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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41385-021-00385-8

Circulating CD103 + γδ and CD8 + T cells are clonally shared with tissue-resident intraepithelial lymphocytes in celiac disease

02 Mar 2021-Mucosal Immunology (Nature Publishing Group)-Vol. 14, Iss: 4, pp 842-851
Abstract: Gut intraepithelial γδ and CD8+ αβ T lymphocytes have been connected to celiac disease (CeD) pathogenesis. Based on the previous observation that activated (CD38+), gut-homing (CD103+) γδ and CD8+ αβ T cells increase in blood upon oral gluten challenge, we wanted to shed light on the pathogenic involvement of these T cells by examining the clonal relationship between cells of blood and gut during gluten exposure. Of 20 gluten-challenged CeD patients, 8 and 10 had increase in (CD38+CD103+) γδ and CD8+ αβ T cells, respectively, while 16 had increase in gluten-specific CD4+ T cells. We obtained γδ and αβ TCR sequences of >2500 single cells from blood and gut of 5 patients, before and during challenge. We observed extensive sharing between blood and gut γδ and CD8+ αβ T-cell clonotypes even prior to gluten challenge. In subjects with challenge-induced surge of γδ and/or CD8+ αβ T cells, as larger populations of cells analyzed, we observed more expanded clonotypes and clonal sharing, yet no discernible TCR similarities between expanded and/or shared clonotypes. Thus, CD4+ T cells appear to drive expansion of clonally diverse γδ or CD8+ αβ T-cell clonotypes that may not be specific for the gluten antigen.

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Topics: Cytotoxic T cell (58%), Intraepithelial lymphocyte (55%), CD8 (54%) ... read more

5 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/ADVS.202102778
08 Sep 2021-Advanced Science
Abstract: Gluten-specific CD4+ T cells being drivers of celiac disease (CeD) are obvious targets for immunotherapy. Little is known about how cell markers harnessed for T-cell-directed therapy can change with time and upon activation in CeD and other autoimmune conditions. In-depth characterization of gluten-specific CD4+ T cells and CeD-associated (CD38+ and CD103+ ) CD8+ and γδ+ T cells in blood of treated CeD patients undergoing a 3 day gluten challenge is reported. The phenotypic profile of gluten-specific cells changes profoundly with gluten exposure and the cells adopt the profile of gluten-specific cells in untreated disease (CD147+ , CD70+ , programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)+ , inducible T-cell costimulator (ICOS)+ , CD28+ , CD95+ , CD38+ , and CD161+ ), yet with some markers being unique for day 6 cells (C-X-C chemokine receptor type 6 (CXCR6), CD132, and CD147) and with integrin α4β7, C-C motif chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9), and CXCR3 being expressed stably at baseline and day 6. Among gluten-specific CD4+ T cells, 52% are CXCR5+ at baseline, perhaps indicative of germinal-center reactions, while on day 6 all are CXCR5- . Strikingly, the phenotypic profile of gluten-specific CD4+ T cells on day 6 largely overlaps with that of CeD-associated (CD38+ and CD103+ ) CD8+ and γδ+ T cells. The antigen-induced shift in phenotype of CD4+ T cells being shared with other disease-associated T cells is relevant for development of T-cell-directed therapies.

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Topics: T cell (67%), CD28 (59%), CD8 (58%) ... read more

1 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41385-021-00452-0
16 Sep 2021-Mucosal Immunology
Abstract: Single-cell analysis is a powerful technology that has found widespread use in recent years. For diseases with involvement of adaptive immunity, single-cell analysis of antigen-specific T cells and B cells is particularly informative. In autoimmune diseases, the adaptive immune system is obviously at play, yet the ability to identify the culprit T and B cells recognizing disease-relevant antigen can be difficult. Celiac disease, a widespread disorder with autoimmune components, is unique in that disease-relevant antigens for both T cells and B cells are well defined. Furthermore, the celiac disease gut lesion is readily accessible allowing for sampling of tissue-resident cells. Thus, disease-relevant T cells and B cells from the gut and blood can be studied at the level of single cells. Here we review single-cell studies providing information on such adaptive immune cells and outline some future perspectives in the area of single-cell analysis in autoimmune diseases.

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Topics: Acquired immune system (65%), Immune system (61%), Antigen (60%) ... read more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S12916-021-02116-Z
06 Oct 2021-BMC Medicine
Abstract: BACKGROUND The diagnosis of coeliac disease (CD) in individuals that have started a gluten-free diet (GFD) without an adequate previous diagnostic work-out is a challenge. Several immunological assays such as IFN-γ ELISPOT have been developed to avoid the need of prolonged gluten challenge to induce the intestinal damage. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of activated gut-homing CD8+ and TCRγδ+ T cells in blood after a 3-day gluten challenge and to compare it with the performance of IFN-γ ELISPOT in a HLA-DQ2.5 subsample. METHODS A total of 22 CD patients and 48 non-CD subjects, all of them following a GFD, underwent a 3-day 10-g gluten challenge. The percentage of two T cell subsets (CD8+ CD103+ β7hi CD38+/total CD8+ and TCRγδ+ CD103+ β7hi CD38+/total TCRγδ+) in fresh peripheral blood drawn baseline and 6 days after the challenge was determined by flow cytometry. IFN-γ ELISPOT assays were also performed in HLA-DQ2.5 participants. ROC curve analysis was used to assess the diagnostic performance of the CD8+ T cell response and IFN-γ ELISPOT. RESULTS Significant differences between the percentage of the two studied subsets of CD8+ and TCRγδ+ cells at days 0 and 6 were found only when considering CD patients (p < 10-3 vs. non-CD subjects). Measuring activated CD8+ T cells provided accurate CD diagnosis with 95% specificity and 97% sensitivity, offering similar results than IFN-γ ELISPOT. CONCLUSIONS The results provide a highly accurate blood test for CD diagnosis in patients on a GFD of easy implementation in daily clinical practice.

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Topics: Gluten free (61%), ELISPOT (57%), Coeliac disease (51%) ... read more

27 results found

Open accessBook
01 Apr 1984-
Topics: Anti-transglutaminase antibodies (67%), HLA-DQ2 (63%), Coeliac disease (55%) ... read more

2,746 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.IMMUNI.2004.06.020
01 Sep 2004-Immunity
Abstract: A major function of NKG2D linking innate and adaptive immunity is to upregulate antigen-specific CTL-mediated cytotoxicity in tissues expressing stress-induced NKG2D ligands, such as MIC, by coactivating TCR signaling. Here, we show that, under conditions of dysregulated IL15 expression in vivo in patients with celiac disease and in vitro in healthy individuals, multiple steps of the NKG2D/DAP10 signaling pathway leading to ERK and JNK activation are coordinately primed to activate direct cytolytic function independent of TCR specificity in effector CD8 T cells. These findings may not only explain previous reports of transformation of CTL into NK-like "lymphokine-activated killers" (LAK cells) under high doses of IL2 (a substitute for IL15) but may also have significant implications for understanding and treating immunopathological diseases.

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Topics: CTL* (56%), Natural killer cell (56%), T-cell receptor (55%) ... read more

755 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.IMMUNI.2004.06.018
01 Sep 2004-Immunity
Abstract: MICA molecules interact with the NKG2D-activating receptor on human NK and CD8 T cells. We investigated the participation of the MICA/NKG2D pathway in the destruction of intestinal epithelium by intraepithelial T lymphocytes (IEL) in Celiac disease and its premalignant complication, refractory sprue. We show that MICA is strongly expressed at epithelial cell surface in patients with active disease and is induced by gliadin or its p31-49 derived peptide upon in vitro challenge, an effect relayed by IL-15. This triggers direct activation and costimulation of IEL through engagement of NKG2D, leading to an innate-like cytotoxicity toward epithelial targets and enhanced TCR-dependent CD8 T cell-mediated adaptive response. Villous atrophy in Celiac disease might thus be ascribed to an IEL-mediated damage to enterocytes involving NKG2D/MICA interaction after gliadin-induced expression of MICA on gut epithelium. This supports a key role for MIC/NKG2D in the activation of intraepithelial immunity in response to danger.

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Topics: NKG2D (55%), Natural killer cell (53%), Villous atrophy (52%) ... read more

663 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1146/ANNUREV.IMMUNOL.18.1.53
Ludvig M. Sollid1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Celiac disease (CD) is an intestinal disorder with multifactorial eti- ology. HLA and non-HLA genes together with gluten and possibly additional envi- ronmental factors are involved in disease development. Evidence suggests that CD4 ' T cells are central in controlling an immune response to gluten that causes the immu- nopathology, but the actual mechanisms responsible for the tissue damage are as yet only partly characterized. CD provides a good model for HLA-associated diseases, and insight into the mechanism of this disease may well shed light on oral tolerance in humans. The primary HLA association in the majority of CD patients is with DQ2 and in the minority of patients with DQ8. Gluten-reactive T cells can be isolated from small intestinal biopsies of celiac patients but not of non-celiac controls. DQ2 or DQ8, but not other HLA molecules carried by patients, are the predominant restriction elements for these T cells. Lesion-derived T cells predominantly recognize deami- dated gluten peptides. A number of distinct T cell epitopes within gluten exist. DQ2 and DQ8 bind the epitopes so that the glutamic acid residues created by deamidation are accommodated in pockets that have a preference for negatively charged side chains. Evidence indicates that deamidation in vivo is mediated by the enzyme tissue transglutaminase (tTG). Notably, tTG can also cross-link glutamine residues of pep- tides to lysine residues in other proteins including tTG itself. This may result in the formation of complexes of gluten-tTG. These complexes may permit gluten-reactive T cells to provide help to tTG-specific B cells by a mechanism of intramolecular help, thereby explaining the occurrence of gluten-dependent tTG autoantibodies that is a characteristic feature of active CD.

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Topics: Tissue transglutaminase (65%), Human leukocyte antigen (56%), Epitope (54%) ... read more

614 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0016-5085(93)90912-V
Ludvig M. Sollid1, Erik Thorsby1Institutions (1)
01 Sep 1993-Gastroenterology
Abstract: The overrepresentation of particular HLA alleles in patients with celiac disease was first noted two decades ago Several lines of evidence obtained during the last years strongly suggest that a particular HLA-DQ heterodimer, encoded by the DQA1*0501 and DQB1*0201 genes in cis or trans configuration, confers the primary disease susceptibility This paper reviews the evidence behind this concept and discusses how this particular DQ molecule may be involved in the pathogenesis

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Topics: Human leukocyte antigen (55%)

565 Citations