract: Visible improvements: Owing to the plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles deposited on the surface of AgBr, the newly-prepared plasmonic photocatalyst Ag§AgBr has a strong absorption in the visible region (see picture) and shows high efficiency in the photodegradation of organic pollutants under visible light.

602 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Rational design and fabrication of hierarchical In2S3-CdIn2S4 heterostructured nanotubes as efficient and stable photocatalysts for visible light CO2 reduction manifest remarkable performance for deoxygenative reduction of CO2 with high CO generation rate and outstanding stability under visible light irradiation.
Abstract: We demonstrate rational design and fabrication of hierarchical In2S3-CdIn2S4 heterostructured nanotubes as efficient and stable photocatalysts for visible light CO2 reduction. The novel self-templated strategy, including sequential anion- and cation-exchange reactions, integrates two distinct sulfide semiconductors into hierarchical tubular hybrids with homogeneous interfacial contacts and ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) nanosheet subunits. Accordingly, the hierarchical heterostructured nanotubes facilitate separation and migration of photoinduced charge carriers, enhance the adsorption and concentration of CO2 molecules, and offer rich active sites for surface redox reactions. Benefiting from these structural and compositional features, the optimized hierarchical In2S3-CdIn2S4 nanotubes without employing noble metal cocatalysts in the catalytic system manifest remarkable performance for deoxygenative reduction of CO2 with high CO generation rate (825 μmol h–1 g–1) and outstanding stability under visible l...

526 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present recent research progress in the development of visible light driven sulphide photocatalysts, focusing on the expansion of solar spectrum response and enhancement of charge separation efficiency.

451 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An efficient scheme for calculating the Kohn-Sham ground state of metallic systems using pseudopotentials and a plane-wave basis set is presented and the application of Pulay's DIIS method to the iterative diagonalization of large matrices will be discussed.
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an ab initio quantum-mechanical molecular-dynamics calculations based on the calculation of the electronic ground state and of the Hellmann-Feynman forces in the local density approximation.
Abstract: We present ab initio quantum-mechanical molecular-dynamics calculations based on the calculation of the electronic ground state and of the Hellmann-Feynman forces in the local-density approximation at each molecular-dynamics step. This is possible using conjugate-gradient techniques for energy minimization, and predicting the wave functions for new ionic positions using subspace alignment. This approach avoids the instabilities inherent in quantum-mechanical molecular-dynamics calculations for metals based on the use of a fictitious Newtonian dynamics for the electronic degrees of freedom. This method gives perfect control of the adiabaticity and allows us to perform simulations over several picoseconds.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Novel features are that the pseudopotential itself becomes charge-state dependent, the usual norm-conservation constraint does not apply, and a generalized eigenproblem is introduced.
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18,782 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of the field of semiconductor photocatalysis can be found in this paper, where a brief examination of its roots, achievements and possible future is presented, and the semiconductor titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) features predominantly in past and present work.
Abstract: The interest in heterogeneous photocatalysis is intense and increasing, as shown by the number of publications on this theme which regularly appear in this journal, and the fact that over 2000 papers have been published on this topic since 1981. This article is an overview of the field of semiconductor photocatalysis : a brief examination of its roots, achievements and possible future. The semiconductor titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) features predominantly in past and present work on semiconductor photocatalysis; as a result, in the most of the examples selected in this overview to illustrate various points the semiconductor is TiO 2 .

3,245 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, Mn-, Ru-, Rh-, and Ir-doped SrTiO3 possessed intense absorption bands in the visible light region due to excitation from the discontinuous levels formed by the dopants to the conduction band of the host.
Abstract: Mn-, Ru-, Rh-, and Ir-doped SrTiO3 possessed intense absorption bands in the visible light region due to excitation from the discontinuous levels formed by the dopants to the conduction band of the SrTiO3 host. Mn- and Ru-doped SrTiO3 showed photocatalytic activities for O2 evolution from an aqueous silver nitrate solution while Ru-, Rh-, and Ir-doped SrTiO3 loaded with Pt cocatalysts produced H2 from an aqueous methanol solution under visible light irradiation (λ > 440 nm). The Rh(1%)-doped SrTiO3 photocatalyst loaded with a Pt cocatalyst (0.1 wt %) gave 5.2% of the quantum yield at 420 nm for the H2 evolution reaction.

788 citations