# Characterisation of the Tri-Modal Discrete Sea Clutter Model

##### Citations

22 citations

13 citations

### Cites background from "Characterisation of the Tri-Modal D..."

...Number of Modes Required for the 3MD Distribution In previous work, it has been reported that three modes are sufficient to accurately model amplitude distributions from spaceborne SAR data [17], airborne SETHI SAR data, and airborne INGARA real aperture sea clutter data [26]....

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...Although not shown here, this result matches where the KR shape value is lowest indicating the spikiest clutter [26]....

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...Among the 12 datasets (monostatic and bistatic), 7 need 2 or 3 modes (which is in agreement with [17] and [26]), but we find that 5 datasets need 4 or 5 modes....

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...In previous work, it has been reported that three modes are sufficient to accurately model amplitude distributions from spaceborne SAR data [17], airborne SETHI SAR data, and airborne INGARA real aperture sea clutter data [26]....

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...Among the 12 datasets (monostatic and bistatic), 7 need 2 or 3 modes (which is in agreement with [17,26]), but we find that 5 datasets need 4 or 5 modes....

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4 citations

### Cites background from "Characterisation of the Tri-Modal D..."

...Since then, 3MD has been successfully applied to a very diverse set of airborne and space-based radar data and SAR imagery in different frequency bands and polarizations as well as EO/IR data, see [51]–[53]....

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3 citations

### Cites methods from "Characterisation of the Tri-Modal D..."

...The parameters may be estimated with a nonlinear LS fit to the data CCDF [9], [10], [19]....

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...Rosenberg and Angelliaume [9] applied the 3MD model to sea clutter data from real and synthetic aperture radars, finding that the model was able to represent the clutter statistics well in all cases....

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...In [9] and [10], the 3MD parameters were estimated with a nonlinear LS fit of the CCDF to the data....

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1 citations

##### References

548 citations

### "Characterisation of the Tri-Modal D..." refers methods in this paper

...The K+noise distribution has also been extended to a K+Rayleigh [8] distribution by taking into account any extra Rayleigh scattering not captured by the thermal noise....

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...Compound distribution models include the K or K+noise [2], KA [2], KK [3], Pareto or Pareto+noise [4]–[7] and the K+Rayleigh [8]....

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...The most commonly used PDF model for sea-clutter in both real and synthetic aperture radar is the K-distribution, or K+noise when thermal noise is included....

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378 citations

180 citations

### "Characterisation of the Tri-Modal D..." refers background or methods in this paper

...However, the threshold errors which focus on the distribution tail, reveal that the K+Rayleigh and Pareto+noise models have a similar fitting error, while the 3MD model is significantly lower....

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...The BD results focus on the overall fit and show that the K+Rayleigh model is slightly worse than the Pareto+noise and 3MD models....

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...K+Rayleigh, magenta - Pareto+noise, black - 3MD. IV....

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...When focusing on the tail of the distribution, low threshold errors are observed for both the K+Rayleigh and 3MD distributions, while the Pareto+noise model has a greater mismatch....

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...[4] and later by others at US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and DST Group [5]–[7]....

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108 citations

### "Characterisation of the Tri-Modal D..." refers background in this paper

...It was first used for seaclutter modelling by Balleri et al. [4] and later by others at US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and DST Group [5]–[7]....

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...[4] and later by others at US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and DST Group [5]–[7]....

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...In this paper, the 3MD model has been explored using data from the DST Group Ingara radar and the ONERA SETHI SAR....

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...A. Ingara real beam data Ingara is a polarimetric radar system maintained and operated within the DST Group in Australia [14]....

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101 citations