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Chronometric explorations of mind : the third Paul M. Fitts lectures, delivered at the University of Michigan, September 1976

01 Jan 1978-
TL;DR: In this paper, a unified experimental approach to the study of the mind based on experiments concerning the time course of human information processing is described, drawing systematically on studies of performance, subjective experience, and brain processes.
Abstract: In this widely cited volume, Professor Posner describes a unified experimental approach to the study of the mind based on experiments concerning the time course of human information processing. Drawing systematically on studies of performance, subjective experience, and brain processes, he develops relationships between cognitive psychology and neuroscience. Professor Posner has written a new preface for the paperback edition.
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01 Jan 1988
TL;DR: In this article, the basic model of conscious representations are internally consistent and globally distributed, and the neural basis of conscious experience is explained, including the fundamental role of context, goal contexts, spontaneous problem solving and the stream of consciousness.
Abstract: List of figures and tables Preface Part I Introduction: 1 What is to be explained? some preliminaries Part II The Basic Model: 2 Model 1: conscious representations are internally consistent and globally distributed 3 The neural basis of conscious experience Part III The Fundamental Role of Context: 4 Model 2: unconscious contexts shape conscious experience 5 Model 3: conscious experience is informative - it always demands some degree of adaptation Part IV Goals and Voluntary Control: 6 Model 4: Goal contexts, spontaneous problem solving, and the stream of consciousness 7 Model 5: volition as ideomotor control of thought and action Part V Attention, self, and conscious self-monitoring: 8 Model 6: attention as control of access to consciousness 9 Model 7 Self as the dominant context of experience and action Part VI Consciousness is Functional: 10 The functions of consciousness Part VII Conclusion: 11 A summary and some future directions Glossary and guide to theoretical claims References Name index, Subject index

2,722 citations


Cites background from "Chronometric explorations of mind :..."

  • ...Today we may be ready to think about conscious experience without the presuppositional obstacles that have hobbled our predecessors (e.g., Mandler, 1975a, b; Posner, 1978; Shallice, 1972)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A general information-processing model is proposed that accounts for the systematic effects of these motivational states on certain task components (sustained information transfer and some aspect of short-term memory) and derive testable predictions that differentiate alternative motivational hypotheses.
Abstract: We introduce a model to relate the personality dimensions of introversion- extraversion, achievement motivation, and anxiety to efficient cognitive performance. We show how these personality dimensions in combination with situational moderators (e.g., success, failure, time pressure, incentives, time of day, and stimulant drugs) affect the motivational constructs of arousal and effort. We propose a general information-processing model that accounts for the systematic effects of these motivational states on certain task components (sustained information transfer and some aspect of short-term memory). We combine empirical generalizations about task components in a structural model and derive testable predictions that differentiate alternative motivational hypotheses.

812 citations


Cites background from "Chronometric explorations of mind :..."

  • ...Arousal at the micro level has been associated with pathway activation (Posner, 1978), which is a consequence of such experimental manipulations as a warning signal for a reaction time test....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In cases of mid-brain degeneration due to progressive supranuclear palsy, saccadic movements were abolished, while covertorienting still occurs, however, covert orienting was found to be delayed in directions in which eye movements were most affected, suggesting a role for mid- brain pathways in covert Orienting.
Abstract: A peripheral visual cue in an empty field (1) often summons head or eyes, or both, (2) improves efficiency at the cued position while attention is directed to it, even without overt movements, and (3) reduces processing efficiency at the cued position once attention is withdrawn. We have studied the time course and the effects of mid-brain and cortical damage on these components of orienting. The facilitation arises from shifts in covert attention. In cases of mid-brain degeneration due to progressive supranuclear palsy, saccadic movements were abolished, while covert orienting still occurs. However, covert orienting was found to be delayed in directions in which eye movements were most affected, suggesting a role for mid-brain pathways in covert orienting. Parietal lesions can cause massive loss in detection contralateral to the lesion. This is especially true when attention has been directed to the opposite side. These findings relate aspects of covert orienting of attention to neural control systems.

582 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: For instance, this paper found that the percentage of time spent fixating a specific location during perception was highly correlated with the time spent on the same (empty) locations during imagery.

339 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A relationship between complex motor skills and MI duration is found and the factors leading to over- and underestimation and the hypotheses that could be tested are discussed.
Abstract: The authors review studies of mentally simulated movements. In automatic or cyclical movements, actual and motor imagery (MI) durations are similar. When athletes simulate only dynamic phases of movement or perform MI just before competing, however, environmental and time constraints lead to an underestimation of actual duration. Conversely, complex attention-demanding movements take longer to image. Finally, participants can modify the speed of MI voluntarily when they receive specific instructions. To complete the available data, the authors compared imagined and actual durations in tennis and gymnastics. Results showed systematic and disproportionate overestimation of actual duration. The authors found a relationship between complex motor skills and MI duration. They discuss the factors leading to over- and underestimation and the hypotheses that could be tested.

284 citations


Cites background from "Chronometric explorations of mind :..."

  • ...The term mental chronometry refers to the time course of information processing by the nervous system (Posner, 1978)....

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