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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JSTROKECEREBROVASDIS.2021.105733

Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis in COVID-19 Patients: A Multicenter Study and Review of Literature.

04 Mar 2021-Journal of Stroke & Cerebrovascular Diseases (W.B. Saunders)-Vol. 30, Iss: 6, pp 105733-105733
Abstract: Background COVID-19 infection has been known to predispose patients to both arterial and venous thromboembolic events such as deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and stroke. A few reports from the literature suggest that Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis (CVSTs) may be a direct complication of COVID-19. Objective To review the clinical and radiological presentation of COVID-19 positive patients diagnosed with CVST. Methods This was a multicenter, cross-sectional, retrospective study of patients diagnosed with CVST and COVID-19 reviewed from March 1, 2020 to November 8, 2020. We evaluated their clinical presentations, risk factors, clinical management, and outcome. We reviewed all published cases of CVST in patients with COVID-19 infection from January 1, 2020 to November 13, 2020. Results There were 8 patients diagnosed with CVST and COVID-19 during the study period at 7 out of 31 participating centers. Patients in our case series were mostly female (7/8, 87.5%). Most patients presented with non-specific symptoms such as headache (50%), fever (50%), and gastrointestinal symptoms (75%). Several patients presented with focal neurologic deficits (2/8, 25%) or decreased consciousness (2/8, 25%). D-dimer and inflammatory biomarkers were significantly elevated relative to reference ranges in patients with available laboratory data. The superior sagittal and transverse sinuses were the most common sites for acute CVST formation (6/8, 75%). Median time to onset of focal neurologic deficit from initial COVID-19 diagnosis was 3 days (interquartile range 0.75–3 days). Median time from onset of COVID-19 symptoms to CVST radiologic diagnosis was 11 days (interquartile range 6–16.75 days). Mortality was low in this cohort (1/8 or 12.5%). Conclusions Clinicians should consider the risk of acute CVST in patients positive for COVID-19, especially if neurological symptoms develop.

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Topics: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (57%), Venous thrombosis (54%), Pulmonary embolism (52%) ... show more
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16 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/JCM10081599
Marc E. Wolf, Beate Luz, Ludwig Niehaus, Pervinder Bhogal1  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Background: As of 8 April 2021, a total of 2.9 million people have died with or from the coronavirus infection causing COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease 2019). On 29 January 2021, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) approved a COVID-19 vaccine developed by Oxford University and AstraZeneca (AZD1222, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, COVID-19 vaccine AstraZeneca, Vaxzevria, Covishield). While the vaccine prevents severe course of and death from COVID-19, the observation of pulmonary, abdominal, and intracranial venous thromboembolic events has raised concerns. Objective: To describe the clinical manifestations and the concerning management of patients with cranial venous sinus thrombosis following first exposure to the “COVID-19 vaccine AstraZeneca”. Methods: Patient files, laboratory findings, and diagnostic imaging results, and endovascular interventions of three concerning patients were evaluated in retrospect. Results: Three women with intracranial venous sinus thrombosis after their first vaccination with “COVID-19 vaccine AstraZeneca” were encountered. Patient #1 was 22 years old and developed headaches four days after the vaccination. On day 7, she experienced a generalized epileptic seizure. Patient #2 was 46 years old. She presented with severe headaches, hemianopia to the right, and mild aphasia 13 days after the vaccination. MRI showed a left occipital intracerebral hemorrhage. Patient #3 was 36 years old and presented 17 days after the vaccination with acute somnolence and right-hand hemiparesis. The three patients were diagnosed with extensive venous sinus thrombosis. They were managed by heparinization and endovascular recanalization of their venous sinuses. They shared similar findings: elevated levels of D-dimers, platelet factor 4 antiplatelet antibodies, corona spike protein antibodies, combined with thrombocytopenia. Under treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin, platelet counts normalized within several days. Conclusion: Early observations insinuate that the exposure to the “COVID-19 vaccine AstraZeneca” might trigger the expression of antiplatelet antibodies, resulting in a condition with thrombocytopenia and venous thrombotic events (e.g., intracranial venous sinus thrombosis). These patients’ treatment should address the thrombo-embolic manifestations, the coagulation disorder, and the underlying immunological phenomena.

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Topics: Intracerebral hemorrhage (54%), Headaches (53%), Thrombosis (52%)

45 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S00701-021-04860-W
Abstract: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), also known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly transmissible virus and has become pandemic. Part of the prevention of disease spread by the Malaysian government is by getting COVID-19 vaccine. Using the mRNA technology, the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine is one of the vaccines been approved by the Drug Control Authority in Malaysia. Herein, we report an immediate complication of cerebral VST after the first dose of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine.

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Topics: Drug control (53%)

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.7759/CUREUS.16498
19 Jul 2021-Cureus
Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is commonly associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute cardiac and renal injuries. However, thromboembolic events are also prevalent in COVID-19. The pathogenesis of COVID-19 hypercoagulability is not well known but may be linked to the cytokine storm induced by a viral infection or endothelial damage that triggers a cascade leading to hypercoagulability. Because vascular endothelium has angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-like lung tissue, COVID-19 targets lung tissue and vascular endothelium, leading to thrombosis. We present a rare case of a young patient with COVID-19 who presented with thrombosis of the cerebral venous system managed with anticoagulation. This case highlights the need for heightened awareness of this atypical but potentially treatable complication of the COVID-19 disease spectrum.

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Topics: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (58%), Thrombosis (54%), Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis (52%) ... show more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.121.035613
James E. Siegler1, Piers Klein2, Shadi Yaghi3, Nicholas Vigilante4  +4 moreInstitutions (6)
26 Jul 2021-Stroke
Abstract: In the spring of 2021, reports of rare and unusual venous thrombosis in association with the ChAdOx1 and Ad26.COV2.S adenovirus-based coronavirus vaccines led to a brief suspension of their use by several countries. Thromboses in the cerebral and splanchnic veins among patients vaccinated in the preceding 4 weeks were described in 17 patients out of 7.98 million recipients of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine (with 3 fatalities related to cerebral vein thrombosis) and 169 cases of cerebral vein thrombosis among 35 million ChAdOx1 recipients. Events were associated with thrombocytopenia and anti-PF4 (antibodies directed against platelet factor 4), leading to the designation vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia. Unlike the related heparin-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia, with an estimated incidence of <1:1000 patients treated with heparin, and a mortality rate of 25%, vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia has been reported in 1:150 000 ChAdOx1 recipients and 1:470 000 Ad26.COV.2 recipients, with a reported mortality rate of 20% to 30%. Early recognition of this complication should prompt testing for anti-PF4 antibodies and acute treatment targeting the autoimmune and prothrombotic processes. Intravenous immunoglobulin (1 g/kg for 2 days), consideration of plasma exchange, and nonheparin anticoagulation (argatroban, fondaparinux) are recommended. In cases of cerebral vein thrombosis, one should monitor for and treat the known complications of venous congestion as they would in patients without vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia. Now that the Ad26.COV2.S has been reapproved for use in several countries, it remains a critical component of our pharmacological armamentarium in stopping the spread of the human coronavirus and should be strongly recommended to patients. At this time, the patient and community-level benefits of these two adenoviral vaccines vastly outweigh the rare but serious risks of vaccination. Due to the relatively low risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in young women (<50 years), it is reasonable to recommend an alternative vaccine if one is available. Ongoing postmarketing observational studies are important for tracking new vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia cases and other rare side effects of these emergent interventions.

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Topics: Argatroban (58%), Venous thrombosis (56%), Fondaparinux (53%) ... show more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CLINPRACT11030075
Abstract: Headache, a common prodromal symptom of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, can also be a manifestation of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), secondary to COVID-19. CVT management continues to evolve, with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) emerging as an alternative to warfarin. A 44-year-old Asian female, with no past medical history, presented to the emergency room (ER) with complaints of nonproductive cough and left-sided headache. She denied a history of COVID-19 vaccination, and SARS-CoV-2 testing (with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) was positive. Non-contrast computed tomography (CT) of the head revealed left transverse sinus hyperdensity, consistent with dense vein sign, and magnetic resonance venography (MRV) confirmed the presence of thrombus. The initial treatment included subcutaneous enoxaparin with headache resolution, and she was discharged on apixaban. Five weeks later, a non-contrast head CT showed resolution of the dense vein sign and recanalisation of left transverse sinus was seen on MRV. This report has highlighted the need for increased awareness of coagulopathy and thrombotic events, including cerebral venous thrombosis, in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Unremitting headache, in context of SARS-CoV-2 infection, should be evaluated with appropriate neurovascular imaging. Controlled studies are required to compare the safety and efficacy of DOACs with warfarin for management of cerebral venous thrombosis.

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Topics: Venous thrombosis (60%), Warfarin (53%), Apixaban (52%) ... show more

1 Citations


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59 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMANEUROL.2020.1127
Ling Mao1, Huijuan Jin1, Mengdie Wang1, Yu Hu1  +9 moreInstitutions (2)
01 Jan 2020-JAMA Neurology
Abstract: Importance The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, is serious and has the potential to become an epidemic worldwide. Several studies have described typical clinical manifestations including fever, cough, diarrhea, and fatigue. However, to our knowledge, it has not been reported that patients with COVID-19 had any neurologic manifestations. Objective To study the neurologic manifestations of patients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants This is a retrospective, observational case series. Data were collected from January 16, 2020, to February 19, 2020, at 3 designated special care centers for COVID-19 (Main District, West Branch, and Tumor Center) of the Union Hospital of Huazhong University of Science and Technology in Wuhan, China. The study included 214 consecutive hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures Clinical data were extracted from electronic medical records, and data of all neurologic symptoms were checked by 2 trained neurologists. Neurologic manifestations fell into 3 categories: central nervous system manifestations (dizziness, headache, impaired consciousness, acute cerebrovascular disease, ataxia, and seizure), peripheral nervous system manifestations (taste impairment, smell impairment, vision impairment, and nerve pain), and skeletal muscular injury manifestations. Results Of 214 patients (mean [SD] age, 52.7 [15.5] years; 87 men [40.7%]) with COVID-19, 126 patients (58.9%) had nonsevere infection and 88 patients (41.1%) had severe infection according to their respiratory status. Overall, 78 patients (36.4%) had neurologic manifestations. Compared with patients with nonsevere infection, patients with severe infection were older, had more underlying disorders, especially hypertension, and showed fewer typical symptoms of COVID-19, such as fever and cough. Patients with more severe infection had neurologic manifestations, such as acute cerebrovascular diseases (5 [5.7%] vs 1 [0.8%]), impaired consciousness (13 [14.8%] vs 3 [2.4%]), and skeletal muscle injury (17 [19.3%] vs 6 [4.8%]). Conclusions and Relevance Patients with COVID-19 commonly have neurologic manifestations. During the epidemic period of COVID-19, when seeing patients with neurologic manifestations, clinicians should suspect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection as a differential diagnosis to avoid delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis and lose the chance to treat and prevent further transmission.

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3,518 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30937-5
02 May 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: www.thelancet.com Vol 395 May 2, 202

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Topics: Endotheliitis (68%)

3,207 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1161/01.STR.0000117571.76197.26
01 Mar 2004-Stroke
Abstract: Background and Purpose— The natural history and long-term prognosis of cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis (CVT) have not been examined previously by adequately powered prospective studies. Methods— We performed a multinational (21 countries), multicenter (89 centers), prospective observational study. Patients were followed up at 6 months and yearly thereafter. Primary outcome was death or dependence as assessed by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score >2 at the end of follow-up. Results— From May 1998 to May 2001, 624 adult patients with CVT were registered. At the end of follow-up (median 16 months), 356 patients (57.1%) had no symptom or signs (mRS=0), 137 (22%) had minor residual symptoms (mRS=1), and 47 (7.5%) had mild impairments (mRS=2). Eighteen (2.9%) were moderately impaired (mRS=3), 14 (2.2%) were severely handicapped (mRS=4 or 5), and 52 (8.3%) had died. Multivariate predictors of death or dependence were age >37 years (hazard ratio [HR]=2.0), male sex (HR=1.6), coma (HR=2.7), mental status disorder (HR=2.0), hemorrhage on admission CT scan (HR=1.9), thrombosis of the deep cerebral venous system (HR=2.9), central nervous system infection (HR=3.3), and cancer (HR=2.9). Fourteen patients (2.2%) had a recurrent sinus thrombosis, 27 (4.3%) had other thrombotic events, and 66 (10.6%) had seizures. Conclusions— The prognosis of CVT is better than reported previously. A subgroup (13%) of clinically identifiable CVT patients is at increased risk of bad outcome. These high-risk patients may benefit from more aggressive therapeutic interventions, to be studied in randomized clinical trials.

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Topics: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (57%), Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis (55%), Thrombosis (53%) ... show more

1,636 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JACC.2020.04.031
Abstract: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), a viral respiratory illness caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), may predispose patients to thrombotic disease, both in the venous and arterial circulations, because of excessive inflammation, platelet activation, endothelial dysfunction, and stasis. In addition, many patients receiving antithrombotic therapy for thrombotic disease may develop COVID-19, which can have implications for choice, dosing, and laboratory monitoring of antithrombotic therapy. Moreover, during a time with much focus on COVID-19, it is critical to consider how to optimize the available technology to care for patients without COVID-19 who have thrombotic disease. Herein, the authors review the current understanding of the pathogenesis, epidemiology, management, and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 who develop venous or arterial thrombosis, of those with pre-existing thrombotic disease who develop COVID-19, or those who need prevention or care for their thrombotic disease during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Topics: Platelet activation (54%), Antithrombotic (54%)

1,581 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMC2009787
Thomas J Oxley1, J Mocco1, Shahram Majidi1, Christopher P. Kellner1  +12 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Stroke in Young Patients with Covid-19 Five patients younger than 50 years of age with large-vessel stroke and Covid-19 infection presented to a health system in New York City over a 2-week period....

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Topics: Stroke (59%)

1,357 Citations