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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1194/JLR.TR120000979

Cholesterol homeostasis in the vertebrate retina: Biology and pathobiology.

02 Mar 2021-Journal of Lipid Research (Elsevier)-Vol. 62, pp 100057-100057
Abstract: Cholesterol is a quantitatively and biologically significant constituent of all mammalian cell membrane, including those that comprise the retina. Retinal cholesterol homeostasis entails the interplay between de novo synthesis, uptake, intraretinal sterol transport, metabolism, and efflux. Defects in these complex processes are associated with several congenital and age-related disorders of the visual system. Herein, we provide an overview of the following topics: (a) cholesterol synthesis in the neural retina; (b) lipoprotein uptake and intraretinal sterol transport in the neural retina and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE); (c) cholesterol efflux from the neural retina and the RPE; and (d) biology and pathobiology of defects in sterol synthesis and sterol oxidation in the neural retina and the RPE. We focus, in particular, on studies involving animal models of monogenic disorders pertinent to the above topics, as well as in vitro models using biochemical, metabolic, and omic approaches. We also identify current knowledge gaps and opportunities in the field that beg further research in this topic area.

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Topics: Sterol transport (62%), Retinal pigment epithelium (55%), Oxysterol (51%)
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10 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1089/JOP.2021.0067
Abstract: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major leading cause of irreversible visual impairment in the world with limited therapeutic interventions. Histological, biochemical, genetic, and epidemiological studies strongly implicate dysregulated lipid metabolism in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) in AMD pathobiology. However, effective therapies targeting lipid metabolism still need to be identified and developed for this blinding disease. To test lipid metabolism-targeting therapies, preclinical AMD mouse models are needed to establish therapeutic efficacy and the role of lipid metabolism in the development of AMD-like pathology. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of current AMD mouse models available to researchers that could be used to provide preclinical evidence supporting therapies targeting lipid metabolism for AMD. Based on previous studies of AMD mouse models, we discuss strategies to modulate lipid metabolism as well as examples of studies evaluating lipid-targeting therapeutics to restore lipid processing in the RPE. The use of AMD mouse models may lead to worthy lipid-targeting candidate therapies for clinical trials to prevent the blindness caused by AMD.

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Topics: Lipid metabolism (57%)

6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1096/FASEBJ.27.1_SUPPLEMENT.822.2
01 Apr 2013-The FASEB Journal
Abstract: 3β-Hydroxysterol Δ(24)-reductase (DHCR24) catalyzes the conversion of desmosterol to cholesterol. This ultimate step of cholesterol biosynthesis appears to be remarkable in its diverse functions and the number of diseases it is implicated in from vascular disease to Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection to cancer to Alzheimer's disease. This review summarizes the present knowledge on the DHCR24 gene, sterol Δ(24)-reductase protein and the regulation of both. In addition, the functions of desmosterol, DHCR24 and their roles in human diseases are discussed. It is apparent that DHCR24 exerts more complex effects than what would be expected based on the enzymatic activity of sterol Δ(24)-reduction alone, such as its influence in modulating oxidative stress. Increasing information about DHCR24 membrane association, processing, enzymatic regulation and interaction partners will provide further fundamental insights into DHCR24 and its many and varied biological roles.

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4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1194/JLR.TR120000981
Julia V. Busik1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Lipid metabolic abnormalities have emerged as potential risk factors for the development and progression of diabetic complications, including diabetic retinopathy (DR). This review article provides an overview of the results of clinical trials evaluating the potential benefits of lipid-lowering drugs, such as fibrates, omega-3 fatty acids, and statins, for the prevention and treatment of DR. Although several clinical trials demonstrated that treatment with fibrates leads to improvement of DR, there is a dissociation between the protective effects of fibrates in the retina, and the intended blood lipid classes, including plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, or HDL:LDL cholesterol ratio. Guided by these findings, plasma lipid and lipoprotein-independent mechanisms are addressed based on clinical, cell culture, and animal model studies. Potential retinal-specific effects of fatty acid oxidation products, cholesterol, and ceramide, as well as lipid-independent effects of PPAR alpha activation, are summarized based on the current literature. Overall, this review highlights promising potential of lipid-based treatment strategies further enhanced by the new knowledge of intraretinal lipids and lipoproteins in DR.

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Topics: Lipid metabolism (57%), Statin (56%), Blood lipids (55%) ... read more

4 Citations


Open accessJournal Article
Cynthia Fourgeux1, Lucy Martine1, B. Pasquis1, Niyazi Acar1  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Cholesterol 24S-hydroxylase (CYP46A1) converts cholesterol into 24S-hydroxycholesterol in neurons and participates in cholesterol homeostasis in the central nervous system, including the retina. We aimed to evaluate the consequences of CYP46A1 inhibition by voriconazole on cholesterol homeostasis and function in the retina. Rats received daily intraperitoneal injections of voriconazole (60mg/kg), minocycline (22mg/kg), voriconazole plus minocycline, or vehicle during five consecutive days. The rats were submitted to electroretinography to monitor retinal functionality. Cholesterol and 24S-hydroxycholesterol were measured in plasma, brain and retina by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The expression of CYP46A1, and GFAP as a marker for glial activation was analyzed in the retina and brain. Cytokines and chemokines were measured in plasma, vitreous, retina and brain. Voriconazole significantly impaired the functioning of the retina as exemplified by the reduced amplitude and increased latency of the b-wave of the electroretinogram, and altered oscillary potentials. Voriconazole decreased 24S-hydroxycholesterol levels in the retina. Unexpectedly, CYP46A1 and GFAP expression was increased in the retina of voriconazole-treated rats. ICAM-1 and MCP-1 showed significant increases in the retina and vitreous body. Minocycline did not reverse the effects of voriconazole. Our data highlighted the cross talk between retinal ganglion cells and glial cells in the retina, suggesting that reduced 24S-hydroxycholesterol concentration in the retina may be detected by glial cells, which were consequently activated.

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2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JCONREL.2021.09.039
Merve Sen1, Al-Amin2, Eva Kicková2, Amir Sadeghi3  +6 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Mutations in rhodopsin lead to its misfolding resulting in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). Pharmacological inhibition of the ATP-driven chaperone valosin-containing protein (VCP), a molecular checkpoint for protein quality control, slows down retinal degeneration in animal models. However, poor water-solubility of VCP inhibitors poses a challenge to their clinical translation as intravitreal injections for retinal treatment. In order to enable the delivery of VCP inhibitors, we have developed and investigated two formulations for the VCP inhibitor ML240. Nanoformulations of ML240 were obtained by using amphiphilic polymers methoxy-poly (ethylene glycol)5kDa-cholane (mPEG5kDa-cholane) and methoxy-poly (ethylene glycol)5kDa-cholesterol (mPEG5kDa-cholesterol). Both formulations increased the water-solubility of ML240 by two orders of magnitude and prolonged the drug released over ten days. In addition, encapsulation of ML240 in mPEG5kDa-cholane showed superior photoreceptor protection at lower drug concentrations, normalized rhodopsin localization, and alleviated inflammatory microglial responses in an ex vivo rat model of retinal degeneration. The study demonstrates the potential of VCP inhibitor nanoformulations to treat adRP, a pharmacologically orphan disease.

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Topics: Retinal degeneration (53%)

1 Citations


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301 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.294.5545.1354
09 Nov 2001-Science
Abstract: The molecular mechanisms controlling synaptogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS) are poorly understood. Previous reports showed that a glia-derived factor strongly promotes synapse development in cultures of purified CNS neurons. Here, we identify this factor as cholesterol complexed to apolipoprotein E-containing lipoproteins. CNS neurons produce enough cholesterol to survive and grow, but the formation of numerous mature synapses demands additional amounts that must be provided by glia. Thus, the availability of cholesterol appears to limit synapse development. This may explain the delayed onset of CNS synaptogenesis after glia differentiation and neurobehavioral manifestations of defects in cholesterol or lipoprotein homeostasis.

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Topics: Synaptogenesis (60%), Apolipoprotein E (54%), Cholesterol 24-hydroxylase (53%) ... read more

1,432 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1074/JBC.272.6.3137
Abstract: Accumulation of cholesterol causes both repression of genes controlling cholesterol biosynthesis and cellular uptake and induction of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, which leads to the removal of cholesterol by increased metabolism to bile acids. Here, we report that LXRα and LXRβ, two orphan members of the nuclear receptor superfamily, are activated by 24(S),25-epoxycholesterol and 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol at physiologic concentrations. In addition, we have identified an LXR response element in the promoter region of the rat cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase gene. Our data provide evidence for a new hormonal signaling pathway that activates transcription in response to oxysterols and suggest that LXRs play a critical role in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis.

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Topics: Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (67%), Liver X receptor (66%), Farnesoid X receptor (61%) ... read more

1,188 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1083/JCB.42.2.392
Richard W. Young1, Dean Bok1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The disposal phase of the retinal rod outer segment renewal process has been studied by radioautography in adult frogs injected with tritiated amino acids. Shortly after injection, newly formed radioactive protein is incorporated into disc membranes which are assembled at the base of the rod outer segment. During the following 2 months, these labeled discs are progressively displaced along the outer segment owing to the repeated formation of newer discs. When the labeled membranes reach the end of the outer segment, they are detached from it. They subsequently may be identified in inclusion bodies within the pigment epithelium by virtue of their content of radioactivity. These inclusions have been termed phagosomes. Disc membrane formation is a continuous process, but the detachment of groups of discs occurs intermittently. The detached outer segment fragments become deformed, compacted, undergo chemical changes, and are displaced within the pigment epithelium. Ultimately, the material contained in the phagosomes is eliminated from the cell. In this manner the pigment epithelium participates actively in the disposal phase of the rod outer segment renewal process.

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1,138 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.222551899
John W. Crabb1, Masaru Miyagi, Xiaorong Gu1, Karen G. Shadrach1  +8 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Drusen are extracellular deposits that accumulate below the retinal pigment epithelium on Bruch's membrane and are risk factors for developing age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The progression of AMD might be slowed or halted if the formation of drusen could be modulated. To work toward a molecular understanding of drusen formation, we have developed a method for isolating microgram quantities of drusen and Bruch's membrane for proteome analysis. Liquid chromatography tandem MS analyses of drusen preparations from 18 normal donors and five AMD donors identified 129 proteins. Immunocytochemical studies have thus far localized ≈16% of these proteins in drusen. Tissue metalloproteinase inhibitor 3, clusterin, vitronectin, and serum albumin were the most common proteins observed in normal donor drusen whereas crystallin was detected more frequently in AMD donor drusen. Up to 65% of the proteins identified were found in drusen from both AMD and normal donors. However, oxidative protein modifications were also observed, including apparent crosslinked species of tissue metalloproteinase inhibitor 3 and vitronectin, and carboxyethyl pyrrole protein adducts. Carboxyethyl pyrrole adducts are uniquely generated from the oxidation of docosahexaenoate-containing lipids. By Western analysis they were found to be more abundant in AMD than in normal Bruch's membrane and were found associated with drusen proteins. Carboxymethyl lysine, another oxidative modification, was also detected in drusen. These data strongly support the hypothesis that oxidative injury contributes to the pathogenesis of AMD and suggest that oxidative protein modifications may have a critical role in drusen formation.

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Topics: Drusen (77%), Optic Disk Drusen (66%), Macular degeneration (60%)

1,077 Citations