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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.VIROL.2021.02.002

Characterization of neutralizing versus binding antibodies and memory B cells in COVID-19 recovered individuals from India.

05 Mar 2021-Virology (Academic Press)-Vol. 558, pp 13-21
Abstract: India is one of the most affected countries by COVID-19 pandemic; but little is understood regarding immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 in this region. Herein we examined SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies, IgG, IgM, IgA and memory B cells in COVID-19 recovered individual from India. While a vast majority of COVID-19 recovered individuals showed SARS-CoV-2 RBD-specific IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies (38/42, 90.47%; 21/42, 50%; 33/42, 78.57% respectively), only half of them had appreciable neutralizing antibody titers. RBD-specific IgG, but not IgA or IgM titers, correlated with neutralizing antibody titers and RBD-specific memory B cell frequencies. These findings have timely significance for identifying potential donors for plasma therapy using RBD-specific IgG assays as surrogate measurement for neutralizing antibodies in India. Further, this study provides useful information needed for designing large-scale studies towards understanding of inter-individual variation in immune memory to SARS CoV-2 natural infection for future vaccine evaluation and implementation efforts.

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Topics: Neutralizing antibody (63%), Vaccine evaluation (55%), Antibody (54%) ... read more
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6 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/17562864211012835
Anat Achiron1, Mathilda Mandel1, Sapir Dreyer-Alster1, Gil Harari2  +7 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Background and Aims:The National Multiple Sclerosis Society and other expert organizations recommended that all patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) should be vaccinated against COVID-19. However,...

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Topics: Multiple sclerosis (56%)

93 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CMI.2021.05.008
Anat Achiron1, Michael Gurevich1, Rina Falb1, Sapir Dreyer-Alster1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Objectives The worldwide spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) highlights the need for assessment of long-term humoral immunity in convalescent subjects. Our objectives were to evaluate long-term IgG antibody response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and B-cell memory response in COVID-19 convalescent subjects. Methods Blood samples were collected from a cohort of subjects recovering from COVID-19 and from healthy subjects who donated blood. SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were quantitatively detected by ELISA using anti-S1 spike IgG. SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific IgG memory B cells were evaluated by reversed B-cell FluroSpot based on human IgG SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain in a randomly selected group of subjects recovering from COVID-19. Statistical analysis was performed with clinical variables and time post COVID-19 infection. Results Antibody response was not detected in 26 of 392 COVID-19 convalescent subjects (6.6%). Over a period of 9 months, the level of antibodies decreased by 50% but stabilized at 6 months, and a protective level prevailed for up to 9 months. No differences were found regarding IgG SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels for age, gender, and major blood types over time. Over time, asymptomatic COVID-19 subjects did not differ in antibody level from subjects with mild to severe disease. Repeated paired IgG SARS-CoV-2 antibody level analyses disclosed that, over 6 and 9 months, 15.3% (nine of 59) and 15.8% (three of 19) of subjects became SARS-CoV-2 IgG-seronegative, respectively, all with a low antibody level at 3 months. Rate of antibody decline was not affected by age, gender, or clinical symptomatology. In a subgroup of recovering subjects, memory B-cell response up to 9 months post-COVID-19 infection was undetectable in 31.8% of subjects (14/44), and there was no correlation with age, SARS-CoV-2 antibody level, or time post infection. Conclusions The majority of convalescent COVID-19 subjects develop an IgG SARS-CoV-2 antibody response and a protective level prevails over a period of up to 9 months, regardless of age, gender, major blood types or clinical symptomatology.

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Topics: Antibody (51%)

6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/V13101972
30 Sep 2021-Viruses
Abstract: Both the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and emergence of variants of concern have highlighted the need for functional antibody assays to monitor the humoral response over time. Antibodies directed against the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 are an important component of the neutralizing antibody response. In this work, we report that in a subset of patients-despite a decline in total S-specific antibodies-neutralizing antibody titers remain at a similar level for an average of 98 days in longitudinal sampling of a cohort of 59 Hispanic/Latino patients exposed to SARS-CoV-2. Our data suggest that 100% of seroconverting patients make detectable neutralizing antibody responses which can be quantified by a surrogate viral neutralization test. Examination of sera from ten out of the 59 subjects which received mRNA-based vaccination revealed that both IgG titers and neutralizing activity of sera were higher after vaccination compared to a cohort of 21 SARS-CoV-2 naive subjects. One dose was sufficient for the induction of a neutralizing antibody, but two doses were necessary to reach 100% surrogate virus neutralization in subjects irrespective of previous SARS-CoV-2 natural infection status. Like the pattern observed after natural infection, the total anti-S antibodies titers declined after the second vaccine dose; however, neutralizing activity remained relatively constant for more than 80 days after the first vaccine dose. Furthermore, our data indicates that-compared with mRNA vaccination-natural infection induces a more robust humoral immune response in unexposed subjects. This work is an important contribution to understanding the natural immune response to the novel coronavirus in a population severely impacted by SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, by comparing the dynamics of the immune response after the natural infection vs. the vaccination, these findings suggest that functional neutralizing antibody tests are more relevant indicators than the presence or absence of binding antibodies.

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Topics: Neutralizing antibody (64%), Antibody titer (58%), Antibody (54%) ... read more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1128/MSPHERE.00170-21
30 Jun 2021-
Abstract: Neutralizing antibodies are key determinants of protection from future infection, yet well-validated high-throughput assays for measuring titers of SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies are not generally available. Here, we describe the development and validation of IMMUNO-COV v2.0, a scalable surrogate virus assay, which titrates antibodies that block infection of Vero-ACE2 cells by a luciferase-encoding vesicular stomatitis virus displaying SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoproteins (VSV-SARS2-Fluc). Antibody titers, calculated using a standard curve consisting of stepped concentrations of SARS-CoV-2 spike monoclonal antibody, correlated closely (P < 0.0001) with titers obtained from a gold standard 50% plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT50%) performed using a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2. IMMUNO-COV v2.0 was comprehensively validated using data acquired from 242 assay runs performed over 7 days by five analysts, utilizing two separate virus lots, and 176 blood samples. Assay performance was acceptable for clinical use in human serum and plasma based on parameters including linearity, dynamic range, limit of blank and limit of detection, dilutional linearity and parallelism, precision, clinical agreement, matrix equivalence, clinical specificity and sensitivity, and robustness. Sufficient VSV-SARS2-Fluc virus reagent has been banked to test 5 million clinical samples. Notably, a significant drop in IMMUNO-COV v2.0 neutralizing antibody titers was observed over a 6-month period in people recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Together, our results demonstrate the feasibility and utility of IMMUNO-COV v2.0 for measuring SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies in vaccinated individuals and those recovering from natural infections. Such monitoring can be used to better understand what levels of neutralizing antibodies are required for protection from SARS-CoV-2 and what booster dosing schedules are needed to sustain vaccine-induced immunity. IMPORTANCE Since its emergence at the end of 2019, SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, has caused over 100 million infections and 2.4 million deaths worldwide. Recently, countries have begun administering approved COVID-19 vaccines, which elicit strong immune responses and prevent disease in most vaccinated individuals. A key component of the protective immune response is the production of neutralizing antibodies capable of preventing future SARS-CoV-2 infection. Yet, fundamental questions remain regarding the longevity of neutralizing antibody responses following infection or vaccination and the level of neutralizing antibodies required to confer protection. Our work is significant as it describes the development and validation of a scalable clinical assay that measures SARS-CoV-2-neutraling antibody titers. We have critical virus reagent to test over 5 million samples, making our assay well suited for widespread monitoring of SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies, which can in turn be used to inform vaccine dosing schedules and answer fundamental questions regarding SARS-CoV-2 immunity.

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Topics: Neutralizing antibody (62%), Antibody titer (54%), Monoclonal antibody (51%) ... read more

2 Citations



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56 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41586-020-2180-5
Jun Lan1, Jiwan Ge1, Jinfang Yu1, Sisi Shan1  +7 moreInstitutions (2)
30 Mar 2020-Nature
Abstract: A new and highly pathogenic coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, SARS-CoV-2) caused an outbreak in Wuhan city, Hubei province, China, starting from December 2019 that quickly spread nationwide and to other countries around the world1–3. Here, to better understand the initial step of infection at an atomic level, we determined the crystal structure of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 bound to the cell receptor ACE2. The overall ACE2-binding mode of the SARS-CoV-2 RBD is nearly identical to that of the SARS-CoV RBD, which also uses ACE2 as the cell receptor4. Structural analysis identified residues in the SARS-CoV-2 RBD that are essential for ACE2 binding, the majority of which either are highly conserved or share similar side chain properties with those in the SARS-CoV RBD. Such similarity in structure and sequence strongly indicate convergent evolution between the SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV RBDs for improved binding to ACE2, although SARS-CoV-2 does not cluster within SARS and SARS-related coronaviruses1–3,5. The epitopes of two SARS-CoV antibodies that target the RBD are also analysed for binding to the SARS-CoV-2 RBD, providing insights into the future identification of cross-reactive antibodies. High-resolution crystal structures of the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV in complex with ACE2 provide insights into the binding mode of these coronaviruses and highlight essential ACE2-interacting residues.

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Topics: Protein domain (51%)

2,729 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2020.05.015
25 Jun 2020-Cell
Abstract: Understanding adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is important for vaccine development, interpreting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis, and calibration of pandemic control measures. Using HLA class I and II predicted peptide "megapools," circulating SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells were identified in ∼70% and 100% of COVID-19 convalescent patients, respectively. CD4+ T cell responses to spike, the main target of most vaccine efforts, were robust and correlated with the magnitude of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA titers. The M, spike, and N proteins each accounted for 11%-27% of the total CD4+ response, with additional responses commonly targeting nsp3, nsp4, ORF3a, and ORF8, among others. For CD8+ T cells, spike and M were recognized, with at least eight SARS-CoV-2 ORFs targeted. Importantly, we detected SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD4+ T cells in ∼40%-60% of unexposed individuals, suggesting cross-reactive T cell recognition between circulating "common cold" coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2.

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Topics: Coronavirus (54%)

1,935 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.2020.4783
Chenguang Shen1, Zhaoqin Wang1, Fang Zhao1, Yang Yang1  +25 moreInstitutions (2)
27 Mar 2020-JAMA
Abstract: Importance Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic with no specific therapeutic agents and substantial mortality. It is critical to find new treatments. Objective To determine whether convalescent plasma transfusion may be beneficial in the treatment of critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Design, Setting, and Participants Case series of 5 critically ill patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who met the following criteria: severe pneumonia with rapid progression and continuously high viral load despite antiviral treatment; Pao2/Fio2 Exposures Patients received transfusion with convalescent plasma with a SARS-CoV-2–specific antibody (IgG) binding titer greater than 1:1000 (end point dilution titer, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) and a neutralization titer greater than 40 (end point dilution titer) that had been obtained from 5 patients who recovered from COVID-19. Convalescent plasma was administered between 10 and 22 days after admission. Main Outcomes and Measures Changes of body temperature, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (range 0-24, with higher scores indicating more severe illness), Pao2/Fio2, viral load, serum antibody titer, routine blood biochemical index, ARDS, and ventilatory and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) supports before and after convalescent plasma transfusion. Results All 5 patients (age range, 36-65 years; 2 women) were receiving mechanical ventilation at the time of treatment and all had received antiviral agents and methylprednisolone. Following plasma transfusion, body temperature normalized within 3 days in 4 of 5 patients, the SOFA score decreased, and Pao2/Fio2increased within 12 days (range, 172-276 before and 284-366 after). Viral loads also decreased and became negative within 12 days after the transfusion, and SARS-CoV-2–specific ELISA and neutralizing antibody titers increased following the transfusion (range, 40-60 before and 80-320 on day 7). ARDS resolved in 4 patients at 12 days after transfusion, and 3 patients were weaned from mechanical ventilation within 2 weeks of treatment. Of the 5 patients, 3 have been discharged from the hospital (length of stay: 53, 51, and 55 days), and 2 are in stable condition at 37 days after transfusion. Conclusions and Relevance In this preliminary uncontrolled case series of 5 critically ill patients with COVID-19 and ARDS, administration of convalescent plasma containing neutralizing antibody was followed by improvement in their clinical status. The limited sample size and study design preclude a definitive statement about the potential effectiveness of this treatment, and these observations require evaluation in clinical trials.

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Topics: SOFA score (53%), ARDS (53%), Viral load (52%) ... read more

1,704 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2020.03.045
Qihui Wang1, Yanfang Zhang1, Lili Wu1, Sheng Niu1  +13 moreInstitutions (6)
14 May 2020-Cell
Abstract: The recent emergence of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in China has caused significant public health concerns. Recently, ACE2 was reported as an entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we present the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of SARS-CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2-CTD) spike (S) protein in complex with human ACE2 (hACE2), which reveals a hACE2-binding mode similar overall to that observed for SARS-CoV. However, atomic details at the binding interface demonstrate that key residue substitutions in SARS-CoV-2-CTD slightly strengthen the interaction and lead to higher affinity for receptor binding than SARS-RBD. Additionally, a panel of murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) against SARS-CoV-S1/receptor-binding domain (RBD) were unable to interact with the SARS-CoV-2 S protein, indicating notable differences in antigenicity between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. These findings shed light on the viral pathogenesis and provide important structural information regarding development of therapeutic countermeasures against the emerging virus.

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Topics: Coronavirus (52%), Protein domain (52%), Viral protein (51%)

1,533 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.2004168117
Kai Duan1, Bende Liu, Li Cesheng, Huajun Zhang2  +44 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Currently, there are no approved specific antiviral agents for novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, 10 severe patients confirmed by real-time viral RNA test were enrolled prospectively. One dose of 200 mL of convalescent plasma (CP) derived from recently recovered donors with the neutralizing antibody titers above 1:640 was transfused to the patients as an addition to maximal supportive care and antiviral agents. The primary endpoint was the safety of CP transfusion. The second endpoints were the improvement of clinical symptoms and laboratory parameters within 3 d after CP transfusion. The median time from onset of illness to CP transfusion was 16.5 d. After CP transfusion, the level of neutralizing antibody increased rapidly up to 1:640 in five cases, while that of the other four cases maintained at a high level (1:640). The clinical symptoms were significantly improved along with increase of oxyhemoglobin saturation within 3 d. Several parameters tended to improve as compared to pretransfusion, including increased lymphocyte counts (0.65 × 109/L vs. 0.76 × 109/L) and decreased C-reactive protein (55.98 mg/L vs. 18.13 mg/L). Radiological examinations showed varying degrees of absorption of lung lesions within 7 d. The viral load was undetectable after transfusion in seven patients who had previous viremia. No severe adverse effects were observed. This study showed CP therapy was well tolerated and could potentially improve the clinical outcomes through neutralizing viremia in severe COVID-19 cases. The optimal dose and time point, as well as the clinical benefit of CP therapy, needs further investigation in larger well-controlled trials.

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Topics: Viral load (51%), Respiratory pharmacology (50%)

1,375 Citations


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