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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/1753-0407.13171

Clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with type 2 diabetes in Turkey: A nationwide study (TurCoviDia).

02 Mar 2021-Journal of Diabetes (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)-Vol. 13, Iss: 7, pp 585-595
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been reported to be associated with a more severe course in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, severe adverse outcomes are not recorded in all patients. In this study, we assessed disease outcomes in patients with and without T2DM hospitalized for COVID-19. METHODS: A nationwide retrospective cohort of patients with T2DM hospitalized with confirmed COVID-19 infection from 11 March to 30 May 2020 in the Turkish Ministry of Health database was investigated. Multivariate modeling was used to assess the independent predictors of demographic and clinical characteristics with mortality, length of hospital stay, and intensive care unit (ICU) admission and/or mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: A total of 18 426 inpatients (median age [interquartile range, IQR]: 61 [17] years; males: 43.3%) were investigated. Patients with T2DM (n = 9213) were compared with a group without diabetes (n = 9213) that were matched using the propensity scores for age and gender. Compared with the group without T2DM, 30-day mortality following hospitalization was higher in patients with T2DM (13.6% vs 8.7%; hazard ratio 1.75; 95% CI, 1.58-1.93; P < .001). The independent associates of mortality were older age, male gender, obesity, insulin treatment, low lymphocyte count, and pulmonary involvement on admission. Older age, low lymphocyte values, and pulmonary involvement at baseline were independently associated with longer hospital stay and/or ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS: The current study from the Turkish national health care database showed that patients with T2DM hospitalized for COVID-19 are at increased risk of mortality, longer hospital stay, and ICU admission.

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Topics: Intensive care unit (53%), Retrospective cohort study (53%), Interquartile range (52%) ... show more
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7 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S12020-021-02789-9
Cem Haymana1, Ibrahim Demirci1, Ilker Tasci1, Erman Cakal1  +14 moreInstitutions (7)
01 Jan 2021-Endocrine
Abstract: New coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a worse prognosis in patients with diabetes. However, there are insufficient data about the effect of hyperglycemia on COVID-19 prognosis in non-diabetic patients. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between random blood glucose levels measured at the time of diagnosis and prognosis of COVID-19 disease in non-diabetic patients. A nationwide retrospective cohort of non-diabetic patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection from 11 March to 30 May 2020 in the Turkish Ministry of Health database was investigated. The patients were stratified into three groups according to blood glucose levels which were <100 mg/dL in group-1, in the range of 100–139 mg/dl in group-2, and the range of 140–199 mg/dl in group-3. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared among the groups. The primary outcome was mortality. A total of 12,817 non-diabetic patients (median age [IQR]: 44 [25] years, females: 50.9%) were included. Patients in group-2 (5%) and group-3 (14%) had higher mortality rates than patients in group-1 (2.1%). The rates of hospitalization, hospital stays longer than 8 days, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, ICU stay more than 6 days, and mechanical ventilation were also significantly higher in group-3 patients. Likewise, glucose levels in the range of 140–199 mg/dL were an independent associate of mortality and composite of ICU admission and/or mechanical ventilation. Hyperglycemia at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis is associated with poor prognosis in non-diabetic patients. Clinicians should be more careful in the treatment of non-diabetic COVID-19 patients with hyperglycemia.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S40200-021-00877-1
Abstract: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has imposed a great global burden on public health. As one of the most affected countries, Iran has tackled emerging challenges in the path to overcoming the epidemic, with three peaks of the disease propagation as of February 19, 2020. To flatten the curve of the COVID-19 pandemic, most countries have implemented bundles of intrusive, sometimes extremely stringent non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). In this communication, we have dissected the effectiveness of NPIs and compared the strategies implemented by Iran, Turkey, and South Korea to mitigate the disease’s spread. We searched online databases via PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and Scopus. Titles/abstracts and full-texts were screened by two reviewers and discrepancies were resolved upon discussion. Our results provide insights into five domains: prevention, screening, in-patient and out-patient facilities, governance, and management of diabetes mellitus. Analysis of previous efforts put in place illustrates that by fostering efficient social distancing measures, increasing the capability to perform prompt polymerase chain reaction tests, applying smart contact tracing, and supplying adequate personal protective equipment, Turkey and South Korea have brought the epidemic sub-optimally under control. From the perspective of policymakers, these achievements are of utmost importance given that attaining the aspirational goals in the management of the COVID-19 necessities a suitable adjustment of previous successful strategies. Hence, policymakers should be noticed that a suitable combination of NPIs is necessary to stem the disease’s propagation.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S13300-021-01133-8
Rifat Emral1, Cem Haymana2, Ibrahim Demirci2, Ilker Tasci2  +15 moreInstitutions (9)
16 Aug 2021-Diabetes Therapy
Abstract: To investigate the effect of preexisting treatment with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4is) on COVID-19-related hospitalization and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A multicenter, retrospective cohort study was conducted using patient data extracted from the Turkish National Electronic Database. All patients who tested positive for COVID-19 (PCR test) between 11 March through to 30 May 2020 were screened for eligibility (n = 149,671). Following exclusion of patients based on pre-determined inclusion criteria, patients with T2DM using a DPP-4i or glucose-lowering medications other than a DPP-4i were compared for mortality and hospitalization. The propensity score method was used to match age, gender, micro- and macrovascular complications, and medications in the two groups. Independent associates of mortality were analyzed using multivariable analysis on the whole T2DM population. A total of 33,478 patients with T2DM who tested postive for COVID-19 who met the inclusion criteria were included in the analysis. Median (interquartile range) age was 54 (22) years and 42.4% were male. Of these, 9100 patients using DPP-4is (n = 4550) or other glucose-lowering drugs (n = 4550) were matched in two groups. After matching, analysis revealed a lower mortality in the DPP-4i group (9.5 vs. 11.8%; p < 0.001). In the multivariable model, the use of DPP-4is (odds ratio [OR] 0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35–0.91; p = 0.02) was associated with lower mortality in the whole sample, while age, male gender, computed tomography finding of COVID-19, obesity, low glomerular filtration rate, and an insulin-based regimen also predicted increased risk of death. There was no association between the preexisting treatment with DPP-4is and COVID-19-related hospitalization in the matched analysis or multivariate model. The rate of admission to the intensive care unit and/or mechanical ventilation favored the DPP-4i group (21.7 vs. 25.2%; p = 0.001), although this association became saturated in the multivariate analysis (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.39–1.08; p = 0.099). The results of this study demonstrate an association between DDP-4i use and reduced mortality in people with T2DM who tested PCR positive for COVID-19.

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Topics: Odds ratio (52%), Population (52%), Interquartile range (51%) ... show more

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/07435800.2021.1967376
Wanteng Wang1, Yu Sun1, Shuai Wang1, Yunbo Sun1Institutions (1)
19 Aug 2021-Endocrine Research
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to review observational studies on the effect of insulin use and mortality in patients with COVID-19 and diabetes.A systematic literature search was performed using the...

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Topics: Insulin (54%), Diabetes mellitus (52%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S40200-021-00922-Z
Abstract: Coronavirus increases mortality rate in people with underlying disease. The purpose of the present research was to compare the clinical outcomes in Covid-19 patients with and without underlying diabetes disease using propensity score matching. A matched case–control study was conducted on 459 diabetic patients with Covid-19 (case group) and 459 non-diabetic patients with Covid-19 (control group). Matching in two groups was performed using propensity score matching method. The effect of covariates on the clinical outcome of the patients (recovery-death) was assessed using logistic regression and the associations of factors with the patients' survival were determined using Cox proportional hazards regression model. Data were analyzed using R software. The mean (standard deviation) age of patients in the case and control groups were 65.77 (12.2) and 65.8 (12.24), respectively. 196 patients (43%) in the case group, and 249 patients (54%) in the control group were male (with P-value < 0.05). The logistic regression model showed that the variables of age, level of blood oxygen (SpO2), ICU admission, length of hospitalization, cancer and diabetes affected patients' death. Furthermore, the resuts of the Cox regression showed that the variables of age, level of blood oxygen (SpO2), ICU admission,cancer and diabetes were related to survival of the patients. It was found that diabetes was significantly associated with mortality from COVID-19 with odds ratio of 2.88 (95% CI: 1.80–4.69; P < 0.01) and hazard ratio of 1.45 (95% CI: 1.01–2.03; P = 0.05). The underlying diabetes significantly increases the mortality among patients with Covid-19, so special care should be taken for this high risk group if they develop Covid-19.

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Topics: Hazard ratio (56%), Propensity score matching (56%), Proportional hazards model (55%) ... show more

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33 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA2002032
Wei-jie Guan1, Zhengyi Ni1, Yu Hu1, Wenhua Liang1  +33 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Background Since December 2019, when coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China, data have been needed on the clinical characteristics of...

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16,855 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3
Fei Zhou1, Ting Yu, Ronghui Du, Guohui Fan2  +16 moreInstitutions (5)
28 Mar 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background Since December, 2019, Wuhan, China, has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but risk factors for mortality and a detailed clinical course of illness, including viral shedding, have not been well described. Methods In this retrospective, multicentre cohort study, we included all adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Jinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (Wuhan, China) who had been discharged or had died by Jan 31, 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data, including serial samples for viral RNA detection, were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. Findings 191 patients (135 from Jinyintan Hospital and 56 from Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital) were included in this study, of whom 137 were discharged and 54 died in hospital. 91 (48%) patients had a comorbidity, with hypertension being the most common (58 [30%] patients), followed by diabetes (36 [19%] patients) and coronary heart disease (15 [8%] patients). Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with older age (odds ratio 1·10, 95% CI 1·03–1·17, per year increase; p=0·0043), higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (5·65, 2·61–12·23; p Interpretation The potential risk factors of older age, high SOFA score, and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage. Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future. Funding Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences; National Science Grant for Distinguished Young Scholars; National Key Research and Development Program of China; The Beijing Science and Technology Project; and Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development.

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Topics: Cohort study (56%), Retrospective cohort study (56%), Odds ratio (53%) ... show more

15,279 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.7326/0003-4819-150-9-200905050-00006
Abstract: The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation underestimates glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients with mild kidney disease. Levey and associates therefore developed and va...

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Topics: Renal function (58%), Creatinine (52%), Kidney disease (52%)

14,753 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.2020.2648
Zunyou Wu1, Jennifer M. McGoogan1Institutions (1)
07 Apr 2020-JAMA
Abstract: Background: Hospitalised COVID-19 patients are frequently elderly subjects with co-morbidities receiving polypharmacy, all of which are known risk factors for d

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Topics: Outbreak (56%)

10,464 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.2020.6775
26 May 2020-JAMA
Abstract: Importance There is limited information describing the presenting characteristics and outcomes of US patients requiring hospitalization for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Objective To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in a US health care system. Design, Setting, and Participants Case series of patients with COVID-19 admitted to 12 hospitals in New York City, Long Island, and Westchester County, New York, within the Northwell Health system. The study included all sequentially hospitalized patients between March 1, 2020, and April 4, 2020, inclusive of these dates. Exposures Confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection by positive result on polymerase chain reaction testing of a nasopharyngeal sample among patients requiring admission. Main Outcomes and Measures Clinical outcomes during hospitalization, such as invasive mechanical ventilation, kidney replacement therapy, and death. Demographics, baseline comorbidities, presenting vital signs, and test results were also collected. Results A total of 5700 patients were included (median age, 63 years [interquartile range {IQR}, 52-75; range, 0-107 years]; 39.7% female). The most common comorbidities were hypertension (3026; 56.6%), obesity (1737; 41.7%), and diabetes (1808; 33.8%). At triage, 30.7% of patients were febrile, 17.3% had a respiratory rate greater than 24 breaths/min, and 27.8% received supplemental oxygen. The rate of respiratory virus co-infection was 2.1%. Outcomes were assessed for 2634 patients who were discharged or had died at the study end point. During hospitalization, 373 patients (14.2%) (median age, 68 years [IQR, 56-78]; 33.5% female) were treated in the intensive care unit care, 320 (12.2%) received invasive mechanical ventilation, 81 (3.2%) were treated with kidney replacement therapy, and 553 (21%) died. As of April 4, 2020, for patients requiring mechanical ventilation (n = 1151, 20.2%), 38 (3.3%) were discharged alive, 282 (24.5%) died, and 831 (72.2%) remained in hospital. The median postdischarge follow-up time was 4.4 days (IQR, 2.2-9.3). A total of 45 patients (2.2%) were readmitted during the study period. The median time to readmission was 3 days (IQR, 1.0-4.5) for readmitted patients. Among the 3066 patients who remained hospitalized at the final study follow-up date (median age, 65 years [IQR, 54-75]), the median follow-up at time of censoring was 4.5 days (IQR, 2.4-8.1). Conclusions and Relevance This case series provides characteristics and early outcomes of sequentially hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 in the New York City area.

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Topics: Interquartile range (55%), Respiratory virus (51%)

5,140 Citations