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Journal ArticleDOI

Characterization and correction of spherical aberration due to glass substrate in the design and fabrication of Fresnel zone lenses

20 Aug 2013-Applied Optics (Appl Opt)-Vol. 52, Iss: 24, pp 5932-5940
TL;DR: Two novel schemes for correction of spherical aberration are proposed and studied and the accuracy of the proposed aberration correction schemes is validated.
Abstract: As with a conventional lens, a Fresnel zone lens (FZL) can be used to image objects at infinity or nearby In the latter case, the FZL converts a diverging spherical wavefront into a converging spherical wavefront The glass substrate on which the FZL is fabricated introduces spherical aberration resulting in a shift of the image plane and blurring of the image Two novel schemes for correction of this spherical aberration are proposed and studied in this paper To demonstrate them, FZLs are designed with and without aberration correction They are fabricated using electron beam direct writing The devices are evaluated and the accuracy of the proposed aberration correction schemes is validated
Topics: Spherical aberration (66%), Apochromat (64%), Contrast transfer function (61%), Lens (optics) (57%), Wavefront (56%)
Citations
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Posted Content
01 Aug 2017-arXiv: Optics
TL;DR: The reconstruction results of multiplane and thick objects by this technique are compared with regular lens-based imaging.
Abstract: We present a lensless, interferenceless incoherent digital holography technique based on the principle of coded aperture correlation holography. The acquired digital hologram by this technique contains a three-dimensional image of some observed scene. Light diffracted by a point object is modulated using a random-like coded phase mask (CPM) and the intensity pattern is recorded and composed as a point spread hologram (PSH). A library of PSH is created using the same CPM by moving the pinhole to all possible axial locations. Intensity diffracted through the same CPM from an object placed within the axial limits of the PSH library is recorded by a digital camera. The recorded intensity this time is composed as the object hologram. The image of the object at any axial plane is reconstructed by cross-correlating the object hologram with the corresponding component of the PSH library. The reconstruction noise attached to the image is suppressed by various methods. The reconstruction results of multi-plane and thick objects by this technique are compared with regular lens-based imaging.

27 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
14 Sep 2017-Scientific Reports
Abstract: We present a lensless, interferenceless incoherent digital holography technique based on the principle of coded aperture correlation holography. The acquired digital hologram by this technique contains a three-dimensional image of some observed scene. Light diffracted by a point object (pinhole) is modulated using a random-like coded phase mask (CPM) and the intensity pattern is recorded and composed as a point spread hologram (PSH). A library of PSHs is created using the same CPM by moving the pinhole to all possible axial locations. Intensity diffracted through the same CPM from an object placed within the axial limits of the PSH library is recorded by a digital camera. The recorded intensity this time is composed as the object hologram. The image of the object at any axial plane is reconstructed by cross-correlating the object hologram with the corresponding component of the PSH library. The reconstruction noise attached to the image is suppressed by various methods. The reconstruction results of multiplane and thick objects by this technique are compared with regular lens-based imaging.

23 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH) is a self-interference based super-resolution three-dimensional imaging technique. FINCH in inline configuration requires an active phase modulator to record at least three phase-shifted camera shots to reconstruct objects without twin image and bias terms. In this study, FINCH is realized using a randomly multiplexed bifocal binary diffractive Fresnel zone lenses fabricated using electron beam lithography. The object space is calibrated by axially scanning a point object along the optical axis and recording the corresponding point spread holograms (PSHs). An object is mounted within the calibrated object space, and the object hologram was recorded under identical experimental conditions used for recording the PSHs. The image of the object at different depths was reconstructed by a cross-correlation between the object hologram and the PSHs. Application potential including bio-medical optics is discussed.

20 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
20 Mar 2014-Applied Optics
TL;DR: Experimental results confirm the generation of a wavelength-independent ring pattern at the focus of the rf-FZL, which is found to be quasi-achromatic, in that the diameter is wavelength independent but its location is not.
Abstract: The phase of a standard Fresnel zone lens (FZL) is periodically modulated in the radial direction using the phase of a binary fraxicon. The resulting element (rf-FZL) focuses light into a ring. The ring is found to be quasi-achromatic, in that the diameter is wavelength independent but its location is not. The binary rf-FZL is fabricated using electron beam direct writing. Experimental results confirm the generation of a wavelength-independent ring pattern at the focus of the rf-FZL. An efficiency of 24% was obtained. The variation in radius of ring pattern was reduced from 61 μm to less than 10 nm for a corresponding wavelength variation from 532 to 633 nm.

13 citations


Cites background or methods from "Characterization and correction of ..."

  • ...A FZL is designed to be a phase-only element [1,19] in the u − v configuration [18] for the phase condition shown in 1559-128X/14/091970-05$15....

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  • ...Therefore, no additional collimating optics is required [18]....

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  • ...The difference in these valuesmay be due to fabrication errors and any remaining spherical aberration [18]....

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  • ...The spherical aberration introduced by the glass substrate on which the device is fabricated is corrected by modifying the radius of BFZL according to [18]....

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  • ...(2) and (7) after applying suitable aberration correction [18]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Diffractive optics has traditionally been used to transform a parallel beam of light into a pattern with a desired phase and intensity distribution. One of the advantages of using diffractive optics is the fact that multiple functions can be integrated into one element. Although, in theory, several functions can be combined, the efficiency is reduced with each added function. Also, depending on the nature of each function, feature sizes could get finer. Optical lithography with its 1 μm limit becomes inadequate for fabrication and sophisticated tools such as e-beam lithography and focused ion beam milling are required. Two different techniques, namely, a modulo-2π phase addition technique and an analog technique for design and fabrication of composite elements are studied. A comparison of the beams generated in both cases is presented. In order to be able to compare methods, specific functions of ring generation and focusing have been added in all cases.

11 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Ions of kiloelectron volt energies incident on a solid surface produce a number of effects: several atoms are sputtered off, several electrons are emitted, chemical reactions may be induced, atoms are displaced from their equilibrium positions, and ions implant themselves in the solid, altering its properties. Some of these effects, such as sputtering and implantation are widely used in semiconductor device fabrication and in other fields. Thus the capability to focus a beam of ions to submicrometer dimensions, i.e., dimensions compatible with the most demanding fabrication procedures, is an important development. The focused ion beam field has been spurred by the invention of the liquid metal ion source and by the utilization of focusing columns with mass separation capability. This has led to the use of alloy ion sources making available a large menu of ion species, in particular the dopants of Si and GaAs. The ability to sputter and to also induce deposition by causing breakdown of an adsorbed film has produced an immediate application of focused ion beams to photomask repair. The total number of focused ion beamfabrication systems in use worldwide is about 35, about 25 of them in Japan. In addition, there are many more simpler focused ion beam columns for specialized uses. The interest is growing rapidly. The following range of specifications of these systems has been reported: accelerating potential 3 to 200 kV, ion current density in focal spot up to 10 A/cm2, beam diameters from 0.05 to 1 μm, deflection accuracy of the beam over the surface ±0.1 μm, and ion species available Ga, Au, Si, Be, B, As, P, etc. Some of the applications which have been demonstrated or suggested include: mask repair, lithography (to replace electron beamlithography), direct, patterned, implantationdoping of semiconductors, ion induced deposition for circuit repair or rewiring, scanning ion microscopy, and scanning ion mass spectroscopy.

539 citations


"Characterization and correction of ..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...FZLs can be fabricated by different techniques, such as photolithography [12], electron beam direct writing [15], and focused ion beammilling [22]....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 1982-Optics Letters
TL;DR: A blazing technique using electron-beam lithography to achieve higher efficiency of gratings and Fresnel lenses is described, and the experimental results showed high-efficiency performance and nearly diffraction-limited focusing.
Abstract: A blazing technique using electron-beam lithography to achieve higher efficiency of gratings and Fresnel lenses is described. Transmission-type blazed gratings have been formed in polymethyl methacrylate films. As a result of measurement, we found that their diffraction efficiency of the first order in these gratings amounts to as much as 60 to 70% at 0.633 microm. Fresnel lenses of 1-mm diameter and 5-mm focal length, which have a sawtooth relief profile, have been also fabricated, and the experimental results showed high-efficiency performance (about 50%) and nearly diffraction-limited focusing.

160 citations


"Characterization and correction of ..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...In most of the earlier reported situations, the FZLs were designed for converting a plane wavefront into a converging spherical wavefront (f configuration) [8–12]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A new type of Fresnel zone plate has been constructed which can focus ultraviolet radiation of any wavelength down to the soft x-ray region. It consists of a set of thin circular gold bands made self supporting by radial struts, leaving the transparent zones empty. Experimental tests at 6700, 4358, and 2537 A showed that the theoretical minimum angular resolution obeys the Rayleigh criterion, sinθmin=1.22λ/D. The diameter of the zone plate is D=0.26 cm and contains 19 opaque zones, the narrowest of which measured about 20 μ across. The zone plate was better than the optimum pinhole in resolution by a factor of about 6 and in speed by a factor of 40. The zone plate produced pictures that compared favorably with those made with a lens of similar focal length and aperture. The lens was about 20 times faster than the zone plate at 4358 A, but at 1000 A the zone plate would have been far faster than the lens. Focusing tests are contemplated at 1000 A and at 100 A where lenses and mirrors, the conventional image-forming devices, may fail. The angular resolution at 2537 A was close to the theoretical value of 1.2×10−4 rad and held over a field of at least 1.75×10−2 rad, which is 2.0 times the angle subtended by the sun’s disk at the earth. A zone plate telescope, operating in the soft x-ray or extreme ultraviolet region, far above the earth’s atmosphere in an orbiting satellite, now seems possible.

137 citations


"Characterization and correction of ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Fresnel zone lenses (FZLs) have been widely used for various applications from focusing x rays to optical trapping [1–7]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Short wavelength x-ray radiation microscopy is well suited for a number of material and life science studies. The x-ray microscope (XM1) at the Advanced Light Source Synchrotron in Berkeley, California uses two diffractive Fresnel zone plate lenses. The first is a large condenser lens, which collects soft x-ray radiation from a bending magnet, focuses it, and serves as a linear monochromator. The second is the objective zone plate lens, which magnifies the image of the specimen onto a high-efficiency charge coupled device detector. The objective lens determines the numerical aperture and ultimate resolution. New objective lens zone plates with a minimum linewidth of 25 nm and excellent linewidth control have been fabricated using Berkeley Lab’s 100 keV Nanowriter electron beam lithography tool, a calixarene high-resolution negative resist, and gold electroplating. Although the condenser zone plate is less critical to the resolution of the instrument, its efficiency determines the flux on the sample and ul...

128 citations


Journal Article

126 citations


"Characterization and correction of ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Fresnel zone lenses (FZLs) have been widely used for various applications from focusing x rays to optical trapping [1–7]....

    [...]


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