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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CLNESP.2021.02.018

Clinical practice guidelines for rehabilitation nutrition in cerebrovascular disease, hip fracture, cancer, and acute illness: 2020 update.

02 Mar 2021-Clinical nutrition ESPEN (Elsevier)-Vol. 43, pp 90-103
Abstract: Summary Background Individuals undergoing rehabilitation often experience nutritional problems such as malnutrition, but there are no clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) specifically tailored to the combination of rehabilitation and nutritional care for these patients. The Japanese Association for Rehabilitation Nutrition aimed to develop CPGs for rehabilitation nutrition to support clinical decision making in daily practice. Methods A CPG committee and development process based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system and the Minds Handbook for Clinical Practice Guideline Development 2014 was established. Four clinical questions were defined for patients undergoing rehabilitation for cerebrovascular disease, hip fracture, cancer, and acute illness. Literatures of randomised control trials (RCTs) up to April 2020 were searched for using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and Ichushi-web databases. After screening, full-text papers were assessed for eligibility for analysis. Subsequently, studies included in the systematic review were examined regarding their risk of bias, and underwent meta-analyses. A CPG development committee drafted the guidelines based on the systematic review report. Final recommendations were determined by the panel members. Results Four recommendations were made based on 4 to 9 RCTs for each disease/condition. The certainty of the evidence ranged from very low to low. Overall, the enhanced nutritional care was weakly recommended for rehabilitation patients with cerebrovascular disease, hip fracture, cancer, and acute illnesses. Conclusions This CPG provides tentative recommendations for nutritional care of individuals undergoing rehabilitation. Due to low certainty of evidence and small sample sizes of the included studies, more high-quality and larger RCTs are needed to develop more practical CPGs.

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Topics: Rehabilitation (55%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/NU13061961
07 Jun 2021-Nutrients
Abstract: Malnutrition, which commonly occurs in perioperative patients with cancer, leads to decreased muscle mass, hypoalbuminemia, and edema, thereby increasing the patient’s risk of various complications. Thus, the nutritional management of perioperative patients with cancer should be focused on to ensure that surgical treatment is safe and effective, postoperative complications are prevented, and mortality is reduced. Pathophysiological and drug-induced factors in elderly patients with cancer are associated with the risk of developing malnutrition. Pathophysiological factors include the effects of tumors, cachexia, and anorexia of aging. Metabolic changes, such as inflammation, excess catabolism, and anabolic resistance in patients with tumor-induced cancer alter the body’s ability to use essential nutrients. Drug-induced factors include the side effects of anticancer drugs and polypharmacy. Drug–drug, drug–disease, drug–nutrient, and drug–food interactions can significantly affect the patient’s nutritional status. Furthermore, malnutrition may affect pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, potentiate drug effects, and cause side effects. This review outlines polypharmacy and malnutrition, the impact of malnutrition on drug efficacy, drug–nutrient and drug–food interactions, and intervention effects on polypharmacy or cancer cachexia in elderly perioperative patients with cancer.

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Topics: Polypharmacy (58%), Malnutrition (54%), Perioperative (53%) ... read more

2 Citations


Abstract: Objective Oral problems affect rehabilitation outcomes. This study aimed to examine the association between improvement in oral health and functional outcomes in patients after stroke. Materials and Methods This retrospective cohort study included post-acute rehabilitation patients who presented with oral problems at admission. Oral problems were assessed using the Revised Oral Assessment Guide (ROAG). The ROAG score change during hospitalization was calculated by subtracting the score at admission from the score at discharge; oral problems were defined as “improved”, when the score change value was lower than the median value. Study outcomes were the activities of daily living assessed by the motor domain of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM-motor) scores and dysphagia as assessed by the Food Intake Level Scale (FILS). Multivariate regression analyses were used to determine whether improved oral problems were associated with study outcomes. P-values of Results This study included 300 patients (mean age, 72.0 years; 51.7% men). The median [IQR] baseline ROAG score and its change value during hospitalization were 11 [10, 14] and -1[-3, 0] points, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that improved oral problems was independently associated with FIM-motor score (β = 0.144, p = 0.001) and FILS score (β = 0.227, p Conclusions Improvement in oral health was positively associated with recovery of the ADL and dysphagia after stroke. Early detection of oral problems and oral treatment should be implemented in these patients to maximize functional recovery.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/NU13072192
25 Jun 2021-Nutrients
Abstract: This cross-sectional study investigated the proportion of patients’ recovery from sarcopenia status and the relationship between improvement in sarcopenia (IS) and function and discharge outcome in hospitalized patients with stroke. This study included patients with stroke, aged 65 years or more, with a diagnosis of sarcopenia, who were admitted to a convalescent rehabilitation ward. Sarcopenia was diagnosed according to the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia 2019 criteria. Patients were divided according to the presence or absence of sarcopenia at discharge: IS group and non-improvement in sarcopenia (NIS) group. Among the 227 participants (mean age: 80.5 years; 125 females), 30% (69/227) of the patients were in the IS group, while 70% (158/227) were in the NIS group. The IS group showed a higher Functional Independence Measure (FIM) than the NIS group (median 112 vs. 101, p = 0.003). The results demonstrated that IS was independently associated with higher FIM (partial regression coefficient, 5.378; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.709–10.047). The IS group had higher odds of home discharge than the NIS group (odds ratio, 2.560; 95% CI, 0.912–7.170). In conclusion, recovery from sarcopenia may be associated with better function in patients with stroke.

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Topics: Sarcopenia (60%), Functional Independence Measure (56%), Odds ratio (51%)

1 Citations



Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/NU13093274
19 Sep 2021-Nutrients
Abstract: We conducted a retrospective observational study in 170 older, underweight patients after stroke to elucidate whether stored energy was associated with gains in body weight (BW) and skeletal muscle mass (SMM). Energy intake was recorded on admission. The energy requirement was estimated as actual BW (kg) × 30 (kcal/day), and the stored energy was defined as the energy intake minus the energy requirement. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. The study participants gained an average of 1.0 ± 2.6 kg of BW over a mean hospital stay of 100 ± 42 days with a mean stored energy of 96.2 ± 91.4 kcal per day. They also gained an average of 0.2 ± 1.6 kg of SMM and 0.5 ± 2.3 kg of fat mass (FM). This means about 9600 kcal were needed to gain 1 kg of BW. In addition, a 1 kg increase in body weight resulted in a 23.7% increase in SMM and a 45.8% increase in FM. Multivariate regression analyses showed that the stored energy was significantly associated with gains in BW and SMM. Aggressive nutrition therapy is important for improving nutritional status and function in patients with malnutrition and sarcopenia.

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55 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1136/BMJ.328.7454.1490
19 Jun 2004-BMJ
Abstract: Users of clinical practice guidelines and other recommendations need to know how much confidence they can place in the recommendations Systematic and explicit methods of making judgments can reduce errors and improve communication We have developed a system for grading the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations that can be applied across a wide range of interventions and contexts In this article we present a summary of our approach from the perspective of a guideline user Judgments about the strength of a recommendation require consideration of the balance between benefits and harms, the quality of the evidence, translation of the evidence into specific circumstances, and the certainty of the baseline risk It is also important to consider costs (resource utilisation) before making a recommendation Inconsistencies among systems for grading the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations reduce their potential to facilitate critical appraisal and improve communication of these judgments Our system for guiding these complex judgments balances the need for simplicity with the need for full and transparent consideration of all important issues

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6,386 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1161/STR.0B013E318284056A
01 Mar 2013-Stroke
Abstract: Background and Purpose—The authors present an overview of the current evidence and management recommendations for evaluation and treatment of adults with acute ischemic stroke. The intended audienc...

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Topics: Stroke (59%), Guideline (54%), Disease management (health) (50%)

6,374 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/0148607115621863
Abstract: This document represents the first collaboration between 2 organizations-the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and the Society of Critical Care Medicine-to describe best practices in nutrition therapy in critically ill children. The target of these guidelines is intended to be the pediatric critically ill patient (>1 month and 2-3 days in a PICU admitting medical, surgical, and cardiac patients. In total, 2032 citations were scanned for relevance. The PubMed/MEDLINE search resulted in 960 citations for clinical trials and 925 citations for cohort studies. The EMBASE search for clinical trials culled 1661 citations. In total, the search for clinical trials yielded 1107 citations, whereas the cohort search yielded 925. After careful review, 16 randomized controlled trials and 37 cohort studies appeared to answer 1 of the 8 preidentified question groups for this guideline. We used the GRADE criteria (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) to adjust the evidence grade based on assessment of the quality of study design and execution. These guidelines are not intended for neonates or adult patients. The guidelines reiterate the importance of nutrition assessment-particularly, the detection of malnourished patients who are most vulnerable and therefore may benefit from timely intervention. There is a need for renewed focus on accurate estimation of energy needs and attention to optimizing protein intake. Indirect calorimetry, where feasible, and cautious use of estimating equations and increased surveillance for unintended caloric underfeeding and overfeeding are recommended. Optimal protein intake and its correlation with clinical outcomes are areas of great interest. The optimal route and timing of nutrient delivery are areas of intense debate and investigations. Enteral nutrition remains the preferred route for nutrient delivery. Several strategies to optimize enteral nutrition during critical illness have emerged. The role of supplemental parenteral nutrition has been highlighted, and a delayed approach appears to be beneficial. Immunonutrition cannot be currently recommended. Overall, the pediatric critical care population is heterogeneous, and a nuanced approach to individualizing nutrition support with the aim of improving clinical outcomes is necessary.

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Topics: Parenteral nutrition (54%), Medical nutrition therapy (54%), Evidence-based medicine (52%) ... read more

2,355 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CLNU.2016.07.015
01 Feb 2017-Clinical Nutrition
Abstract: Cancers are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and the number of new cases is expected to rise significantly over the next decades. At the same time, all types of cancer treatment, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and pharmacological therapies are improving in sophistication, precision and in the power to target specific characteristics of individual cancers. Thus, while many cancers may still not be cured they may be converted to chronic diseases. All of these treatments, however, are impeded or precluded by the frequent development of malnutrition and metabolic derangements in cancer patients, induced by the tumor or by its treatment. These evidence-based guidelines were developed to translate current best evidence and expert opinion into recommendations for multi-disciplinary teams responsible for identification, prevention, and treatment of reversible elements of malnutrition in adult cancer patients. The guidelines were commissioned and financially supported by ESPEN and by the European Partnership for Action Against Cancer (EPAAC), an EU level initiative. Members of the guideline group were selected by ESPEN to include a range of professions and fields of expertise. We searched for meta-analyses, systematic reviews and comparative studies based on clinical questions according to the PICO format. The evidence was evaluated and merged to develop clinical recommendations using the GRADE method. Due to the deficits in the available evidence, relevant still open questions were listed and should be addressed by future studies. Malnutrition and a loss of muscle mass are frequent in cancer patients and have a negative effect on clinical outcome. They may be driven by inadequate food intake, decreased physical activity and catabolic metabolic derangements. To screen for, prevent, assess in detail, monitor and treat malnutrition standard operating procedures, responsibilities and a quality control process should be established at each institution involved in treating cancer patients. All cancer patients should be screened regularly for the risk or the presence of malnutrition. In all patients - with the exception of end of life care - energy and substrate requirements should be met by offering in a step-wise manner nutritional interventions from counseling to parenteral nutrition. However, benefits and risks of nutritional interventions have to be balanced with special consideration in patients with advanced disease. Nutritional care should always be accompanied by exercise training. To counter malnutrition in patients with advanced cancer there are few pharmacological agents and pharmaconutrients with only limited effects. Cancer survivors should engage in regular physical activity and adopt a prudent diet.

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Topics: Malnutrition (53%), Cancer (51%)

1,178 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000098
01 Jun 2016-Stroke
Abstract: Purpose—The aim of this guideline is to provide a synopsis of best clinical practices in the rehabilitative care of adults recovering from stroke. Methods—Writing group members were nominated by th...

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Topics: Guideline (60%), Stroke (55%), Rehabilitation (52%)

1,065 Citations