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Journal ArticleDOI

Cerebral organoids model human brain development and microcephaly

19 Sep 2013-Nature (Nature Publishing Group)-Vol. 501, Iss: 7467, pp 373-379

TL;DR: A human pluripotent stem cell-derived three-dimensional organoid culture system that develops various discrete, although interdependent, brain regions that include a cerebral cortex containing progenitor populations that organize and produce mature cortical neuron subtypes is developed.
Abstract: The complexity of the human brain has made it difficult to study many brain disorders in model organisms, highlighting the need for an in vitro model of human brain development Here we have developed a human pluripotent stem cell-derived three-dimensional organoid culture system, termed cerebral organoids, that develop various discrete, although interdependent, brain regions These include a cerebral cortex containing progenitor populations that organize and produce mature cortical neuron subtypes Furthermore, cerebral organoids are shown to recapitulate features of human cortical development, namely characteristic progenitor zone organization with abundant outer radial glial stem cells Finally, we use RNA interference and patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells to model microcephaly, a disorder that has been difficult to recapitulate in mice We demonstrate premature neuronal differentiation in patient organoids, a defect that could help to explain the disease phenotype Together, these data show that three-dimensional organoids can recapitulate development and disease even in this most complex human tissue
Topics: Cerebral organoid (73%), Induced pluripotent stem cell (54%), Neural stem cell (53%), Human brain (53%), Stem cell (52%)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Sangeeta N. Bhatia1, Donald E. Ingber2Institutions (2)
TL;DR: A microfluidic cell culture device created with microchip manufacturing methods that contains continuously perfused chambers inhabited by living cells arranged to simulate tissue- and organ-level physiology has great potential to advance the study of tissue development, organ physiology and disease etiology.
Abstract: Organ-level physiology is recapitulated in vitro by culturing cells in perfused, microfluidic devices.

1,837 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
18 Jul 2014-Science
TL;DR: These studies illustrated two key events in structural organization during organogenesis: cell sorting out and spatially restricted lineage commitment, which are recapitulated in organoids, which self-assemble to form the cellular organization of the organ itself.
Abstract: Classical experiments performed half a century ago demonstrated the immense self-organizing capacity of vertebrate cells. Even after complete dissociation, cells can reaggregate and reconstruct the original architecture of an organ. More recently, this outstanding feature was used to rebuild organ parts or even complete organs from tissue or embryonic stem cells. Such stem cell-derived three-dimensional cultures are called organoids. Because organoids can be grown from human stem cells and from patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells, they have the potential to model human development and disease. Furthermore, they have potential for drug testing and even future organ replacement strategies. Here, we summarize this rapidly evolving field and outline the potential of organoid technology for future biomedical research.

1,386 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Hans Clevers1Institutions (1)
16 Jun 2016-Cell
TL;DR: 3D culture technology allow embryonic and adult mammalian stem cells to exhibit their remarkable self-organizing properties, and the resulting organoids reflect key structural and functional properties of organs such as kidney, lung, gut, brain and retina, and hold promise to predict drug response in a personalized fashion.
Abstract: Recent advances in 3D culture technology allow embryonic and adult mammalian stem cells to exhibit their remarkable self-organizing properties, and the resulting organoids reflect key structural and functional properties of organs such as kidney, lung, gut, brain and retina. Organoid technology can therefore be used to model human organ development and various human pathologies 'in a dish." Additionally, patient-derived organoids hold promise to predict drug response in a personalized fashion. Organoids open up new avenues for regenerative medicine and, in combination with editing technology, for gene therapy. The many potential applications of this technology are only beginning to be explored.

1,254 citations


Cites background from "Cerebral organoids model human brai..."

  • ...Lancaster and Knoblich took this approach to a next level by generating cerebral organoids, or ‘‘mini-brains’’: single neural organoids containing representations of several different brain regions (Lancaster et al., 2013)....

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  • ...The corresponding iPS cells made significant smaller ‘‘mini-brains,’’ containing only occasional neuroepithelial regionswith signs of remature neural differentiation, a phenotype that could be rescued by reintroducing the CDK5RAP2 protein (Lancaster et al., 2013)....

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  • ...Lancaster and Knoblich took this approach to a next level by generating cerebral organoids, or ‘‘mini-brains’’: single neural organoids containing representations of several different brain regions (Lancaster et al., 2013)....

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  • ...Since post-radiation hyposalivation often leads to irreversible and untreatable (A) A complex morphology with heterogeneous regions containing neural progenitors (SOX2, red) and neurons (TUJ1, green) is apparent (Lancaster et al., 2013)....

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  • ...A ‘‘Mini-Brain’’ Generated from PSCs (A) A complex morphology with heterogeneous regions containing neural progenitors (SOX2, red) and neurons (TUJ1, green) is apparent (Lancaster et al., 2013)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Xuyu Qian1, Ha Nam Nguyen1, Mingxi M. Song1, Christopher Hadiono1  +27 moreInstitutions (6)
19 May 2016-Cell
TL;DR: A miniaturized spinning bioreactor (SpinΩ) is developed to generate forebrain-specific organoids from human iPSCs that recapitulate key features of human cortical development, including progenitor zone organization, neurogenesis, gene expression, and, notably, a distinct human-specific outer radial glia cell layer.
Abstract: Cerebral organoids, three-dimensional cultures that model organogenesis, provide a new platform to investigate human brain development. High cost, variability, and tissue heterogeneity limit their broad applications. Here, we developed a miniaturized spinning bioreactor (SpinΩ) to generate forebrain-specific organoids from human iPSCs. These organoids recapitulate key features of human cortical development, including progenitor zone organization, neurogenesis, gene expression, and, notably, a distinct human-specific outer radial glia cell layer. We also developed protocols for midbrain and hypothalamic organoids. Finally, we employed the forebrain organoid platform to model Zika virus (ZIKV) exposure. Quantitative analyses revealed preferential, productive infection of neural progenitors with either African or Asian ZIKV strains. ZIKV infection leads to increased cell death and reduced proliferation, resulting in decreased neuronal cell-layer volume resembling microcephaly. Together, our brain-region-specific organoids and SpinΩ provide an accessible and versatile platform for modeling human brain development and disease and for compound testing, including potential ZIKV antiviral drugs.

1,131 citations


Cites background or methods or result from "Cerebral organoids model human brai..."

  • ...…pioneering studies showed that cerebral organoid systems offer improved growth conditions for 3D tissue, leading to a more representative model of the developing human brain (Danjo et al., 2011; Kadoshima et al., 2013; Lancaster et al., 2013; Mariani et al., 2015; Pasca et al., 2015)....

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  • ...One recent advance in cerebral organoid technology was the adoption of a spinning bioreactor to facilitate nutrient and oxygen absorption, which enables formation of longer neuroepithelium-like zones and supports growth of large, complex organoids that more closely resemble the developing human brain than had been achieved by previous approaches (Lancaster et al., 2013)....

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  • ...Second, the current cerebral organoid methodology (“intrinsic protocol”) is based on cell self-assembly without external control, and thus each organoid is typically comprised of diverse cell types found in forebrain, hindbrain, and retina (Lancaster et al., 2013)....

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  • ...This and other human cerebral organoid technologies (Kadoshima et al., 2013; Lancaster et al., 2013; Cell....

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  • ...Second, the current cerebral organoid methodology (‘‘intrinsic protocol’’) is based on cell self-assembly without external control, and thus each organoid is typically comprised of diverse cell types found in forebrain, hindbrain, and retina (Lancaster et al., 2013)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
11 May 2016-Nature
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that the ZIKVBR infects fetuses, causing intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR), and crosses the placenta and causes microcephaly by targeting cortical progenitor cells, inducing cell death by apoptosis and autophagy, impairing neurodevelopment.
Abstract: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus belonging to the genus Flavivirus (family Flaviviridae) and was first described in 1947 in Uganda following blood analyses of sentinel Rhesus monkeys. Until the twentieth century, the African and Asian lineages of the virus did not cause meaningful infections in humans. However, in 2007, vectored by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, ZIKV caused the first noteworthy epidemic on the Yap Island in Micronesia. Patients experienced fever, skin rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis. From 2013 to 2015, the Asian lineage of the virus caused further massive outbreaks in New Caledonia and French Polynesia. In 2013, ZIKV reached Brazil, later spreading to other countries in South and Central America. In Brazil, the virus has been linked to congenital malformations, including microcephaly and other severe neurological diseases, such as Guillain-Barre syndrome. Despite clinical evidence, direct experimental proof showing that the Brazilian ZIKV (ZIKV(BR)) strain causes birth defects remains absent. Here we demonstrate that ZIKV(BR) infects fetuses, causing intrauterine growth restriction, including signs of microcephaly, in mice. Moreover, the virus infects human cortical progenitor cells, leading to an increase in cell death. We also report that the infection of human brain organoids results in a reduction of proliferative zones and disrupted cortical layers. These results indicate that ZIKV(BR) crosses the placenta and causes microcephaly by targeting cortical progenitor cells, inducing cell death by apoptosis and autophagy, and impairing neurodevelopment. Our data reinforce the growing body of evidence linking the ZIKV(BR) outbreak to the alarming number of cases of congenital brain malformations. Our model can be used to determine the efficiency of therapeutic approaches to counteracting the harmful impact of ZIKV(BR) in human neurodevelopment.

948 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Kazutoshi Takahashi1, Shinya Yamanaka1Institutions (1)
25 Aug 2006-Cell
TL;DR: Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic or adult fibroblasts by introducing four factors, Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4, under ES cell culture conditions is demonstrated and iPS cells, designated iPS, exhibit the morphology and growth properties of ES cells and express ES cell marker genes.
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21,746 citations


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19 Jul 2007-Nature
TL;DR: iPS cells competent for germline chimaeras can be obtained from fibroblasts, but retroviral introduction of c-Myc should be avoided for clinical application.
Abstract: We have previously shown that pluripotent stem cells can be induced from mouse fibroblasts by retroviral introduction of Oct3/4 (also called Pou5f1), Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4, and subsequent selection for Fbx15 (also called Fbxo15) expression These induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells (hereafter called Fbx15 iPS cells) are similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells in morphology, proliferation and teratoma formation; however, they are different with regards to gene expression and DNA methylation patterns, and fail to produce adult chimaeras Here we show that selection for Nanog expression results in germline-competent iPS cells with increased ES-cell-like gene expression and DNA methylation patterns compared with Fbx15 iPS cells The four transgenes (Oct3/4, Sox2, c-myc and Klf4) were strongly silenced in Nanog iPS cells We obtained adult chimaeras from seven Nanog iPS cell clones, with one clone being transmitted through the germ line to the next generation Approximately 20% of the offspring developed tumours attributable to reactivation of the c-myc transgene Thus, iPS cells competent for germline chimaeras can be obtained from fibroblasts, but retroviral introduction of c-Myc should be avoided for clinical application

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4,115 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Kiichi Watanabe1, Morio Ueno, Daisuke Kamiya, Ayaka Nishiyama  +7 moreInstitutions (2)
TL;DR: Application of a selective Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, Y-27632, to hES cells markedly diminishes dissociation-induced apoptosis, increases cloning efficiency and facilitates subcloning after gene transfer, and enables SFEB-cultured hES Cells to survive and differentiate into Bf1+ cortical and basal telencephalic progenitors.
Abstract: Poor survival of human embryonic stem (hES) cells after cell dissociation is an obstacle to research, hindering manipulations such as subcloning. Here we show that application of a selective Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor1,2, Y-27632, to hES cells markedly diminishes dissociation-induced apoptosis, increases cloning efficiency (from ∼1% to ∼27%) and facilitates subcloning after gene transfer. Furthermore, dissociated hES cells treated with Y-27632 are protected from apoptosis even in serum-free suspension (SFEB) culture3 and form floating aggregates. We demonstrate that the protective ability of Y-27632 enables SFEB-cultured hES cells to survive and differentiate into Bf1+ cortical and basal telencephalic progenitors, as do SFEB-cultured mouse ES cells.

1,934 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Magdalena Götz, Wieland B. Huttner1Institutions (1)
Abstract: During the development of the mammalian central nervous system, neural stem cells and their derivative progenitor cells generate neurons by asymmetric and symmetric divisions. The proliferation versus differentiation of these cells and the type of division are closely linked to their epithelial characteristics, notably, their apical-basal polarity and cell-cycle length. Here, we discuss how these features change during development from neuroepithelial to radial glial cells, and how this transition affects cell fate and neurogenesis.

1,626 citations


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