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Journal ArticleDOI

Characterizing Halbach EMAT Configurations for SH0 Ultrasonic Waves

06 Jan 2021-IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control (IEEE)-Vol. 68, Iss: 5, pp 1866-1875
Abstract: Electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) can efficiently generate the shear horizontal (SH) guided wave modes. In this article, the Halbach magnet array pattern is explored as an alternate to the conventional periodic permanent magnet (PPM) structure. The magnetic field strength of a Halbach array is significantly higher on one side of the structure while it is weak on the opposite side of the array. This magnetic field distribution enables Halbach EMATs to generate ultrasonic waves with relatively large amplitude. To observe this phenomenon, this study compares the amplitude generated from multiple single-row Halbach EMATs with single-row PPM EMAT configurations using finite-element-based simulation models for SH0 ultrasonic wave generation. This article then presents the ultrasonic wave fields generated by various double-row Halbach EMAT configurations using finite-element-based simulation models and experimentally validated for guided fundamental SH0 mode generated in an aluminum plate specimen. It is observed that distinct ultrasonic guided wave beam patterns be associated and predicted for different double-row Halbach EMAT configurations.

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Topics: Halbach array (66%), Electromagnetic acoustic transducer (64%), Guided wave testing (54%) ...read more
References
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Book
11 Aug 2014-
Abstract: Preface Acknowledgments 1. Introduction 2. Dispersion principles 3. Unbounded isotropic and anisotropic media 4. Reflection and refraction 5. Oblique incidence 6. Waves in plates 7. Surface and subsurface waves 8. Finite element method for guided wave mechanics 9. The semi-analytical finite element method (SAFE) 10. Guided waves in hollow cylinders 11. Circumferential guided waves 12. Guided waves in layered structures 13. Source influence on guided wave excitation 14. Horizontal shear 15. Guided waves in anisotropic media 16. Guided wave phased arrays in piping 17. Guided waves in viscoelastic media 18. Ultrasonic vibrations 19. Guided wave array transducers 20. Introduction to guided wave nonlinear methods 21. Guided wave imaging methods Appendix A: ultrasonic nondestructive testing principles, analysis and display technology Appendix B: basic formulas and concepts in the theory of elasticity Appendix C: physically based signal processing concepts for guided waves Appendix D: guided wave mode and frequency selection tips.

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614 citations


Book
03 Dec 2010-
Abstract: Preface. Introduction: Noncontact Ultrasonic Measurements. Brief Historical Sketch of EMAT. Electromagnetic Acoustic Resonance - EMAR. Part I: Development of EMAT Techniques. 1: Coupling Mechanism. 1.1. Background. 1.2. Generation Mechanism. 1.3. Receiving Mechanisms. 1.4. Comparison with Measurements. 2 : Available EMATS. 2.1. Bulk-Wave EMATs. 2.2. Longitudinal-Guided-Wave EMAT for Wires and Pipes. 2.3. PPM EMAT. 2.4. Meander-Line Coil SH-Wave EMAT. 2.5. SH-Wave EMAT for Chirp Pulse Compression. 2.6. Axial-Shear-Wave EMAT. 2.7. SH-Wave EMAT for Resonance in Bolt Head. 2.8. Rayleigh-Wave EMAT. 2.9. Line-Focusing EMAT. 2.10. Trapped-Torsional-Mode EMAT. 2.11. EMATs for High Temperature Measurements. 3: Brief Instruction To Build EMATs. 3.1. Coil. 3.2. Magnets. 3.3. Impedance Matching. Part II: Resonance Spectroscopy with EMATs -EMAR-. 4: Principles of EMAR for Spectral Response. 4.1. Through-Thickness Resonance. 4.2. Spectroscopy with Analog Superheterodyne Processing. 4.3. Determination of Resonance Frequency and Phase Angle. 5: Free-Decay Measurement For Attenuation And Internal Friction. 5.1. Difficulty of Attenuation Measurement. 5.2. Isolation of Ultrasonic Attenuation. 5.3. Measurement of Attenuation Coefficient. 5.4. Correction for Diffraction Loss. 5.5. Comparison with Conventional Technique. Part III: Physical-Acoustics Studies. 6: In-Situ Monitoring Of Dislocation Mobility. 6.1. Dislocation-Damping Model for Low Frequencies. 6.2. Elasto-Plastic Deformation in Copper. 6.3. Point-Defect Diffusion toward Dislocations in Deformed Aluminum. 6.4. Dislocation Damping after Elastic Deformation in Al-Zn Alloy. 6.5. Recovery and Recrystallization in Aluminum. 7: Elastic Constants and Internal Friction of Advanced Materials. 7.1. Mode Control in Resonance Ultrasound Spectroscopy by EMAR. 7.2. Inverse Calculation for Cij and Qij-1. 7.3. Monocrystal Copper. 7.4. Metal-Matrix Composites (SiCf/Ti-6Al-4V). 7.5. Lotus-Type Porous Copper. 7.6. Ni-Base Superalloys. 7.7. Thin Films. 7.8. Piezoelectric Material (Langasite: La3Ga5SiO14). 8: Nonlinear Acoustics. Part IV: Industrial Applications. 9: On-Line Texture Monitoring Of Steel Sheets. 9.1. Texture of Polycrystalline Metals. 9.2. Mathematical Expressions of Texture and Velocity Anisotropy. 9.3. Relation between ODCs and r-Values. 9.4. On-Line Monitoring with Magnetostrictive-Type EMATs. 10: Acoustoelastic Stress Measurements. 10.1. Nonlinear Elasticity. 10.2. Acoustoelastic Response of Solids. 10.3. Birefringence Acoustoelasticity. 10.4. Practical Stress Measurements with EMAR. 10.5. Monitoring Bolt Axial Stress. 11: Measurements On High-Temperature Steels. 11.1. Velocity Variation at High Temperatures. 11.2. Solidification-Shell Thickness of Continuous Casting S

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276 citations


Book ChapterDOI
R. B. Thompson1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 1990-Physical Acoustics

208 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
H. Kwun1, K.A. Bartels1Institutions (1)
01 Feb 1998-Ultrasonics
TL;DR: A description is given of its various scientific and engineering applications, including the study of wave dispersion in structures, global and long-range inspection of steel pipes and tubes, condition monitoring of machinery such as combustion engines, and onboard sensing of crash events for vehicle safety system operations.

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Abstract: The magnetostrictive sensor (MsS) is a type of transducer which can generate and detect time-varying stresses or strains in ferromagnetic materials. In this paper, a general description is first given of the physical principles of the MsS. sensor configuration and instrumentation, and operating characteristics and capabilities. Then a description is given of its various scientific and engineering applications, including the study of wave dispersion in structures, global and long-range inspection of steel pipes and tubes, condition monitoring of machinery such as combustion engines, and onboard sensing of crash events for vehicle safety system operations.

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183 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Masahiko Hirao1, Hirotsugu Ogi1Institutions (1)
Abstract: An EMAT technique has been developed to detect corrosion defects on the outer surfaces of steel pipelines. A periodic-permanent-magnet (PPM) EMAT is placed inside the pipe, which generates and receives the SH guided waves traveling in the circumferential direction with the axial polarization. Wheels installed on the PPM-EMAT facilitate the linear movement in the axial direction and are useful for a quick inspection. At each point in scanning, the amplitude and phase shift of the round-trip signals in the SH0 and SH1 modes are measured using a superheterodyne phase-sensitive detector. They respond uniquely to surface defects and provide relevant information for locating axial positions of defects and evaluating the depth. The amplitude and phase shift of the SH1 mode are more sensitive to the presence of the defects than those of the SH0 mode. This technique is useful even if the protective resin coating is tightly glued on the pipes and lowered the signal intensity.

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181 citations