scispace - formally typeset
Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MOLECULES26051331

Characteristics of Periodontal Tissues in Prosthetic Treatment with Fixed Dental Prostheses

02 Mar 2021-Molecules (MDPI AG)-Vol. 26, Iss: 5, pp 1331
Abstract: The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of various types of fixed prostheses on periodontal tissues and explore the association of gingival biotype and gum recession in relation to prosthesis types. The study participants (N = 95) were divided into three groups based on the type of dental prosthesis: Group-I: cobalt-chrome (Co-Cr) ceramic prosthesis fabricated by the conventional method (n = 35); Group-II: consisted of patients with Co-Cr ceramic prostheses fabricated by a computer-aided design and computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique (n = 30); and Group-III: zirconia-based prostheses fabricated by the CAD/CAM technique (n = 30). Following the use of prostheses, periodontal examinations were performed using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and Modified Approximal Plaque Index (MAPI). In addition, the gingival biotype was examined using a probe transparency method. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), Version 20 (IBM Company, Chicago, IL, USA), was used to analyze the results, and the significance level was set at p = 0.05. It showed the MAPI results after the use of prosthetic rehabilitation for 12 months of periodontitis in 87.9% ± 15.4 of patients in Group-I, in 80.6% ± 17.97 in those in Group-II, and in 62.5% ± 21.4 in those in Group-III (p < 0.01). The CPI index results indicated a high prevalence of periodontal disease in all groups. The number of people with healthy periodontium constituted 17.1% of patients in Group-I, 24.2% in Group-II, and 37.1% in Group-III. Our study concluded that prosthetic treatment with periodontal diseases showed better outcomes while using dental prostheses fabricated by the CAD/CAM technique compared to the conventionally fabricated dental prostheses. The thin gingival biotype is more often associated with gingival recession than the thick biotype.

... read more

Topics: Dental prosthesis (58%), Gingival recession (56%), Prosthesis (55%) ... read more
Citations
  More

5 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS22115463
Abstract: The present in vivo study determined the microbiological counts of the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) among patients with fixed dental prostheses fabricated using three different techniques. A total of 129 subjects were divided into three study groups: first, cobalt-chrome-based, metal-ceramic prostheses fabricated by the conventional method (MC, n = 35); the second group consisted of cobalt-chrome-based, metal-ceramic prostheses fabricated by the computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique (CC-MC, n = 35); the third group comprised zirconia-based ceramic prostheses fabricated using the CAD/CAM technique (CC-Zr, n = 35). The control consisted of 24 patients using prostheses fabricated with either MC, CC-MC, or CC-Zr. The GCF was obtained from the subjects before treatment, and 6 and 12 months after the prosthetic treatment. Bacteriological and bacterioscopic analysis of the GCF was performed to analyze the patients’ GCF. The data were analyzed using SPSS V20 (IBM Company, Chicago, IL, USA). The number of microorganisms of the gingival crevicular fluid in all groups at 12 months of prosthetic treatment reduced dramatically compared with the data obtained before prosthetic treatment. Inflammatory processes in the periodontium occurred slowly in the case of zirconium oxide-based ceramic constructions due to their biocompatibility with the mucous membranes and tissues of the oral cavity as well as a reduced risk of dental biofilm formation. This should be considered by dentists and prosthodontists when choosing restoration materials for subjects with periodontal pathology.

... read more

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MOLECULES26175308
01 Sep 2021-Molecules
Abstract: Recently, translucent zirconia has become the most prevalent material used as a restorative material. This study aimed to compare the crown fracture load of the four most common different translucent zirconia brands available in the market at 1.5 mm thickness. Standardized tooth preparations for a full ceramic crown were designed digitally with software (AutoCAD) by placing a 1.0 mm chamfer margin and 1.5 mm occluso-cervical curvature for the crown sample manufacturing. Stylized crowns were chosen to control the thickness of the crown. The axial and occlusal thickness were standardized to 1.5 mm thickness except at the central pit, which was 1.3 mm thick. The STL file for the tooth dies was prepared using software (3Shape TRIOS® Patient Monitoring, Copenhagen, Denmark). The tooth dies were printed with a resin material (NextDent Model 2.0, Vertex-Dental B.V., Soesterberg, The Netherlands) using a 3D printing software (3D Sprint® Client Version 3.0.0.2494) from a 3D printer (NextDent™ 5100, Vertex-Dental B.V., Soesterberg, The Netherlands). The printing layer thickness was 50 µm. Then, a total of twenty-eight (N = 28) stylized crowns were milled out of AmannGirrbach (Amann Girrbach GmbH, Pforzheim, Germany) (n = 7), Cercon HT (Dentsply Sirona, Bensheim, Germany) (n = 7), Cercon XT (Dentsply Sirona, Bensheim, Germany) (n = 7), and Vita YZ XT (Zahnfabrik, Bad Sackingen, Germany) (n = 7). Following sintering the crowns, sandblasting was performed and they were bonded to the tooth dies with the resin cement (RelyX U-200, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany) and permitted to self-cure under finger pressure for 6 min. The crowns were loaded on the occlusal surface in a universal testing machine (MTS Centurion) with a stainless-steel ball indenter (7 mm radius) with a loading rate of 1 mm/min to contact the stylized crowns on each of the four cusps until failure. A rubber sheet (1.5 mm thickness) was positioned between the crown and indenter, which helped with the load distribution. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 20 (IBM Company, Chicago, USA). The fracture loads were analyzed using Dunnett's T3 test, and the number of cracks was analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test among the groups. The significant level was set at p value = 0.05. The mean fracture loads were 3086.54 ± 441.74 N, 4804.94 ± 70.12 N, 3317.76 ± 199.80 N, and 2921.87 ± 349.67 N for AmannGirrbac, Cercon HT, Cercon XT, and Vita YZ XT, respectively. The mean fracture loads for the surfaces with the greatest number of cracks (excluding the occlusal surfaces) were on the lingual surface for AmannGirrbach and Cercon HT, on the distal and mesial for Cercon XT, and on the buccal for Vita YZ XT. We found that the AmannGirrbach had the most overall cracks. Cercon XT had the greatest number of occlusal cracks and appeared to be the most shattered. Cercon HT had the least number of cracks. In conclusion, Cercon HT presented the best strength properties, the highest fracture load, and no visible cracks. AmannGirrbach presented the lowest strength properties.

... read more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/APP11104464
14 May 2021-Applied Sciences
Abstract: The loss of one or multiple fingers can lead to psychological problems as well as functional impairment. Various options exist for replacement and restoration after hand or finger loss. Prosthetic hand or finger prostheses improve esthetic outcomes and the quality of life for patients. Myoelectrically controlled hand prostheses have been used to attempt to produce different movements. The available articles (original research articles and review articles) on myoelectrically controlled finger/hand prostheses from January 1922 to February 2021 in English were reviewed using MEDLINE/PubMed, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect resources. The articles were searched using the keywords “finger/hand loss”, “finger prosthesis”, “myoelectric control”, and “prostheses” and relevant articles were selected. Myoelectric or electromyography (EMG) signals are read by myoelectrodes and the signals are amplified, from which the muscle’s naturally generated electricity can be measured. The control of the myoelectric (prosthetic) hands or fingers is important for artificial hand or finger movement; however, the precise control of prosthetic hands or fingers remains a problem. Rehabilitation after multiple finger loss is challenging. Implants in finger prostheses after multiple finger loss offer better finger prosthesis retention. This article presents an overview of myoelectric control regarding finger prosthesis for patients with finger implants following multiple finger loss.

... read more

Topics: Prosthesis (50%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MOLECULES26206113
10 Oct 2021-Molecules
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of biologically oriented preparation technique on the stress concentration of endodontically treated upper central incisors restored with zirconia crown (yttria-stabilized zirconia polycrystalline ceramic) through finite element analysis (FEA). Four models of maxillary central incisors containing enamel, dentin, periodontal ligament, cortical and medullary bone were created in CAD. Each model received a polymeric core-build up with nanofilled dental resin composite. The evaluated models were SM-preparation in shoulder 90°; CM-chamfer preparation; BOPT-biologically oriented preparation technique and BOPTB-BOPT preparation 1 mm below the cement-enamel junction. All models received zirconia crowns (5Y-TZP), fiberglass post and 1 mm ferrule. The models were imported into the analysis software with parameters for mechanical structural testing using the maximum principal stress and the tensile strength as the analysis criteria. Then, load of 150 N was applied at the cingulum with 45° slope to the long axis of the tooth, with the fixed base for each model. The type of marginal preparation affected the stresses concentration in endodontically treated teeth and in the zirconia crown margin. Considering the stress magnitude only, BOPT is a viable option for anterior monolithic zirconia crowns; however, with the highest stress magnitude at the restoration margin.

... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/POLYM13213761
30 Oct 2021-Polymers
Abstract: Recently, polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has been introduced to the dental market as a high-performance and chemically inert biomaterial. This study aimed to compare the wear resistance, abrasiveness, color stability, and displacement resistance of zirconia and PEEK milled crowns. An ideal tooth preparation of a first maxillary molar was done and scanned by an intraoral scanner to make a digital model. Then, the prosthetic crown was digitally designed on the CAD software, and the STL file was milled in zirconia (CaroZiir S, Carol Zircolite Pvt. Ltd., Gujarat, India) and PEEK (BioHpp, Bredent GmbH, Senden, Germany) crowns using five-axis CNC milling machines. The wear resistance, color stability, and displacement resistance of the milled monolithic zirconia with unfilled PEEK crowns using a chewing simulator with thermocyclic aging (120,000 cycles) were compared. The antagonist wear, material wear, color stability, and displacement were evaluated and compared among the groups using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney U-test. Zirconia was shown to be three times more abrasive than PEEK (p value < 0.05). Zirconia had twice the wear resistance of PEEK (p value < 0.05). Zirconia was more color stable than PEEK (p value < 0.05). PEEK had more displacement resistance than zirconia (p value < 0.05). PEEK offers minimal abrasion, better stress modulation through plastic deformation, and good color stability, which make it a promising alternative to zirconia crown.

... read more

Topics: Peek (57%)

1 Citations

References
  More

41 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/PRD.12002
Abstract: The pathogenesis of periodontitis involves a complex immune/inflammatory cascade that is initiated by the bacteria of the oral biofilm that forms naturally on the teeth. The susceptibility to periodontitis appears to be determined by the host response; specifically, the magnitude of the inflammatory response and the differential activation of immune pathways. The purpose of this review was to delineate our current knowledge of the host response in periodontitis. The role of innate immunity, the failure of acute inflammation to resolve (thus becoming chronic), the cytokine pathways that regulate the activation of acquired immunity and the cells and products of the immune system are considered. New information relating to regulation of both inflammation and the immune response will be reviewed in the context of susceptibility to, and perhaps control of, periodontitis.

... read more

Topics: Acquired immune system (60%), Innate immune system (58%), Periodontitis (57%) ... read more

606 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/0022034510376402
Gustavo Pompermaier Garlet1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Periodontal diseases (PD) are chronic infectious inflammatory diseases characterized by the destruction of tooth-supporting structures, being the presence of periodontopathogens required, but not sufficient, for disease development. As a general rule, host inflammatory mediators have been associated with tissue destruction, while anti-inflammatory mediators counteract and attenuate disease progression. With the discovery of several T-cell subsets bearing distinct immunoregulatory properties, this pro- vs. anti-inflammatory scenario became more complex, and a series of studies has hypothesized protective or destructive roles for Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg subpopulations of polarized lymphocytes. Interestingly, the “protective vs. destructive” archetype is usually considered in a framework related to tissue destruction and disease progression. However, it is important to remember that periodontal diseases are infectious inflammatory conditions, and recent studies have demonstrated that cytokines (TNF-α and IF...

... read more

452 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0022-3913(00)80016-5
John C. Wataha1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Statement Of Problem. Dental casting alloys are widely used in applications that place them into contact with oral tissues for many years. With the development of new dental alloys over the past 15 years, many questions remain about their biologic safety. Practitioners must choose among hundreds of alloy compositions, often without regard to biologic properties. Purpose. This article is an evidence-based tutorial for clinicians. Concepts and current issues relevant to the biologic effects of dental casting alloys are presented. Summary. The single most relevant property of a casting alloy to its biologic safety is its corrosion. Systemic and local toxicity, allergy, and carcinogenicity all result from elements in the alloy being released into the mouth during corrosion. Little evidence supports concerns of casting alloys causing systemic toxicity. The occurrence of local toxic effects (adjacent to the alloy) is not well documented, but is a higher risk, primarily because local tissues are exposed to much higher concentrations of released metal ions. Several elements such as nickel and cobalt have relatively high potential to cause allergy, but the true risk of using alloys containing these elements remains undefined. Prudence dictates that alloys containing these elements be avoided if possible. Several elements in casting alloys are known mutagens, and a few such as beryllium and cadmium are known carcinogens in different chemical forms. Despite these facts, carcinogenic effects from dental casting alloys have not been demonstrated. Prudent practitioners should avoid alloys containing these known carcinogens. Conclusion. To minimize biologic risks, dentists should select alloys that have the lowest release of elements (lowest corrosion). This goal can be achieved by using high-noble or noble alloys with single-phase microstructures. However, there are exceptions to this generality, and selection of an alloy should be made on a case-by-case basis using corrosion and biologic data from dental manufacturers. (J Prosthet Dent 2000;83:223-34.)

... read more

Topics: Dental Casting Technique (53%)

448 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1600-051X.2009.01398.X
Abstract: Aim: To detect groups of subjects in a sample of 100 periodontally healthy volunteers with different combinations of morphometric data related to central maxillary incisors and surrounding soft tissues. Material and Methods: Four clinical parameters were included in a cluster analysis: crown width/crown length ratio (CW/CL), gingival width (GW), papilla height (PH) and gingival thickness (GT). The latter was based on the transparency of the periodontal probe through the gingival margin while probing the buccal sulcus. Every first volunteer out of 10 was re-examined to evaluate intra-examiner repeatability for all variables. Results: High agreement between duplicate recordings was found for all parameters, in particular for GT, pointing to 85% (κ=0.70; p=0.002). The partitioning method identified three clusters with specific features. Cluster A1 (nine males, 28 females) displayed a slender tooth form (CW/CL=0.79), a GW of 4.92 mm, a PH of 4.29 mm and a thin gingiva (probe visible on one or both incisors in 100% of the subjects). Cluster A2 (29 males, five females) presented similar features (CW/CL=0.77; GW=5.2 mm; PH=4.54 mm), except for GT. These subjects showed a clear thick gingiva (probe concealed on both incisors in 97% of the subjects). The third group (cluster B: 12 males, 17 females) differed substantially from the other clusters in many parameters. These subjects showed a more quadratic tooth form (CW/CL=0.88), a broad zone of keratinized tissue (GW=5.84 mm), low papillae (PH=2.84 mm) and a thick gingiva (probe concealed on both incisors in 83% of the subjects). Conclusions: The present analysis, using a simple and reproducible method for GT assessment, confirmed the existence of gingival biotypes. A clear thin gingiva was found in about one-third of the sample in mainly female subjects with slender teeth, a narrow zone of keratinized tissue and a highly scalloped gingival margin corresponding to the features of the previously introduced “thin-scalloped biotype” (cluster A1). A clear thick gingiva was found in about two-thirds of the sample in mainly male subjects. About half of them showed quadratic teeth, a broad zone of keratinized tissue and a flat gingival margin corresponding to the features of the previously introduced “thick-flat biotype” (cluster B). The other half could not be classified as such. These subjects showed a clear thick gingiva with slender teeth, a narrow zone of keratinized tissue and a high gingival scallop (cluster A2).

... read more

Topics: Gingival margin (64%), Periodontal probe (55%)

324 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/154411130201300108
W. Geurtsen1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Most cast dental restorations are made from alloys or commercially pure titanium (cpTi). Many orthodontic appliances are also fabricated from metallic materials. It has been documented in vitro and in vivo that metallic dental devices release metal ions, mainly due to corrosion. Those metallic components may be locally and systemically distributed and could play a role in the etiology of oral and systemic pathological conditions. The quality and quantity of the released cations depend upon the type of alloy and various corrosion parameters. No general correlation has been observed between alloy nobility and corrosion. However, it has been documented that some Ni-based alloys, such as beryllium-containing Ni alloys, exhibit increased corrosion, specifically at low pH. Further, microparticles are abraded from metallic restorations due to wear. In sufficient quantities, released metal ions-particularly Cu, Ni, Be, and abraded microparticles-can also induce inflammation of the adjacent periodontal tissues and the oral mucosa. While there is also some in vitro evidence that the immune response can be altered by various metal ions, the role of these ions in oral inflammatory diseases such as gingivitis and periodontitis is unknown. Allergic reactions due to metallic dental restorations have been documented. Ni has especially been identified as being highly allergenic. Interestingly, from 34% to 65.5% of the patients who are allergic to Ni are also allergic to Pd. Further, Pd allergy always occurrs with Ni sensitivity. In contrast, no study has been published which supports the hypothesis that dental metallic materials are mutagenic/genotoxic or might be a carcinogenic hazard to man. Taken together, very contradictory data have been documented regarding the local and systemic effects of dental casting alloys and metallic ions released from them. Therefore, it is of critical importance to elucidate the release of cations from metallic dental restorations in the oral environment and to determine the biological interactions of released metal components with oral and systemic tissues.

... read more

228 Citations