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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/MMY/MYAA049

CHROMagarTM Candida Plus: A novel chromogenic agar that permits the rapid identification of Candida auris.

04 Mar 2021-Medical Mycology (Oxford Academic)-Vol. 59, Iss: 3, pp 253-258
Abstract: Candida auris is a serious nosocomial health risk, with widespread outbreaks in hospitals worldwide. Successful management of such outbreaks has depended upon intensive screening of patients to identify those that are colonized and the subsequent isolation or cohorting of affected patients to prevent onward transmission. Here we describe the evaluation of a novel chromogenic agar, CHROMagarTM Candida Plus, for the specific identification of Candida auris isolates from patient samples. Candida auris colonies on CHROMagarTM Candida Plus are pale cream with a distinctive blue halo that diffuses into the surrounding agar. Of over 50 different species of Candida and related genera that were cultured in parallel, only the vanishingly rare species Candida diddensiae gave a similar appearance. Moreover, both the rate of growth and number of colonies of C. auris recovered from swabs of pure and mixed Candida species were substantially increased on CHROMagarTM Candida Plus agar when compared with growth on the traditional mycological isolation medium, Sabouraud dextrose agar. Taken together, the present data suggest that CHROMagarTM Candida Plus agar is an excellent alternative to current conventional mycological media for the screening of patients who are potentially colonized/infected with Candida auris, can be reliably used to identify this emerging fungal pathogen, and should be tested in a clinical setting. Lay abstract Candida auris is a novel pathogenic yeast that has been associated with large hospital outbreaks across several continents. Affected patients become colonized, predominantly on the skin, with large quantities of C. auris which they then shed into the hospital environment. Identification of C. auris is challenging using routine laboratory methods, and time consuming when patients are colonized with a mixture of different Candida species. Here we demonstrate that a novel chromogenic agar, CHROMagarTM Candida Plus, permits the rapid differentiation of C. auris from a wide range of other yeast species and is potentially ideally suited to screening of patients that are suspected of being colonized or infected with this medically important yeast.

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Topics: Candida auris (75%)
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16 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MICROORGANISMS9040807
Suhail Ahmad1, Wadha Alfouzan1Institutions (1)
11 Apr 2021-
Abstract: Candida auris, a recently recognized, often multidrug-resistant yeast, has become a significant fungal pathogen due to its ability to cause invasive infections and outbreaks in healthcare facilities which have been difficult to control and treat. The extraordinary abilities of C. auris to easily contaminate the environment around colonized patients and persist for long periods have recently resulted in major outbreaks in many countries. C. auris resists elimination by robust cleaning and other decontamination procedures, likely due to the formation of ‘dry’ biofilms. Susceptible hospitalized patients, particularly those with multiple comorbidities in intensive care settings, acquire C. auris rather easily from close contact with C. auris-infected patients, their environment, or the equipment used on colonized patients, often with fatal consequences. This review highlights the lessons learned from recent studies on the epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis, susceptibility, and molecular basis of resistance to antifungal drugs and infection control measures to combat the spread of C. auris infections in healthcare facilities. Particular emphasis is given to interventions aiming to prevent new infections in healthcare facilities, including the screening of susceptible patients for colonization; the cleaning and decontamination of the environment, equipment, and colonized patients; and successful approaches to identify and treat infected patients, particularly during outbreaks.

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Topics: Candida auris (70%), Intensive care (53%), Infection control (50%)

10 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.DIAGMICROBIO.2020.115168
Abstract: A shift to Candida non-albicans infections has been noted during the last years, and the emergence of multi-resistant Candida auris has complicated their management. The aim of this study was first to compare the performance of the novel chromogenic medium CHROMagar™ Candida Plus (CHROMagar, France) with CHROMagar™ Candida (Becton Dickinson, Germany) for the presumptive identification of Candida species; and then, to evaluate its utility in the detection of C. auris in surveillance samples. CHROMagar™ Candida Plus showed a good performance compared with the reference medium CHROMagar™ Candida. Sensitivity and specificity were 100% in both media for tested species at 48 h of incubation, except for Candida glabrata and Candida lusitaniae. Furthermore, the new medium allows a reliable presumptive identification of C. auris, as a new specific color for this species is assigned (light blue with a blue halo), obtaining a sensitivity and specificity of 100% at 36 h of incubation.

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Topics: Candida auris (66%), Candida lusitaniae (58%), Candida glabrata (58%) ... read more

9 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/ANTIBIOTICS9110778
05 Nov 2020-Antibiotics
Abstract: The multidrug-resistant yeast Candida auris is associated with invasive infections in critically ill patients and has been isolated in different countries worldwide. Ease of spread, prolonged persistence in the environment and antifungal drug resistance pose a significant concern for the prevention of transmission and management of patients with C. auris infections. Early and correct identification of patients colonized with C. auris is critical in containing its spread. However, this may be complicated by C. auris strains being misidentified as other phylogenetically related pathogens. In this review, we offer a brief overview highlighting some of the critical aspects of sample collection, laboratory culture-dependent and independent identification and the susceptibility profile of C. auris.

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Topics: Candida auris (81%), Antifungal drug (53%), Sample collection (53%)

8 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/JOF7020081
Anamika Yadav1, Anubhav Singh1, Yue Wang2, Merlijn H I van Haren  +5 moreInstitutions (2)
26 Jan 2021-Journal of Fungi
Abstract: Candida auris is a nosocomial pathogen responsible for an expanding global public health threat. This ascomycete yeast has been frequently isolated from hospital environments, representing a significant reservoir for transmission in healthcare settings. Here, we investigated the relationships among C. auris isolates from patients with chronic respiratory diseases admitted in a chest hospital and from their fomites, using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and multilocus microsatellite genotyping. Overall, 37.5% (n = 12/32) patients developed colonisation by C. auris including 9.3% of the screened patients that were colonised at the time of admission and 75% remained colonised till discharge. Furthermore, 10% of fomite samples contained C. auris in rooms about 8.5 days after C. auris colonised patients were admitted. WGS and microsatellite typing revealed that multiple strains contaminated the fomites and colonised different body sites of patients. Notably, 37% of C. auris isolates were resistant to amphotericin B and a novel amino acid substitution, G145D in ERG2 gene, was detected in all amphotericin B resistant isolates. In addition, 55% of C. auris isolates had two copies of the MDR1 gene. Our results suggest significant genetic and ecological diversities of C. auris in healthcare setting. The WGS and microsatellite genotyping methods provided complementary results in genotype identification.

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Topics: Candida auris (74%)

7 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/JOF6040349
08 Dec 2020-Journal of Fungi
Abstract: Early detection is critical to the successful treatment of life-threatening infections caused by fungal pathogens, as late diagnosis of systemic infection almost always equates with a poor prognosis. The field of fungal diagnostics has some tests that are relatively simple, rapid to perform and are potentially suitable at the point of care. However, there are also more complex high-technology methodologies that offer new opportunities regarding the scale and precision of fungal diagnosis, but may be more limited in their portability and affordability. Future developments in this field are increasingly incorporating new technologies provided by the use of new format biosensors. This overview provides a critical review of current fungal diagnostics and the development of new biophysical technologies that are being applied for selective new sensitive fungal biosensors to augment traditional diagnostic methodologies.

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6 Citations


References
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28 results found


Open accessBook
01 Jan 1983-
Abstract: The most up-to-date yeast identification and reference manual ever published. Includes descriptions of the 678 currently recognised species and over 1300 high quality photomicrographs. Readily usable keys and tables allow identification of all of the species described.

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Topics: Identification (biology) (52%)

2,261 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/CID/CIW691
Abstract: Background: Candida auris, a multidrug-resistant yeast that causes invasive infections, was first described in 2009 in Japan and has since been reported from several countries. Methods: To understand the global emergence and epidemiology of C. auris, we obtained isolates from 54 patients with C. auris infection from Pakistan, India, South Africa, and Venezuela during 2012-2015 and the type specimen from Japan. Patient information was available for 41 of the isolates. We conducted antifungal susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Results: Available clinical information revealed that 41% of patients had diabetes mellitus, 51% had undergone recent surgery, 73% had a central venous catheter, and 41% were receiving systemic antifungal therapy when C. auris was isolated. The median time from admission to infection was 19 days (interquartile range, 9-36 days), 61% of patients had bloodstream infection, and 59% died. Using stringent break points, 93% of isolates were resistant to fluconazole, 35% to amphotericin B, and 7% to echinocandins; 41% were resistant to 2 antifungal classes and 4% were resistant to 3 classes. WGS demonstrated that isolates were grouped into unique clades by geographic region. Clades were separated by thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, but within each clade isolates were clonal. Different mutations in ERG11 were associated with azole resistance in each geographic clade. Conclusions: C. auris is an emerging healthcare-associated pathogen associated with high mortality. Treatment options are limited, due to antifungal resistance. WGS analysis suggests nearly simultaneous, and recent, independent emergence of different clonal populations on 3 continents. Risk factors and transmission mechanisms need to be elucidated to guide control measures.

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Topics: Candida auris (70%)

712 Citations


Open accessBook
01 Jan 2000-
Abstract: The most up-to-date yeast identification and reference manual ever published. Includes descriptions of the 678 currently recognised species and over 1300 high quality photomicrographs. Readily usable keys and tables allow identification of all of the species described.

... read more

Topics: Identification (biology) (59%)

577 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1348-0421.2008.00083.X
Kazuo Satoh1, Koichi Makimura1, Yayoi Hasumi1, Yayoi Nishiyama1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: A single strain of a novel ascomycetous yeast species belonging to the genus Candida was isolated from the external ear canal of an inpatient in a Japanese hospital. Analyses of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain, nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS region sequences, and chemotaxonomic studies indicated that this strain represents a new species with a close phylogenetic relationship to Candida ruelliae and Candida haemulonii in the Metschnikowiaceae clade. This strain grew well at 40 degrees C, but showed slow and weak growth at 42 degrees C. The taxonomic description of Candida auris sp. nov. is proposed (type strain JCM15448T= CBS10913T= DSM21092T).

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Topics: Candida auris (67%), Ribosomal DNA (51%)

544 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PPAT.1006290
18 May 2017-PLOS Pathogens
Abstract: Candidiasis, which includes both superficial infections and invasive disease, is the most common cause of fungal infection worldwide. Candida bloodstream infections (BSI) cause significant mortality and elicit a major threat to intensive care unit (ICU) patients [1]. The annual global burden of Candida spp. BSIs is about 400,000 cases, with most cases reported from the developed world. Although Candida albicans remains the most frequently isolated Candida species in the clinical setting, in some countries, a marked shift towards species of Candida that have increased resistance to azoles such as fluconazole (FLU), the standard antifungal drug of choice in many countries, and to the recently introduced antifungals known as echinocandins, is reported. Several species of non-albicans Candida, such as C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, and C. parapsilosis, are well-recognized pathogens in BSIs in different geographic locations. More recently, Candida auris, a multidrug-resistant (MDR) yeast that exhibits resistance to FLU and markedly variable susceptibility to other azoles, amphotericin B (AMB), and echinocandins, has globally emerged as a nosocomial pathogen (Fig 1) [2–20]. Alarmingly, in a span of only 7 years, this yeast, which is difficult to treat and displays clonal interand intra-hospital transmission, has become widespread across several countries, causing a broad range of healthcare-associated invasive infections [4, 5, 10, 12, 21, 22].

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Topics: Candida auris (76%), Candida albicans (55%), Antibiotic resistance (54%) ... read more

364 Citations