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Journal ArticleDOI

Characterization of Gaseous Pollutants and Water-Soluble Inorganic Ions in PM2.5 during Summer Time at an Urban Site of North India

TL;DR: In this article, the authors used an annular denuder technique on a time resolution of 12h to measure gaseous O3, SO2, NO2, NH4+, Cl−, and NO3− from a Teflon filter and trapped in nylon filters.
Abstract: Gaseous toxic air pollutants are normally associated with acute short-term and chronic long-term health effects, and hence measurement of these pollutants is essential on a daily basis to understand the science of their occurrences. In this study, gaseous O3, SO2, NO2, NH3, HNO2, HNO3, and HCl and water-soluble inorganic ions (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+, NO3−, SO42−, and Cl−) in PM2.5 were measured during a summer in Kanpur, India, using an annular denuder technique on a time resolution of 12 h. The denuder technique revealed that evaporation losses of NH4+, Cl−, and NO3− from a Teflon filter and trapped in nylon filters were temperature sensitive. The evaporation losses were 17.8±8.7%, 29.5±19.3%, and 37.1±25.9% during daytime, and 10.2±6.4%, 17.7±10.1%, and 19.3±12.2% during nighttime for NH4+, Cl−, and NO3−, respectively. Overall, 24 h average concentrations of O3, SO2, NO2, NH3, HNO2, HNO3, and HCl were 49.6, 8.6, 34.2, 21.5, 3.6, 9.8, and 1.4 μgm−3, respectively; and 2.1, 1.5, 2.9, 1.1, 13.1,...
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results indicated that vehicular emission was the major source for PAHs contamination with moderate effect of coal combustion and biomass combustion andcinogenic potency of PAH load in traffic soil was nearly 6.15 times higher as compared to the control/rural soil.

196 citations


Cites background from "Characterization of Gaseous Polluta..."

  • ...In India in addition to gaseous and particulate air pollution (Shukla and Sharma, 2010; Behera et al., 2011, 2015; Singh et al., 2014; Behera et al., 2014) studies on PAH pollution on urban soil due to vehicular emission are also gaining importance (Ray et al., 2008; Agarwal et al., 2006; Sharma et…...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of the relationship of terrestrial mosses with trace metals with respect to their uptake, accumulation, and toxification as well as detoxification and tolerance mechanisms is described.
Abstract: Mosses were proved as an ideal and reliable biomonitor as well as an indicator of atmospheric trace metal pollution. They are used as model indicator species of air pollution since long back due to their simple structure, genetic diversity, totipotency, rapid colony-forming ability, and high metal resistance behavior. Bryomonitoring technique is gradually being popularized as an economically viable procedure for estimating the degrees of environmental health and evaluating the toxic pollutants in biosphere. Thus, in the present scenario, many parts of the world use these organisms for monitoring the air pollution. This article describes an overview of the relationship of terrestrial mosses with trace metals with respect to their uptake, accumulation, and toxification as well as detoxification and tolerance mechanisms. The review article explicitly expresses the caliber of the cryptogamic mosses in establishing the pristine environment around the world. It also highlights the underpinning mechanisms and potential for future research directions. We have referred more than 250 articles, which deals with the assessment and impact of different heavy metals on 52 numbers of different moss species belongs to different climatic zones. The present review covers the research work in this area carried out worldwide since 1965.

41 citations


Cites background from "Characterization of Gaseous Polluta..."

  • ...Pollutants occur in the environment can be gaseous (Yue et al. 2015) such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), nitric oxide (NO), ozone (O3), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), but among the above pollutants, CO2, H2S, and SO2 are soluble in water (Behera et al. 2015)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is emphasized that traffic could be one of the significant sources of ambient NH3 at the urban site of Delhi, as illustrated by positive correlations of NH3 with traffic related co-pollutants (NO and CO).
Abstract: In this study, ambient NH3, NO, NO2, CO and SO2 were measured continuously from February, 2008, to December, 2016. The annual average mixing ratios (mole/mole) of NH3, NO, NO2, CO and SO2 were 17.8 ± 3.4 ppb; 21.2 ± 2.3 ppb, 18.1 ± 3.2 ppb; 1.7 ± 0.3 ppm and 2.0 ± 0.3 ppb, respectively. All the trace gases (NH3, NO, NO2, CO and SO2) showed significant annual variation during the study. A significant increasing trend in mixing ratios of ambient NH3 and NO2 were observed at the observational site of Delhi, whereas, increasing trend were recorded in case of NO, CO and NO2 mixing ratios. The results emphasized that traffic could be one of the significant sources of ambient NH3 at the urban site of Delhi, as illustrated by positive correlations of NH3 with traffic related co-pollutants (NO and CO).

11 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2023-Toxics
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors collected and analyzed soil samples from two different cities in India, Jamshedpur and Amravati, to assess the sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their potential health risks.
Abstract: Industrial areas play an important role in the urban ecosystem. Industrial site environmental quality is linked to human health. Soil samples from two different cities in India, Jamshedpur and Amravati, were collected and analyzed to assess the sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in industrial areas and their potential health risks. The total concentration of 16 PAHs in JSR (Jamshedpur) varied from 1662.90 to 10,879.20 ng/g, whereas the concentration ranged from 1456.22 to 5403.45 ng/g in the soil of AMT (Amravati). The PAHs in the samples were dominated by four-ring PAHs, followed by five-ring PAHs, and a small percentage of two-ring PAHs. The ILCR (incremental lifetime cancer risk) of the soil of Amravati was lower compared to that of Jamshedpur. The risk due to PAH exposure for children and adults was reported to be in the order of ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation while for adolescents it was dermal contact > ingestion > inhalation in Jamshedpur. In contrast, in the soil of Amravati, the PAH exposure path risk for children and adolescents were the same and showed the following order: dermal contact > ingestion > inhalation while for the adulthood age group, the order was ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation. The diagnostic ratio approach was used to assess the sources of PAHs in various environmental media. The PAH sources were mainly dominated by coal and petroleum/oil combustion. As both the study areas belong to industrial sites, the significant sources were industrial emissions, followed by traffic emissions, coal combustion for domestic livelihood, as well as due to the geographical location of the sampling sites. The results of this investigation provide novel information for contamination evaluation and human health risk assessment in PAH-contaminated sites in India.

1 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the NH4NO3 dissociation constant was predicted from fundamental thermodynamic principles and the general trends predicted by the theory agree with the atmospheric data of Appel et al. (1979, 1980), Pitts (1978, 1979) and Tuazon et al (1980).

604 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, daily PM 2.5 aerosol samples were collected at five sites in Beijing for a 3-year period from 2001 to 2003, and 23 elements were measured for a total of 334 samples.

597 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Aerosol samples for PM10 and PM2.5 were collected by high-volume (hi-vol.) samplers and the concentrations of major elements, ions, organic and elemental carbons were quantified.

328 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to apportion sources of PM2.5, and eight sources were identified: biomass burning (11%), secondary sulfates (17%), secondary nitrates (14%), coal combustion (19%), industry (6%), motor vehicles (6), road dust (9%), and yellow dust.

327 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the results of the interpretation of the 2009 variability of levels of PM, Black Carbon (BC), aerosol number concentration (N) and a number of gaseous pollu- tants in seven selected urban areas covering road traffic, ur- ban background, urban-industrial, and urban-shipping envi- ronments from southern, central and northern Europe.
Abstract: In many large cities of Europe standard air quality limit values of particulate matter (PM) are exceeded. Emis- sions from road traffic and biomass burning are frequently reported to be the major causes. As a consequence of these exceedances a large number of air quality plans, most of them focusing on traffic emissions reductions, have been imple- mented in the last decade. In spite of this implementation, a number of cities did not record a decrease of PM levels. Thus, is the efficiency of air quality plans overestimated? Do the road traffic emissions contribute less than expected to am- bient air PM levels in urban areas? Or do we need a more specific metric to evaluate the impact of the above emissions on the levels of urban aerosols? This study shows the results of the interpretation of the 2009 variability of levels of PM, Black Carbon (BC), aerosol number concentration (N) and a number of gaseous pollu- tants in seven selected urban areas covering road traffic, ur- ban background, urban-industrial, and urban-shipping envi- ronments from southern, central and northern Europe. The results showed that variations of PM and N levels do not always reflect the variation of the impact of road traf-

327 citations