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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JHAZMAT.2020.124613

Chemical and toxicological characterization of particulate emissions from diesel vehicles

05 Mar 2021-Journal of Hazardous Materials (Elsevier)-Vol. 405, pp 124613-124613
Abstract: This paper presents a detailed chemical and toxicological characterization of the diesel particulate matter (PM) emitted from diesel vehicles running on a chassis dynamometer under different driving conditions. Chemical analyses were performed to characterize the contents of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and 31 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the collected PM samples. The OC-EC analysis results revealed that PM emissions from diesel vehicles in this study were dominated by OC and that the emission of vehicles equipped with diesel particulate filters had high OC/EC ratios. The PAH analysis results revealed that 4- and 5-ring PAHs were the dominant PAHs in the OC fraction of the PM samples. Particle toxicity was evaluated through three toxicological markers in human A549 cells, namely (1) acellular 2,7-dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) for oxidative potential, (2) interleukin-6 (IL-6) for inflammation, and (3) glutathione (GSH) for antioxidation after exposure. Statistical analyses revealed that vehicle sizes have statistically significant effects on the concentrations of the markers. Correlation analysis between PAHs and toxicological markers revealed that significant correlations existed between specific compounds and markers. Our results can be used as a reference by policy makers to formulate emission control strategies and as a dataset for other modeling studies.

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Topics: Diesel particulate filter (57%), Diesel exhaust (57%), Diesel fuel (52%)
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9 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SCITOTENV.2021.147008
Chengyi Liu1, Wen Nie1, Xiaofei Liu1, Yun Hua1  +5 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: The particulate matter (PM) emitted by a trackless rubber-tyred vehicle (TRTV) in coal mines can seriously threaten the health and safety of the exposed workers underground. In this paper, in order to effectively reduce the PM concentration and improve the underground working environment, a combination of numerical simulations and field measurements was adopted to study the migration distribution of the PM emitted by a TRTV at an idle speed for 60 s under different movement conditions, and the dilution effects of the ventilation rate on the PM. The results showed that under different movement conditions, the PM mainly moved along the floor of the roadway, but upward diffusion trends were shown overall, which meant that the chambers are in high-risk areas. Field measurements were then performed under the two conditions to verify the effectiveness of the simulations. Furthermore, the dilution effects of the increased ventilation rate on the PM were analyzed. It was concluded that the optimal dilution ventilation rate under condition 1 was 4600m3/min, and that under condition 2 was 2800m3/min. Accordingly, the driver of the TRTV should try to move forward when entering the chamber.

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15 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ENVPOL.2021.117754
Abstract: The mass, chemical composition and toxicological properties of fine particulates (PM2.5) emitted from cooking activities in three Hong Kong based restaurants and two simulated cooking experiments were characterized. Extracts from the PM2.5 samples elicited significant biological activities [cell viability, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage and inflammation effect (TNF-α)] in a dose-dependent manner. The composition of PAHs, oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) and azaarenes (AZAs) mixtures differed between samples. The concentration ranges of the Σ30PAHs, Σ17OPAHs and Σ4AZAs and Σ7Carbonyls in the samples were 9627–23,452 pg m−3, 503–3700 pg m−3, 33–263 pg m−3 and 158 – 5328 ng m−3, respectively. Cell viability caused by extracts from the samples was positively correlated to the concentration of benzo[a]anthracene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene and 1,4-naphthoquinone in the PM2.5 extracts. Cellular ROS production (upon exposure to extracts) was positively correlated with the concentrations of PM2.5, decaldehyde, acridine, Σ17OPAHs and 7 individual OPAHs. TNF-α showed significant positive correlations with the concentrations of most chemical species (elemental carbon, 16 individual PAHs including benzo[a]pyrene, Σ30PAHs, SO42−, Ca2+, Ca, Na, K, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn). The concentrations of Al, Ti, Mn, Σ30PAHs and 8 individual PAHs including benzo[a]pyrene in the samples were positively correlated with DNA damage caused by extracts from the samples. This study demonstrates that inhalation of PM2.5 emitted from cooking could result in adverse human health effects.

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Topics: Pyrene (51%)

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.APR.2021.101169
Bei Wang1, Wing-Hong Or1, Shuncheng Lee2, Yiu-Cheong Leung3  +2 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: This study investigates the particle emissions from a diesel vehicle fueled with ultralow sulphur diesel (B0, ULSD) and 5 % biodiesel blend (B5) by a chassis dynamometer test under three driving conditions. Elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), 30 species of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and 10 species of oxygenated PAH (oxy-PAH) were analyzed to quantify the chemical compositions of the collected particulate matter (PM). The emission factors (EFs) of OC were increased with B5 by a range between 39.5 % and 113.7 %, compared with B0. Both fuel blends recorded a trace amount of EC (0.25 mg/kg or less). It was found that the B5 EFs of total PAHs were decreased by a range between 15.2 % and 50.2 % relative to B0. 2- to 3-ring species, the dominant PAHs and oxy-PAHs, were decreased substantially when using B5. However, the results showed that biodiesel blend promoted the emission of 4- and 5-ring oxy-PAHs and 5- to 7-ring PAHs. The application of B5 shifted the composition towards a higher proportion of PAHs with higher molecular weight and more oxy-PAHs. Due to the increased emissions in PAHs with higher toxic equivalent factors (TEFs), the application of B5 resulted in an increase in toxicity expressed in BAPeq range from 11.3 % to 117.0 %.

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Topics: Diesel fuel (57%), Ultra-low-sulfur diesel (55%), Biodiesel (51%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JHAZMAT.2021.126626
Ye Liu1, Haibo Chen1, Jianbing Gao1, Ying Li  +4 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: This paper evaluates the effect of the electrification of the small, medium, and large internal combustion engine (ICE) passenger cars on the levels of total particulate matter (PM). The total mean PM10 and PM2.5 emission factors (EFs) on urban, rural, and motorway roads are in the range of 26.13 − 39.57 mg km−1 veh−1 and 13.39 − 18.44 mg km−1 veh−1, respectively, from small to large ICE passenger cars. Correspondingly, the total mean PM10 and PM2.5 non-exhaust EFs on urban, rural, and motorway roads range from 27.76 to 43.43 mg km−1 veh−1 and 13.17 –19.24 mg km−1 veh−1 from equivalent small to large electric vehicles (EVs) without regenerative braking. These results show that the total non-exhaust PM from the equivalent EVs may exceed all PM from ICE passenger cars, including exhaust particle emissions, which are dependent mainly on the extent of regenerative braking, followed by passenger car type and road type. PM10 EFs for equivalent EVs without regenerative braking on urban, rural, and motorway roads are all higher than those from ICE cars. As for PM2.5, most of the equivalent EVs require different extents of regenerative braking to reduce brake emissions to be in line with all particle emissions from relative ICE cars.

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Topics: Electric vehicle (55%)

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ENVPOL.2021.118206
Ta Chih Hsiao1, Ta Chih Hsiao2, Li Ti Chou1, Shih Yu Pan  +3 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Vehicle emissions are an important source of particulate matter (PM) in urban areas and have well-known adverse health effects on human health. Oxidative potential (OP) is used as a quantification metric for indexing PM toxicity. In this study, by using a liquid spot sampler (LSS) and the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay, the diurnal OP variation was assessed at a ground-level urban monitoring station. Besides, since the monitoring station was adjacent to the main road, the correlation between OP and traffic volume was also evaluated. PM components, including metals, water-soluble inorganic aerosols (WSIAs), black carbon (BC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were also simultaneously monitored. The daytime and evening mean ± std volume-normalized OP (OPv) were 0.46 ± 0.27 and 0.48 ± 0.26 nmol/min/m3, and exhibited good correlations with PM1.0 and BC; however, these concentrations were only weakly correlated with mass-normalized OP (OPm). The mean ± std OPm was higher in the daytime (41.3 ± 13.8 pmol/min/μg) than in the evening (36.1 ± 11.5 pmol/min/μg). According to the PMF analysis, traffic emissions dominated the diurnal OP contribution. Organic matter and individual metals associated with non-exhaust traffic emissions, such as Mn, Fe, and Cu, contributed substantially to OP. Diurnal variations of PAH concentrations suggest that photochemical reactions could enhance OP, highlighting the importance of atmospheric aging on PM toxicity.

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62 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1289/EHP.6000
Ning Li1, Constantinos Sioutas2, Arthur K. Cho1, Debra A. Schmitz1  +6 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: The objectives of this study were to determine whether differences in the size and composition of coarse (2.5-10 micro m), fine (< 2.5 microm), and ultrafine (< 0.1 microm) particulate matter (PM) are related to their uptake in macrophages and epithelial cells and their ability to induce oxidative stress. The premise for this study is the increasing awareness that various PM components induce pulmonary inflammation through the generation of oxidative stress. Coarse, fine, and ultrafine particles (UFPs) were collected by ambient particle concentrators in the Los Angeles basin in California and used to study their chemical composition in parallel with assays for generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ability to induce oxidative stress in macrophages and epithelial cells. UFPs were most potent toward inducing cellular heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and depleting intracellular glutathione. HO-1 expression, a sensitive marker for oxidative stress, is directly correlated with the high organic carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content of UFPs. The dithiothreitol (DTT) assay, a quantitative measure of in vitro ROS formation, was correlated with PAH content and HO-1 expression. UFPs also had the highest ROS activity in the DTT assay. Because the small size of UFPs allows better tissue penetration, we used electron microscopy to study subcellular localization. UFPs and, to a lesser extent, fine particles, localize in mitochondria, where they induce major structural damage. This may contribute to oxidative stress. Our studies demonstrate that the increased biological potency of UFPs is related to the content of redox cycling organic chemicals and their ability to damage mitochondria.

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Topics: Ultrafine particle (66%), Oxidative stress (53%)

1,823 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.EJPE.2015.03.011
Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants generated primarily during the incomplete combustion of organic materials (e.g. coal, oil, petrol, and wood). Emissions from anthropogenic activities predominate; nevertheless, some PAHs in the environment originate from natural sources such as open burning, natural losses or seepage of petroleum or coal deposits, and volcanic activities. Major anthropogenic sources of PAHs include residential heating, coal gasification and liquefying plants, carbon black, coal-tar pitch and asphalt production, coke and aluminum production, catalytic cracking towers and related activities in petroleum refineries as well as and motor vehicle exhaust. PAHs are found in the ambient air in gas-phase and as sorbet to aerosols. Atmospheric partitioning of PAH compounds between the particulate and the gaseous phases strongly influences their fate and transport in the atmosphere and the way they enter into the human body. The removal of PAHs from the atmosphere by dry and wet deposition processes are strongly influenced by their gas/particle partitioning. Atmospheric deposition is a major source for PAHs in soil. Many PAHs have toxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic properties. PAHs are highly lipid soluble and thus readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract of mammals. They are rapidly distributed in a wide variety of tissues with a marked tendency for localization in body fat. Metabolism of PAHs occurs via the cytochrome P450-mediated mixed function oxidase system with oxidation or hydroxylation as the first step. Several different remediation technologies have been tested in efforts to remove these environmental contaminants. Among them, bioremediation is showing particular promise as a safe and cost-effective option. In spite of their xenobiotic properties, a variety of genera of gram-positive and -negative bacteria, fungi and algae have been isolated and characterized for their ability to utilize PAHs. The aim of this review is to discuss PAHs impact on the environmental and the magnitude of the human health risks posed by such substances. They also contain important information on concentrations, burdens and fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the atmosphere. The main anthropogenic sources of PAHs and their effect on the concentrations of these compounds in air are discussed. The fate of PAHs in the air, their persistence and the main mechanisms of their losses are presented. Health hazards associated with PAH air pollution are stressed.

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Topics: Pollutant (51%), Air pollution (50%)

1,486 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1108752
Andre E. Nel1Institutions (1)
06 May 2005-Science
Abstract: Particle pollutants are estimated to cause more than 500,000 deaths annually. In his perspective, Nel describes how the adverse effects of ultrafine air particles are linked to their ability to gain access to the lung and systemic circulation, where toxic components lead to tissue damage and inflammation. Increased insight into which particle components are most damaging, and the molecular mechanisms of injury, will help to prevent PM mortality.

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1,296 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ENVINT.2013.07.019
Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of organic compounds comprised of two or more fused benzene rings arranged in various configurations. PAHs are widespread environmental contaminants formed as a result of incomplete combustion of organic materials such as fossil fuels. The occurrence of PAHs in ambient air is an increasing concern because of their carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Although emissions and allowable concentrations of PAHs in air are now regulated, the health risk posed by PAH exposure suggests a continuing need for their control through air quality management. In light of the environmental significance of PAH exposure, this review offers an overview of PAH properties, fates, transformations, human exposure, and health effects (acute and chronic) associated with their emission to the atmosphere. Biomarkers of PAH exposure and their significance are also discussed.

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1,206 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ES00098A003
Abstract: Three- to six-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the vapor phase (PAHs/sub vap/) and in the particulate phase (PAHs/sub pat) and total suspended particulate (TSP) in ambient air were sampled and determined year-round. At ambient temperature levels, substantial amounts of three-to five-ring PAHs were found in the vapor phase depending upon temperature (T, K) and the six-ring PAHs were all found in the particulate phase. For three- to five-ring PAHs, the Langmuir adsorption concept was introduced for PAHs/sub vap/ and PAHs/sub pat/ on the particulates. log ((PAHs/sub vap/) /)(PAHs/sub pat/) / (TSP))) was related to 1/T, and a high correlation (r = 0.834 to -0.942) was obtained between the two quantities. Thus, aspects of the three- to five-ring PAHs in ambient air were considered to be explained by using the Langmuir adsorption concept.

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622 Citations