Chromosome Analysis in Suspension Culture of Vigna Sinensis Var. Black and Pisum Sativum L.
01 Jan 1979-Caryologia (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 32, Iss: 4, pp 419-424
TL;DR: In progressively older passages of Vigna sinensis var.
Abstract: SUMMARYThe study on the extent of chromosomal variations in suspension cultures initiated from hypocotyl segments of Pisum sativum var. Arkel and Vigna sinensis var. black reveals aberrations like inhibition of cell plate formation, spindle abnormalities, chromosomal breakage, polyploidy and aneuploidy. Such aberrations are frequently observed mostly in aneuploid cells and their frequencies increase with the number of passages. Asynchronous behaviour of daughter nuclei resulting in multinucleate cells is observed more frequently in cultured tissues of P. sativum L. than in Vigna sinensis var. black. In progressively older passages of Vigna sinensis var. black diploid cell populations gradually increase more rapidly than the tetraploid and aneuploid cells, indicating the selective advantage of diploid cells over others. By contrast in progressively old passages of Pisum sativum L. the frequencies of cells with 11 and 12 chromosomes are high. In the resulting cell population a range from 7 to 14 chromosomes...
11 Dec 2000
TL;DR: Chemistry nutrition plant physiology, agronomy processing biotechnology breeding strategies for improving grain legume carbohydrates, and research into breeding strategies to improve grain legumes carbohydrates are presented.
Abstract: Chemistry nutrition plant physiology and agronomy processing biotechnology breeding strategies for improving grain legume carbohydrates. (Part contents).
••01 Jan 1990
TL;DR: The genus Pisum is indigenous to Central Asia, Eurasia, and, as a secondary place of origin, the eastern Mediterranean and recent cytological and genetic research has proved that all species have a chromosome number of 2n = 14, and no natural polyploid forms have been discovered.
Abstract: The genus Pisum is a member of the order Fabales, family Fabaceae, tribe Viciae. It consists of a broad range of morphologically distinct types spread worldwide, many of which are described as separate species. Pisum is indigenous to Central Asia, Eurasia, and, as a secondary place of origin, the eastern Mediterranean (Hawkes 1983). Recent cytological and genetic research has proved that all species have a chromosome number of 2n = 14, and no natural polyploid forms have been discovered (Jaranowski and Micke 1985). All wild types are divided into the following five species: Pisum formosum Stev., P. fulvum Sibth. et Sm., P. abyssinicum Braun., P. humile Boiss. et Noe, and P. elatius Stev. Pisum sativum L. is divided into two subspecies: ssp. hortense A. et Gr. — the garden pea, and ssp. arvense (L.) A. et Gr. — the field pea (syn. P. arvense L.).
TL;DR: Calli obtained from root explants of Zea mays exhibited chromosomal ab-normalities like inhibition of cell plate formation, chromosome breakage, sticki-ness and clumping of chromosomes, asynchronous division, chromosomal grouping, laggards and micronuclei formation.
Abstract: Calli obtained from root explants of Zea mays exhibited chromosomal ab-normalities like inhibition of cell plate formation, chromosomal breakage, sticki-ness and clumping of chromosomes, asynchronous division, chromosomal grouping, laggards and micronuclei formation. Numerical variation in chromosome numbers including hypo- and hyperdiploid cells was observed. Structural changes have been detected with the aid of chromosome banding, along with the location of those points at which the chromosome breaks.
••09 Feb 2011
TL;DR: In vivo redox biosensing resolves the spatiotemporal dynamics of compartmental responses to local ROS generation and provide a basis for understanding how compartment-specific redox dynamics may operate in retrograde signaling and stress 67 acclimation in plants.
Abstract: In experiments with tobacco tissue cultured on White's modified medium (basal meditmi hi Tnhles 1 and 2) supplemenk'd with kiticthi and hidoleacctic acid, a slrikin^' fourlo (ive-told intTease iu yield was ohtaitu-d within a three to Tour week j^rowth period on addition of an aqtteotis exlrarl of tobacco leaves (Fi^'ures 1 and 2). Subse(iueutly it was found Ihiit this jnoniotiou oi' f^rowih was due mainly though nol entirely to inorj^auic rather than organic con.stitttenls in the extract. In the isolation of Rrowth factors from plant tissues and other sources inorj '̂anic salts are fre(|uently carried along with fhe organic fraclioits. When tissue cultures are used for bioassays, therefore, il is necessary lo lake into account increases in growth which may result from nutrient elements or other known constituents of the medium which may he present in the te.st materials. To minimize interference trom rontaminaitis of this type, an altempt has heen made to de\\eh)p a nieditmi with such adequate supplies of all re(iuired tnineral nutrients and cotntnott orgattic cottslitueitls that no apprecial»le change in growth rate or yield will result from the inlroduclion of additional amounts in the range ordinarily expected to be present in tnaterials to be assayed. As a point of referetice for this work some of the culture media in mc)st common current use will he cotisidered briefly. For ease of comparis4)n Iheir mineral compositions are listed in Tables 1 and 2. White's nutrient .solution, designed originally for excised root cultures, was based on Uspeuski and Uspetiskaia's medium for algae and Trelease and Trelease's micronutrieni solution. This medium also was employed successfully in the original cttltivation of callus from the tobacco Iiybrid Nicotiana gtauca x A', tanijadorffii, atitl as further modified by White in 194̂ ^ and by others it has been used for the
TL;DR: It was found that during the prolonged period of subculture there was a progressive loss of organ-forming Capacity in all tissue strains, paralleled by increasing abnormalities in the chromosomal constitution, including higher chromosome numbers and greater frequency of aneuploidy.
Abstract: A number of strains of callus tissues derived from 1-mm root tips of the garden pea, Pisum sativum L., cultivated on a complex medium containing yeast extract and 2, 4-D for eight years, were tested periodically for their capacity to initiate roots. Chromosomal cytological analyses accompanied each test. It was found that during the prolonged period of subculture there was a progressive loss of organ-forming Capacity in all tissue strains. At the outset all callus tissues could be stimulated to form normal diploid roots. After several years of continuous subculture, some callus tissues formed normal tetraploid roots. Still later, these callus tissues lost completely the capacity to initiate roots. This loss was paralleled by increasing abnormalities in the chromosomal constitution, including higher chromosome numbers and greater frequency of aneuploidy. Early in subculture normal diploid and tetraploid divisions were present in the callus tissues. Later, higher polyploids at 8n and 16n were more frequent, as well as aneuploids around these numbers. Some tissue strains after prolonged cultivation showed a wide range of chromosome numbers at the higher ploidy levels but completely lacked diploid divisions. It is suggested that the loss in organ-forming capacity is correlated with the increase in abnormality of chromosomal constitution. Differentiation of certain characteristic cell types was unaffected by these changes.
TL;DR: This chapter focuses on the plant tissue culture in relation to developmental cytology, and a promising approach is the microculture technique, with the necessary improvements, coupled with periodic photographic records or with microcinematographic studies of the same cell over a long period.
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter focuses on the plant tissue culture in relation to developmental cytology. The maintenance and growth of plant cells in vitro under aseptic conditions constitutes the plant tissue culture. Relatively little definitive work has been done in the general area of developmental plant cytology through the application of the tissue or cell culture techniques. Observations of polyploidy and other nuclear deviations in plant tissues are largely explicable as a disorganized manifestation of normal tendencies of somatic cells. The prevailing nuclear condition of a tissue culture can be seen to be responsive to differences in the medium and in the culture method. Thus, there are tools available for the experimental manipulation of these processes. In some cases, for example, Haplopappus, the problem may be one of finding conditions that minimize the aberrations, thereby supplying as clean a point of departure as possible for the full utilization of this excellent cytological tool. A promising approach is the microculture technique, with the necessary improvements, coupled with periodic photographic records or with microcinematographic studies of the same cell over a long period. Such studies, with various environmental factors carefully controlled, could be invaluable to a correlation of various events with the eventual fate of a cell.
TL;DR: The range of chromosome number and structure observed in established cultures strongly points to the origin of these changes during culture, and the precise distribution of chromosomes at mitotic anaphase seems the most likely point at which instability could be induced in culture.
Abstract: CULTURED cells of both animal and plant tissues are characterised by instability of chromosome number and structure1,2. Although there is evidence3 that polyploid plant cell lines may arise from endoreduplicated nuclei in the original explant, the range of chromosome number and structure observed in established cultures strongly points to the origin of these changes during culture. Since the precise distribution of chromosomes at mitotic anaphase is the essential prerequisite for chromosome number stability5, this seems the most likely point at which instability could be induced in culture. It has been shown6,7 that, in culture, animal cells of various species are characterised by the presence of multipolar mitoses, a feature which would produce daughter nuclei with aneuploid chromosome numbers. Such multipolar mitoses have been briefly noted for plant tissue cultures8,9 but their frequencies have not been quantified.
TL;DR: Cell suspension cultures of Triticum monococcum, Triticiam aestivum, Glycine max, Melilotus alba, and Haplopappus gracilis, were examined to determine whether chromosomal changes had occurred during culture.
Abstract: Cell suspension cultures of Triticum monococcum, Triticiam aestivum, Glycine max, Melilotus alba, and Haplopappus gracilis, were examined to determine whether chromosomal changes had occurred during culture. All cultures except H. gracilis showed change in chromosome number and the two species of Triticum showed abnormal karyotypes.