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Journal ArticleDOI

Challenge of Firearms Control in a Free Society

Philip J. Cook1
01 May 2018-Criminology and public policy (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)-Vol. 17, Iss: 2, pp 437-451
About: This article is published in Criminology and public policy.The article was published on 2018-05-01. It has received 5 citations till now.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
27 Feb 2019
TL;DR: In this paper, a national sample (n = 1,000) was surveyed in December 2017 regarding gun control policies following the mass murders at a concert in Las Vegas, NV and at a church Sutherland Springs, TX.
Abstract: Shortly following the mass murders at a concert in Las Vegas, NV and at a church Sutherland Springs, TX, a national sample (n = 1,000) was surveyed in December 2017 regarding gun control policies. ...

19 citations


Cites background from "Challenge of Firearms Control in a ..."

  • ...The NRA’s influence within the Republican Party is particularly strong, advancing an agenda “to continue deregulating gun transactions, possession, and use” (Cook, 2018, p. 447)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: New York City’s underground gun market is analyzed by closely examining the flow of guns into the two boroughs where gun violence and crime gun recoveries are most prevalent: the Bronx and Brooklyn to suggest that guns recovered in the Bronx were significantly more likely to originate in states with less restrictive gun laws and to have changed ownership in unregulated transactions relative to guns recovered elsewhere in NYC.
Abstract: New York City (NYC) has experienced large reductions in violent crime over the last two decades, but gun-related violence continues to pose a threat to public safety. Despite strong gun laws, high-risk individuals in NYC neighborhoods are unfortunately still able to access and misuse firearms. This research analyzes NYC's underground gun market by closely examining the flow of guns into the two boroughs where gun violence and crime gun recoveries are most prevalent: the Bronx and Brooklyn. A mixed methods approach is utilized that consists of an assessment of firearms trace data and in-depth interviews with individuals considered to be at high risk for involvement in gun violence. Findings suggest that guns recovered in the Bronx and Brooklyn were significantly more likely to originate in states with less restrictive gun laws and more likely to have changed ownership in unregulated transactions relative to guns recovered elsewhere in NYC. Interviews revealed three primary avenues for illegal guns reaching Bronx and Brooklyn neighborhoods: high-volume gun brokers, middlemen, and individuals who make episodic low-level acquisitions from straw purchasers in other states. No subjects identified theft as a meaningful source of crime guns.

14 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: In this paper, the Second Amendment applies to civil suits for trespass, negligence, and nuisance, and does not cover gun-neutral laws of general applicability like assault and disturbing the peace.
Abstract: Particularly in places with few recognizable gun control laws, “gun neutral” civil and criminal rules are an important but often-unnoticed basis for the legal regulation of guns. The burdens that these rules impose on the keeping and bearing of arms are at times significant, but they are also incidental, which raises hard questions about the boundaries between constitutional law, regulation, and legally enforceable private ordering. Does the Second Amendment apply to civil suits for trespass, negligence, and nuisance? Does the Amendment cover gun-neutral laws of general applicability like assault and disturbing the peace? In the course of addressing these practical questions and the broader conceptual challenges that they represent, this Article fashions analytic tools that may be useful to a wide range of constitutional problems.

5 citations

DOI
01 Jan 2019

Cites background or methods from "Challenge of Firearms Control in a ..."

  • ...In 2007, the NICS Improvement Amendments Act was passed to make mental health records available during criminal background checks for gun ownership (Cook, 2018)....

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  • ...This federal law requires that firearm sales conducted across state lines need to be done by licensed dealers or manufacturers (Cook, 2018)....

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  • ...Democrats and Republicans have compromised on legislation that would prohibit gun sales and ownership to the mentally ill and those who commit acts of domestic violence (Cook, 2018)....

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  • ...In 2005, the Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act gave gun manufacturers immunity from lawsuits that involve the misuse of a firearm (Cook, 2018)....

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  • ...In 1994, the Brady Bill required federal background checks on gun purchases and a five-day waiting period before transfer of ownership (Cook, 2018)....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used cross-sectional time-series data for U.S. counties from 1977 to 1992 to find that allowing citizens to carry concealed weapons deters violent crimes, without increasing accidental deaths.
Abstract: Using cross‐sectional time‐series data for U.S. counties from 1977 to 1992, we find that allowing citizens to carry concealed weapons deters violent crimes, without increasing accidental deaths. If those states without right‐to‐carry concealed gun provisions had adopted them in 1992, county‐ and state‐level data indicate that approximately 1,500 murders would have been avoided yearly. Similarly, we predict that rapes would have declined by over 4,000, robbery by over 11,000, and aggravated assaults by over 60,000. We also find criminals substituting into property crimes involving stealth, where the probability of contact between the criminal and the victim is minimal. Further, higher arrest and conviction rates consistently reduce crime. The estimated annual gain from all remaining states adopting these laws was at least $5.74 billion in 1992. The annual social benefit from an additional concealed handgun permit is as high as $5,000.

776 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: This article examined the relationship between gun ownership and crime and found that changes in gun ownership are significantly positively related to changes in the homicide rate, with this relationship driven entirely by the impact of gun ownership on murders in which a gun is used.
Abstract: This paper examines the relationship between gun ownership and crime. Previous research has suffered from a lack of reliable data on gun ownership. I exploit a unique data set to reliably estimate annual gun ownership rates at both the state and the county level during the past two decades. My findings demonstrate that changes in gun ownership are significantly positively related to changes in the homicide rate, with this relationship driven entirely by the impact of gun ownership on murders in which a gun is used. The effect of gun ownership on all other crime categories is much less marked. Recent reductions in the fraction of households owning a gun can explain at least one-third of the differential decline in gun homicides relative to non-gun homicides since 1993. I also use this data to examine the impact of Carrying Concealed Weapons legislation on crime, and reject the hypothesis that these laws led to increases in gun ownership or reductions in criminal activity.

277 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examined the relationship between gun ownership and crime and found that changes in gun ownership are significantly positively related to changes in the homicide rate, with this relationship driven almost entirely by an impact of gun ownership on murders in which a gun is used.
Abstract: This paper examines the relationship between gun ownership and crime. Previous research has suffered from a lack of reliable data on gun ownership. I exploit a unique data set to reliably estimate annual rates of gun ownership at both the state and the county levels during the past two decades. My findings demonstrate that changes in gun ownership are significantly positively related to changes in the homicide rate, with this relationship driven almost entirely by an impact of gun ownership on murders in which a gun is used. The effect of gun ownership on all other crime categories is much less marked. Recent reductions in the fraction of households owning a gun can explain one-third of the differential decline in gun homicides relative to nongun homicides since 1993.

262 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: For example, this article found that the percentage of suicides committed with a gun is most highly correlated with survey-based estimates and is the best choice for use in cross-section analysis of the effect of gun prevalence on crime patterns.
Abstract: Of the readily computed proxies for the prevalence of gun ownership, one, the percentage of suicides committed with a gun, is most highly correlated with survey-based estimates. It is the best choice for use in cross-section analysis of the effect of gun prevalence on crime patterns across states and larger counties. Analysis of this proxy measure for the period 1979–1997 demonstrates that the geographic structure of gun ownership has been highly stable. That structure is closely linked to rural tradition. There is, however, some tendency toward homogenization over this period, with high-prevalence states trending down and low-prevalence states trending up.

185 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper provided new estimates of the effect of household gun prevalence on homicide rates and infers the marginal external cost of handgun ownership, using a superior proxy for gun prevalence, the percentage of suicides committed with a gun, which they validate.

175 citations