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Journal ArticleDOI

Clastogenic activity of strontium chloride on bone marrow cells in vivo.

01 Apr 1990-Biological Trace Element Research (Humana Press)-Vol. 25, Iss: 1, pp 51-56

TL;DR: Oral administration of different concentrations of Strontium chloride to laboratory bred mice in vivo induced chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cell metaphase preparations resulted in clastogenicity and females showed greater susceptibility than the males at all concentrations used.

AbstractOral administration of different concentrations of Strontium chloride to laboratory bred mice in vivo induced chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cell metaphase preparations. The degree of clastogenicity was directly proportional to concentration used at 6, 12, and 24 h of treatment. Duration of treatment could only be related positively in the lower doses. The females showed greater susceptibility than the males at all concentrations used.

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Citations
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01 Apr 2004
TL;DR: This edition supersedes any previously released draft or final profile and reflects a comprehensive and extensive evaluation, summary, and interpretation of available toxicologic and epidemiologic information on a substance.
Abstract: DISCLAIMER The use of company or product name(s) is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. A Toxicological Profile for strontium, Draft for Public Comment was released in July 2001. This edition supersedes any previously released draft or final profile. Toxicological profiles are revised and republished as necessary. For information regarding the update status of previously released profiles, contact ATSDR at: vi Background Information The toxicological profiles are developed by ATSDR pursuant to Section 104(i) (3) and (5) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA or Superfund) for hazardous substances found at Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. CERCLA directs ATSDR to prepare toxicological profiles for hazardous substances most commonly found at facilities on the CERCLA National Priorities List (NPL) and that pose the most significant potential threat to human health, as determined by ATSDR and the EPA. ATSDR and DOE entered into a Memorandum of Understanding on November 4, 1992 which provided that ATSDR would prepare toxicological profiles for hazardous substances based upon ATSDR=s or DOE=s identification of need. The current ATSDR priority list of hazardous substances at DOE NPL sites was announced in the Toxicological Profiles are a unique compilation of toxicological information on a given hazardous substance. Each profile reflects a comprehensive and extensive evaluation, summary, and interpretation of available toxicologic and epidemiologic information on a substance. Health care providers treating patients potentially exposed to hazardous substances will find the following information helpful for fast answers to often-asked questions. Chapter 1: Public Health Statement: The Public Health Statement can be a useful tool for educating patients about possible exposure to a hazardous substance. It explains a substance's relevant toxicologic properties in a nontechnical, question-and-answer format, and it includes a review of the general health effects observed following exposure. Chapter 3: Health Effects: Specific health effects of a given hazardous compound are reported by type of health effect (death, systemic, immunologic, reproductive), by route of exposure, and by length of exposure (acute, intermediate, and chronic). In addition, both human and animal studies are reported in this section. NOTE: Not all health effects reported in this section are necessarily observed in the clinical setting. Please refer to the Public Health Statement to identify general health effects observed following exposure. The following additional material can be ordered through the ATSDR Information Center: Case Studies in …

62 citations

Book
01 Jan 2010

58 citations

Patent
06 May 2004
Abstract: Compounds and pharmaceutical compositions for use in the treatment and/or prophylaxis of cartilage and/or bone conditions and for methods of treating such condition. The compounds are salts of strontium that have a water-solubility of from about 1 g/l to about 100 g/l at room temperature, especially amino acid salts of strontium or dicarboxylic acid salts of strontium. Examples of novel water-soluble strontium salts are e.g. strontium glutamate and strontium alpha-ketoglutarate. The present invention also relates to an improved method for preparing the strontium salt of glutamic acid.

29 citations

Patent
28 Feb 2005
Abstract: A method for the treatment and/or prophylaxis of an ostenonecrotic bone disease in a mammal in need thereof, such as, e.g., idiopathic or secondary osteonecrosis, avascular bone necrosis, glucocorticoid induced bone ischemia/osteonecrosis, Legg-Calve-Perthes disease and femoral head necrosis, the method comprising administering an effective dose of a strontium-containing compound (a) to the mammal. A method for the treatment and/or prophylaxis of an osteonecrotic bone disease, such as, e.g., idiopathic or secondary osteonecrosis, avascular bone necrosis, glucocorticoid induced bone ischemia/osteonecrosis and femoral head necrosis, in a mammal who is to be or is treated with a therapeutic agent (b) known to or suspected of inducing apoptosis and/or necrosis of bone cells, the method comprising administering a strontium-containing compound (a) in combination with (b).

17 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: One sample of milk is sufficient to give a reliable estimate of the zinc concentration in milk, and two samples taken on consecutive days are required for a reliable estimates of iron and copper concentrations.
Abstract: Objective: To assess the within-subject and between-subject coefficients of variation (CV) of iron, zinc and copper concentrations in the milk of Guatemalan mothers. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study in lactating women who had delivered a healthy infant 1 to 6 months previously in two low-income peri-urban areas (San Bartolome ´ Milpas Altas and Ciudad Peronia) and a low-income rural area (San Juan Chamelco) in Guatemala. Women infested with Ascaris lumbricoides or Trichuris trichiura received a single dose of albendazole (400 mg) or placebo. Two weeks after treatment, milk samples were collected on 3 or 4 consecutive days. Trace element concentrations in milk were measured by inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectrometry. Results: The instrumental error of the inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectrometry method, expressed as SD, was 0.04, 0.27 and 0.02 mg/L for iron, zinc and copper, respectively. Concentrations in milk samples collected from 47 mothers on 3 or 4 consecutive days, expressed as mean 6 SD, were 0.28 6 0.13, 2.03 6 0.37 and 0.29 6 0.07 mg/L for iron, zinc and copper, respectively. The within-subject CV was 46.1%, 18.2%, and 22.8% and the between-subject CV was 61.2%, 48.3% and 31.7% for iron, zinc and copper, respectively. Stage of lactation, infestation with intestinal parasites and residential area had a significant influence on milk zinc, copper and iron concentrations. Conclusions: One sample of milk is sufficient to give a reliable estimate of the zinc concentration in milk. Two samples taken on consecutive days are required for a reliable estimate of iron and copper concentrations. JPGN 40:128–134, 2005.

14 citations


References
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Book
01 Jan 1965

423 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
15 Feb 1979-Nature
TL;DR: There was a significant increase in chromosome damage with increasing exposure, aberration frequency was a linear function of dose and was influenced by age and time of blood sampling after exposure.
Abstract: The incidence of chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 197 dockyard workers has been followed over a 10-yr period. These workers were exposed to mixed neutron-gamma radiation during the refuelling of nuclear reactors, but most exposures were below the internationally accepted maximum permissible level of 5 rem per yr. There was a significant increase in chromosome damage with increasing exposure; aberration frequency was a linear function of dose and was unfluenced by age and time of blood sampling after exposure.

206 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: It is a widely held view that objective statistical criteria are needed for the evaluation of genetic toxicity assays. This paper presents statistical methods for the analysis of data from in vitro sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosome aberration tests that use Chinese hamster ovary cells. For SCEs, an extensive study of solvent control results demonstrated that there is a substantial interday component of variability in the data, and that a Poisson sampling model is applicable to data generated via the protocol of Galloway et al [1985]. Consequently, a trend test for evidence of a dose response is proposed for such SCE data. As an illustration of this statistical method, analysis of data previously considered to be negative [Gulati et al, 1985] indicates that di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate induces a weak, but reproducible, SCE dose response in CHO cells. Monte Carlo methods are used to show that the trend test is more sensitive than four other statistical procedures considered for the analysis of Poisson-distributed SCEs. A similar trend test for dose response in proportions is proposed for chromosome aberration data, where the percent of cells with chromosome aberrations is the response of interest. Sensitivity (or power) studies indicate that three doses and a control with 50 cells/dose point is a reasonable design for an in vitro SCE study that uses the Galloway et al protocol. For in vitro chromosome aberrations, however, three doses and a control with 100 cells/dose point appears to produce too insensitive an assay; an increase to 200 cells/dose point in the Galloway et al protocol seems worthy of serious consideration.

156 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In assessing the effects of environmental metal pollution, the presence of other metals and toxic chemicals and the level of nutrition should be taken into account, since in nature, metals occur in combination and these factors modify the cytotoxic effects to a significant extent.
Abstract: An analysis of the available data on the clastogenic effects of metals and their compounds on higher organisms indicates some general trends. Following chronic exposure to subtoxic doses, a decrease in mitotic frequency and an increase in the number of chromosomal abnormalities are observed. These effects are usually directly proportional to the dose applied and the duration of treatment within the threshold limits. Recovery after acute treatment is inversely related to the dosage. The ultimate expression of the effects depends on certain factors, including the mode and vehicle of administration; the form administered; the test system used; the rate of detoxification, distribution, and retention in the different tissues; and interaction with foreign and endogenous substances as well as the mode of action with the biological macromolecules. In mammals, the clastogenic activity of the metals within each vertical group of the periodic table is directly proportional to the increase in atomic weight, electropositivity, and solubility of the metallic cations in water and lipids, except for Li and Ba. This pattern of inherent cytotoxicity increases with successive periods in the horizontal level. It is enhanced by the formation of covalent and coordinate covalent complexes by heavy metals with the biological macromolecules. In plants, the solubility of the metals in water is of much greater importance. The degree of dissociation of metallic salts and the rate of absorption affect significantly the frequency of chromosomal aberrations. In assessing the effects of environmental metal pollution, the presence of other metals and toxic chemicals and the level of nutrition should be taken into account, since in nature, metals occur in combination and these factors modify the cytotoxic effects to a significant extent.

103 citations