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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Characterizing perceptual artifacts in compressed video streams

Kai Zeng1, Tiesong Zhao1, Abdul Rehman1, Zhou Wang1 
25 Feb 2014-Proceedings of SPIE (International Society for Optics and Photonics)-Vol. 9014, pp 173-182

TL;DR: This paper reexamine the perceptual artifacts created by standard video compression, summarizing commonly observed spatial and temporal perceptual distortions in compressed video, with emphasis on the perceptual temporal artifacts that have not been well identified or accounted for in previous studies.

AbstractTo achieve optimal video quality under bandwidth and power constraints, modern video coding techniques employ lossy coding schemes, which often create compression artifacts that may lead to degradation of perceptual video quality. Understanding and quantifying such perceptual artifacts play important roles in the development of effective video compression, streaming and quality enhancement systems. Moreover, the characteristics of compression artifacts evolve over time due to the continuous adoption of novel coding structures and strategies during the development of new video compression standards. In this paper, we reexamine the perceptual artifacts created by standard video compression, summarizing commonly observed spatial and temporal perceptual distortions in compressed video, with emphasis on the perceptual temporal artifacts that have not been well identified or accounted for in previous studies. Furthermore, a floating effect detection method is proposed that not only detects the existence of floating, but also segments the spatial regions where floating occurs∗.

Topics: Video compression picture types (66%), Video quality (66%), Multiview Video Coding (65%), Video processing (64%), Data compression (63%)

Summary (4 min read)

1. INTRODUCTION

  • The demand for high-performance network video communications has been increasing exponentially in recent years.
  • The poor video quality keeps challenging the viewers’ patience and becomes a core threat to the video service ecosystem.
  • Since compression is a major source of video quality degradation, the authors focuses on perceptual artifacts generated by standard video compression techniques in the current work.
  • Various types of artifacts created by standard compression schemes had been summarized previously.
  • Objective VQA techniques had also been designed to automatically evaluate the perceptual quality of compressed video streams.

2. PERCEPTUAL ARTIFACTS IN COMPRESSED VIDEO

  • Both spatial and temporal artifacts may exist in compressed video, where spatial artifacts refer to the distortions that can be observed in individual frames while temporal artifacts can only be seen during video playback.
  • Both spatial and temporal artifacts can be further divided into categories and subcategories of more specific distortion types.
  • A detailed description of the appearance and causes of each type of perceptual compression artifacts will be given in the following sections.
  • In addition to these artifacts, there are a number of other perceptual video artifacts that are often seen in real-world visual communication applications.
  • Since compression is not the main cause of these artifacts, they are beyond the major focus of the current paper.

2.1 Spatial Artifacts

  • Block-based video coding schemes create various spatial artifacts due to block partitioning and quantization.
  • These artifacts include blurring, blocking, ringing, basis pattern effect, and color bleeding.
  • They are detected without referencing to temporally neighboring frames, and thus can be better identified when the video is paused.
  • Due to the complexity of modern compression techniques, these artifacts are interrelated with each other, and the classification here is mainly based on their visual appearance.

2.1.1 Blurring

  • All modern video compression methods involve a frequency transform step followed by a quantization process that often removes small amplitude transform coefficients.
  • Since the energy of natural visual signals concentrate at low frequencies, quantization reduces high frequency energy in such signals, resulting in significant blurring effect in the reconstructed signals.
  • A visual example is given in Fig. 2, where the left picture is a reference frame extracted from the original video, and the middle and right pictures are two decoded H.264/AVC.
  • Frames with the de-blocking filter turned off and on, respectively.
  • It can be observed that without de-blocking filtering, the majority of blur occurs within each block while the blocking artifact across the block boundaries is quite severe, for example, in the marked rectangular region in Fig. 2(b).

2.1.2 Blocking

  • Blocking artifact or blockiness is a very common type of distortion frequently seen in reconstructed video produced by video compression standards, which use blocks of various sizes as the basic units for frequency transformation, quantization and motion estimation/compensation, thus producing false discontinuities across block boundaries.
  • Their visual appearance may be different, depending on the region where blockiness occurs.
  • Mosaic effect usually occurs when there is luminance transitions at large low-energy regions (e.g., walls, black/white boards, and desk surfaces).
  • Due to quantization within each block, nearly all AC coefficients are quantized to zero, and thus each block is reconstructed as a constant DC block, where the DC values vary from block to block.
  • This is often created by a combination of motion estimation/compensation based inter-frame prediction and blocking effect in the previous frame, where blockiness in the previous frame is transformed to the current frame via motion compensation as artificial edges.

2.1.3 Ringing

  • Sharp transitions in images such as strong edges and lines are transformed to many coefficients in frequency domain representations.
  • The quantization process results in partial loss or distortion of these coefficients.
  • When the remaining coefficients are combined to reconstruct the edges or lines, artificial wave-like or ripple structures are created in nearby regions, known as the ringing artifacts.
  • Such ringing artifacts are most significant when the edges or lines are sharp and strong, and when the regions near the edges or lines are smooth, where the visual masking effect is the weakest.
  • It is worth noting that when the ringing effect is combined with object motion in consecutive video frames, a special temporal artifact called mosquito noise is observed, which will be discussed later.

2.1.4 Basis pattern effect

  • The origin of the basis pattern effect is similar to that of the ringing effect, but the spatial regions where the basis pattern effect occurs are not restricted to sharp edges or lines.
  • More specifically, in certain texture regions with moderate energy, when the transform coefficients are quantized, there is a possibility that only one transform coefficient remains (while all other coefficients are quantized to zero or nearly zero).
  • As a result, when the image signal is reconstructed using a single coefficient, the basis pattern (e.g., a DCT basis) associated with the coefficient is created as a representation of the image structure.
  • Since the basis pattern effect usually occurs at texture regions, its visibility depends on the nature of the texture region.
  • By contrast, if the region is in the background and does not attract visual attention, then the effect is often ignored by human observers.

2.1.5 Color bleeding

  • Color bleeding is a result of inconsistent image rendering across the luminance and chromatic channels.
  • In the most popular YCbCr 4:2:0 video format, the color channels Cb and Cr have half resolution of the luminance channel Y in both horizontal and vertical dimensions.
  • After compression, all luminance and chromatic channels exhibit various types of distortions (such as blurring, blocking and ringing described earlier), and more importantly, these distortions are inconsistent across color channels.
  • Moreover, because of the lower resolution in the chromatic channels, the rendering processes inevitably involve interpolation operations, leading to additional inconsistent color spreading in the rendering result.
  • In the literature, it was shown that chromatic distortion is helpful in color image quality assessment,9 but how color bleeding affects the overall perceptual quality of compressed video is still an unsolved problem.

2.2 Temporal Artifacts

  • Temporal artifacts refer to those distortion effects that are not observed when the video is paused but during video playback.
  • Temporal artifacts are of particular interest to us for two reasons.
  • First, as compared to spatial artifacts, temporal artifacts evolve more significantly with the development of video coding techniques.
  • Video, but is largely reduced in the latest HEVC coded video.
  • Second, objective evaluation of such artifacts is more challenging, and popular VQA models often fail to account for these artifacts.

2.2.1 Flickering

  • Flickering artifact generally refers to frequent luminance or chrominance changes along temporal dimension that does not appear in uncompressed reference video.
  • Mosquito noise is a joint effect of object motion and time-varying spatial artifacts (such as ringing and motion prediction error) near sharp object boundaries.
  • Specifically, the ringing and motion prediction error are most manifest at the regions near the boundaries of objects.
  • Coarse-granularity flickering refers to low-frequency sudden luminance changes in large spatial regions that could extend to the entire video frame.

2.2.3 Floating

  • Floating refers to the appearance of illusive motion in certain regions as opposed to their surrounding background.
  • Visually these regions create a strong perceptual illusion as if they were floating on top of the surrounding background.
  • Many video encoders choose to encode the blocks in the texture regions with zero motion and Skip mode.
  • Different from texture floating, edge neighborhood floating may appear without global motion.
  • Previously, this effect was also called stationary area temporal fluctuations.

3. TEXTURE FLOATING DETECTION

  • Among all types of temporal artifacts, texture floating is perhaps the least identified in the literature, but in their study, is found to be highly eye-catching and visually annoying when it exists.
  • Texture floating is typically observed in the video frames with global camera motion, including translation, rotation and zooming, also known as Global motion.
  • Therefore, the authors define two threshold energy parameters E1, E2 in their algorithm to constrain the energy range for texture floating detection.
  • In the reconstruction of video frames, erroneous motion estimation/compensation leads to significant distortions along temporal direction.
  • Fig. 7 demonstrates the performance of the proposed algorithm.

4. CONCLUSION

  • The authors reexamine perceptual artifacts created by state-of-the-art video compression technologies.
  • In particular, the fine classification, the new naming approach, and the corresponding descriptions of the temporal flickering and floating effects are new to the literature.
  • Related features are identified and a novel objective floating artifact detection algorithm is proposed, which not only detects the existence of texture floating, but also locates the texture floating regions in each video frame.
  • The current work also lays out a work plan for future studies.
  • Secondly, video encoders may be designed to eliminate or minimize the impact of these perceptual artifacts.

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Characterizing Perceptual Artifacts in Compressed
Video Streams
Kai Zeng, Tiesong Zhao, Abdul Rehman and Zhou Wang
Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada
ABSTRACT
To achieve optimal video quality under bandwidth and power constraints, modern video coding techniques em-
ploy lossy coding schemes, which often create compression artifacts that may lead to degradation of perceptual
video quality. Understanding and quantifying such perceptual artifacts play important roles in the development
of effective video compression, streaming and quality enhancement systems. Moreover, the characteristics of
compression artifacts evolve over time due to the continuous adoption of novel coding structures and strategies
during the development of new video compression standards. In this paper, we reexamine the perceptual arti-
facts created by standard video compression, summarizing commonly observed spatial and temporal perceptual
distortions in compressed video, with emphasis on the perceptual temporal artifacts that have not been well
identified or accounted for in previous studies. Furthermore, a floating effect detection method is proposed that
not only detects the existence of floating, but also segments the spatial regions where floating occurs
.
Keywords: video compression, video quality assessment, compression artifact, H.264-MPEG4/AVC, HEVC,
flickering, floating detection
1. INTRODUCTION
The demand for high-performance network video communications has been increasing exponentially in recent
years. According to Cisco Visual Networking Index, the sum of all forms of video (TV, VoD, Internet, and
P2P) will constitute approximately 90 percent of global consumer traffic by 2015.
1
A high-performance video
compression technology is critical for current industrial video communication systems to catch up with such
increasing demand. A fundamental issue in the design of video compression systems is to achieve an optimal
compromise between the availability of resources (i.e. bandwidth, power, and time) and the perceptual quality
of the compressed video. The constraint in available resources often leads to degradations of perceptual quality
by introducing compression artifacts in the decoded video. For example, large quantization step could reduce
power consumption, encoding time, as well as the bandwidth needed to encode the video, but, unfortunately,
also results in video quality degradation.
Consumers’ expectations for better Quality-of-Experience (QoE) nowdays has been higher than ever before.
Despite the fast technological development in telecommunication and display devices, poor video quality origi-
nated from compression and streaming processes has disappointed a large volume of consumers, resulting in major
revenue lost in digital media communication industry. Based on a recent viewer experience study,
2
“In 2012,
global premium content brands lost $2.16 billion of revenue due to poor quality video streams and are expected
to miss out on an astounding $20 billion through 2017”. The poor video quality keeps challenging the viewers’
patience and becomes a core threat to the video service ecosystem. According to the same study,
2
roughly
60% of all video streams experienced quality degradation in 2012. In another recent study,
3
90.4% interviewers
reported “end-user video quality monitoring as either “critical”, “very important”, or “important” to their video
Further author information: (Send correspondence to Kai Zeng)
Kai Zeng: E-mail: kzeng@uwaterloo.ca, Telephone: 1 519 888 4567 ext. 31449
Tiesong Zhao: E-mail: ztiesong@uwaterloo.ca, Telephone: 1 519 888 4567 ext. 31448
Abdul Rehman: E-mail: abdul.rehman@uwaterloo.ca, Telephone: 1 519 888 4567 ext. 31449
Zhou Wang: E-mail: zhou.wang@uwaterloo.ca, Telephone: 1 519 888 4567 ext. 35301
Image and video examples that demonstrate various types of spatial and temporal compression artifacts are available
at https://ece.uwaterloo.ca/
~
z70wang/research/compression_artifacts/.
Presented at: IS&T/SPIE Annual Symposium on Electronic Imaging, San Francisco, CA, Feb. 2-6, 2014
Published in: Human Vision and Electronic Imaging XIX, Proc. SPIE, vol. 9014. @SPIE

initiatives”, and almost half of the customer phone calls is related to video quality problems in Video-on-Demand
(VOD) services and HDTV. Additionally, even though 58.1% of the interviewed subjects reported the end-user
QoE is “critical” and requires to be monitored, only 31% said they use network monitoring tools to discover
quality problems.
3
Therefore, there is an urgent need of effective and efficient objective video quality assessment
(VQA) tools in current media network communication systems that can provide reliable quality measurement of
end users’ visual QoE.
Since compression is a major source of video quality degradation, we focuses on perceptual artifacts generated
by standard video compression techniques in the current work. Various types of artifacts created by standard
compression schemes had been summarized previously.
4
Objective VQA techniques had also been designed to
automatically evaluate the perceptual quality of compressed video streams.
5
However, recent studies suggest
that widely recognized VQA models (though promising) only achieve limited success in predicting the perceptual
coding gain between state-of-the-art video coding techniques, and problems often occur when specific temporal
artifacts appear in the compressed video streams.
6
This is likely due to the adoption of the novel coding
structures and strategies in the latest development of video compression standards such as H.264/AVC
7
and the
high efficiency video coding (HEVC).
8
This motivates us to reexamine the perceptual artifacts created by video
compression, with emphasis on the perceptual temporal artifacts that have not been well identified or accounted
for in previous studies.
In this paper, we first attempt to elaborate various spatial and temporal artifacts originated from standard
video compression. These include both conventional artifacts and those emerged recently in the new coding
standards, such as various flickering and floating effects. Examples are provided to demonstrate the artifacts in
different categories. Possible reasons and consequences of these artifacts together with their perceptual impact
are discussed in the context of compression. Finally, an objective floating artifact detection scheme is proposed,
which not only detects the existence of floating, but also indicates the location of floating regions in each video
frame.
2. PERCEPTUAL ARTIFACTS IN COMPRESSED VIDEO
A diagram that summarizes various types of compression artifacts is given in Fig. 1. Both spatial and temporal
artifacts may exist in compressed video, where spatial artifacts refer to the distortions that can be observed in
individual frames while temporal artifacts can only be seen during video playback. Both spatial and temporal
artifacts can be further divided into categories and subcategories of more specific distortion types. A detailed
description of the appearance and causes of each type of perceptual compression artifacts will be given in the
following sections. In addition to these artifacts, there are a number of other perceptual video artifacts that
are often seen in real-world visual communication applications. These include those artifacts generated during
video acquisition (e.g., camera noise, camera motion blur, and line/frame jittering), during video transmission
in error-prone networks (e.g., video freezing, jittering, and erroneously decoded blocks caused by packet loss and
delay), and during video post-processing and display (e.g., post deblocking and noise filtering, spatial scaling,
retargeting, chromatic aberration, and pincushion distortion). Since compression is not the main cause of these
artifacts, they are beyond the major focus of the current paper.
2.1 Spatial Artifacts
Block-based video coding schemes create various spatial artifacts due to block partitioning and quantization.
These artifacts include blurring, blocking, ringing, basis pattern effect, and color bleeding. They are detected
without referencing to temporally neighboring frames, and thus can be better identified when the video is paused.
Due to the complexity of modern compression techniques, these artifacts are interrelated with each other, and
the classification here is mainly based on their visual appearance.
2.1.1 Blurring
All modern video compression methods involve a frequency transform step followed by a quantization process
that often removes small amplitude transform coefficients. Since the energy of natural visual signals concentrate
at low frequencies, quantization reduces high frequency energy in such signals, resulting in significant blurring
effect in the reconstructed signals. Perceptually, blurring typically manifests itself as a loss of spatial details or

spatial
artifacts
temporal
artifacts
compression
artifacts
ringing
blocking
blurring
color bleeding
mosaicing effect
basis pattern effect
staircase effect
false edge
flickering
floating
jerkiness
edge neighborhood floating
texture floating
mosquito noise
fine-granularity flickering
coarse-granularity flickering
Figure 1. Categorization of perceptual artifacts created by video compression
sharpness at edges or texture regions in the image. Since in block-based coding schemes, frequency transformation
and quantization are usually conducted within individual image blocks, blurring caused by such processes is often
created inside the blocks.
Another source of blurring effect is in-loop de-blocking filtering, which is employed to reduce the blocking
artifact across block boundaries, and are adopted as options by state-of-the-art video coding standards such as
H.264/AVC and HEVC. The de-blocking operators are essentially spatially adaptive low-pass filters that smooth
the block boundaries, and thus produces perceptual blurring effect.
A visual example is given in Fig. 2, where the left picture is a reference frame extracted from the original
video, and the middle and right pictures are two decoded H.264/AVC frames with the de-blocking filter turned
off and on, respectively. It can be observed that without de-blocking filtering, the majority of blur occurs within
each block while the blocking artifact across the block boundaries is quite severe, for example, in the marked
rectangular region in Fig. 2(b). When the de-blocking filter is turned on, much smoother luminance transition
is observed in the same region, as shown in Fig. 2(c), but the overall appearance of the picture is more blurry.
(a)
(c)(b)
Figure 2. An example of spatial artifacts created by video compression. (a) Reference frame; (b) Compressed frame with
de-blocking filter turned off; (c) Compressed frame with de-blocking filter turned on.
2.1.2 Blocking
Blocking artifact or blockiness is a very common type of distortion frequently seen in reconstructed video produced
by video compression standards, which use blocks of various sizes as the basic units for frequency transformation,
quantization and motion estimation/compensation, thus producing false discontinuities across block boundaries.
Although all blocking effects are generated because of similar reasons mentioned above, their visual appearance
may be different, depending on the region where blockiness occurs. Therefore, here we further classify the
blocking effects into three subcategories.

(a)
(b)
Figure 3. An example of blocking artifacts. (a) Reference frame; (b) Compressed frame with three types of blocking
artifacts: mosaic effect (elliptical region); staircase effect (rectangular region); false edge (triangular region).
Mosaic effect usually occurs when there is luminance transitions at large low-energy regions (e.g., walls,
black/white boards, and desk surfaces). Due to quantization within each block, nearly all AC coefficients
are quantized to zero, and thus each block is reconstructed as a constant DC block, where the DC values
vary from block to block. When all blocks are put together, mosaic effect manifests as abrupt luminance
change from one block to another across the space. The mosaic effect is highly visible and annoying to
the visual system, where the visual masking effect (which stands for the reduced visibility of one image
component due to the existence of another neighboring image component) is the weakest at smooth regions.
An example is shown in the marked elliptical region in Fig. 3(b).
Staircase effect typically happens along a diagonal line or curve, which, when mixed with the false
horizontal and vertical edges at block boundaries, creates fake staircase structures. In Fig. 3(b), an example
of staircase effect is highlighted in the marked rectangle region.
False edge is a fake edge that appears near a true edge. This is often created by a combination of motion
estimation/compensation based inter-frame prediction and blocking effect in the previous frame, where
blockiness in the previous frame is transformed to the current frame via motion compensation as artificial
edges. An example is given in the triangle marked region in Fig. 3(b).
2.1.3 Ringing
Sharp transitions in images such as strong edges and lines are transformed to many coefficients in frequency
domain representations. The quantization process results in partial loss or distortion of these coefficients. When
the remaining coefficients are combined to reconstruct the edges or lines, artificial wave-like or ripple structures
are created in nearby regions, known as the ringing artifacts. Such ringing artifacts are most significant when
the edges or lines are sharp and strong, and when the regions near the edges or lines are smooth, where the
visual masking effect is the weakest. Fig. 4(b) shows an example of ringing artifacts. It is worth noting that
when the ringing effect is combined with object motion in consecutive video frames, a special temporal artifact
called mosquito noise is observed, which will be discussed later.
2.1.4 Basis pattern effect
The origin of the basis pattern effect is similar to that of the ringing effect, but the spatial regions where the basis
pattern effect occurs are not restricted to sharp edges or lines. More specifically, in certain texture regions with
moderate energy, when the transform coefficients are quantized, there is a possibility that only one transform
coefficient remains (while all other coefficients are quantized to zero or nearly zero). As a result, when the
image signal is reconstructed using a single coefficient, the basis pattern (e.g., a DCT basis) associated with the
coefficient is created as a representation of the image structure. An example is shown in Fig. 5(b), in which the

(a) (b)
Figure 4. An example of ringing artifact. (a) Reference frame; (b) Compressed frame with ringing artifact.
basis pattern effect is highlighted in the marked rectangular regions. Since the basis pattern effect usually occurs
at texture regions, its visibility depends on the nature of the texture region. If the region is in the foreground
and attract visual attention, the basis pattern effect will have strong impact on perceived video quality. By
contrast, if the region is in the background and does not attract visual attention, then the effect is often ignored
by human observers.
(b)(a)
Figure 5. An example of basis pattern effect. (a) Reference frame; (b) Compressed frame with basis pattern effect.
2.1.5 Color bleeding
Color bleeding is a result of inconsistent image rendering across the luminance and chromatic channels. For
example, in the most popular YCbCr 4:2:0 video format, the color channels Cb and Cr have half resolution
of the luminance channel Y in both horizontal and vertical dimensions. After compression, all luminance and
chromatic channels exhibit various types of distortions (such as blurring, blocking and ringing described earlier),
and more importantly, these distortions are inconsistent across color channels. Moreover, because of the lower
resolution in the chromatic channels, the rendering processes inevitably involve interpolation operations, leading
to additional inconsistent color spreading in the rendering result. In the literature, it was shown that chromatic
distortion is helpful in color image quality assessment,
9
but how color bleeding affects the overall perceptual
quality of compressed video is still an unsolved problem. An example of color bleeding is given in the highlighted
elliptical region in Fig. 6(b).
2.2 Temporal Artifacts
Temporal artifacts refer to those distortion effects that are not observed when the video is paused but during
video playback. Temporal artifacts are of particular interest to us for two reasons. First, as compared to
spatial artifacts, temporal artifacts evolve more significantly with the development of video coding techniques.

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Yi Xu1, Longwen Gao1, Kai Tian1, Shuigeng Zhou1, Huyang Sun 
Abstract: Video compression artifact reduction aims to recover high-quality videos from low-quality compressed videos. Most existing approaches use a single neighboring frame or a pair of neighboring frames (preceding and/or following the target frame) for this task. Furthermore, as frames of high quality overall may contain low-quality patches, and high-quality patches may exist in frames of low quality overall, current methods focusing on nearby peak-quality frames (PQFs) may miss high-quality details in low-quality frames. To remedy these shortcomings, in this paper we propose a novel end-to-end deep neural network called non-local ConvLSTM (NL-ConvLSTM in short) that exploits multiple consecutive frames. An approximate non-local strategy is introduced in NL-ConvLSTM to capture global motion patterns and trace the spatiotemporal dependency in a video sequence. This approximate strategy makes the non-local module work in a fast and low space-cost way. Our method uses the preceding and following frames of the target frame to generate a residual, from which a higher quality frame is reconstructed. Experiments on two datasets show that NL-ConvLSTM outperforms the existing methods.

14 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Objective methods for assessing perceptual image quality traditionally attempted to quantify the visibility of errors (differences) between a distorted image and a reference image using a variety of known properties of the human visual system. Under the assumption that human visual perception is highly adapted for extracting structural information from a scene, we introduce an alternative complementary framework for quality assessment based on the degradation of structural information. As a specific example of this concept, we develop a structural similarity index and demonstrate its promise through a set of intuitive examples, as well as comparison to both subjective ratings and state-of-the-art objective methods on a database of images compressed with JPEG and JPEG2000. A MATLAB implementation of the proposed algorithm is available online at http://www.cns.nyu.edu//spl sim/lcv/ssim/.

30,333 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of the technical features of H.264/AVC is provided, profiles and applications for the standard are described, and the history of the standardization process is outlined.
Abstract: H.264/AVC is newest video coding standard of the ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group and the ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group. The main goals of the H.264/AVC standardization effort have been enhanced compression performance and provision of a "network-friendly" video representation addressing "conversational" (video telephony) and "nonconversational" (storage, broadcast, or streaming) applications. H.264/AVC has achieved a significant improvement in rate-distortion efficiency relative to existing standards. This article provides an overview of the technical features of H.264/AVC, describes profiles and applications for the standard, and outlines the history of the standardization process.

8,302 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The main goal of the HEVC standardization effort is to enable significantly improved compression performance relative to existing standards-in the range of 50% bit-rate reduction for equal perceptual video quality.
Abstract: High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) is currently being prepared as the newest video coding standard of the ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group and the ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group. The main goal of the HEVC standardization effort is to enable significantly improved compression performance relative to existing standards-in the range of 50% bit-rate reduction for equal perceptual video quality. This paper provides an overview of the technical features and characteristics of the HEVC standard.

6,143 citations


"Characterizing perceptual artifacts..." refers background in this paper

  • ...264/AVC(7) and the high efficiency video coding (HEVC).(8) This motivates us to reexamine the perceptual artifacts created by video compression, with emphasis on the perceptual temporal artifacts that have not been well identified or accounted for in previous studies....

    [...]


Proceedings ArticleDOI
09 Nov 2003
TL;DR: This paper proposes a multiscale structural similarity method, which supplies more flexibility than previous single-scale methods in incorporating the variations of viewing conditions, and develops an image synthesis method to calibrate the parameters that define the relative importance of different scales.
Abstract: The structural similarity image quality paradigm is based on the assumption that the human visual system is highly adapted for extracting structural information from the scene, and therefore a measure of structural similarity can provide a good approximation to perceived image quality. This paper proposes a multiscale structural similarity method, which supplies more flexibility than previous single-scale methods in incorporating the variations of viewing conditions. We develop an image synthesis method to calibrate the parameters that define the relative importance of different scales. Experimental comparisons demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

3,079 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The independent test results from the VQEG FR-TV Phase II tests are summarized, as well as results from eleven other subjective data sets that were used to develop the NTIA General Model.
Abstract: The National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) General Model for estimating video quality and its associated calibration techniques were independently evaluated by the Video Quality Experts Group (VQEG) in their Phase II Full Reference Television (FR-TV) test. The NTIA General Model was the only video quality estimator that was in the top performing group for both the 525-line and 625-line video tests. As a result, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) adopted the NTIA General Model and its associated calibration techniques as a North American Standard in 2003. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has also included the NTIA General Model as a normative method in two Draft Recommendations. This paper presents a description of the NTIA General Model and its associated calibration techniques. The independent test results from the VQEG FR-TV Phase II tests are summarized, as well as results from eleven other subjective data sets that were used to develop the method.

1,211 citations


Frequently Asked Questions (2)
Q1. What are the contributions mentioned in the paper "Characterizing perceptual artifacts in compressed video streams" ?

In this paper, the authors reexamine the perceptual artifacts created by standard video compression, summarizing commonly observed spatial and temporal perceptual distortions in compressed video, with emphasis on the perceptual temporal artifacts that have not been well identified or accounted for in previous studies. Furthermore, a floating effect detection method is proposed that not only detects the existence of floating, but also segments the spatial regions where floating occurs∗. 

The current work also lays out a work plan for future studies. Firstly, objective VQA methods need to be reexamined and further developed to detect each compression artifacts reliably and efficiently. Secondly, video encoders may be designed to eliminate or minimize the impact of these perceptual artifacts.