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Open accessPosted Content

Clusterability in Neural Networks.

Abstract: The learned weights of a neural network have often been considered devoid of scrutable internal structure. In this paper, however, we look for structure in the form of clusterability: how well a network can be divided into groups of neurons with strong internal connectivity but weak external connectivity. We find that a trained neural network is typically more clusterable than randomly initialized networks, and often clusterable relative to random networks with the same distribution of weights. We also exhibit novel methods to promote clusterability in neural network training, and find that in multi-layer perceptrons they lead to more clusterable networks with little reduction in accuracy. Understanding and controlling the clusterability of neural networks will hopefully render their inner workings more interpretable to engineers by facilitating partitioning into meaningful clusters.

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5 results found

Open accessPosted Content
17 Jul 2021-arXiv: Learning
Abstract: An important component for generalization in machine learning is to uncover underlying latent factors of variation as well as the mechanism through which each factor acts in the world. In this paper, we test whether 17 unsupervised, weakly supervised, and fully supervised representation learning approaches correctly infer the generative factors of variation in simple datasets (dSprites, Shapes3D, MPI3D). In contrast to prior robustness work that introduces novel factors of variation during test time, such as blur or other (un)structured noise, we here recompose, interpolate, or extrapolate only existing factors of variation from the training data set (e.g., small and medium-sized objects during training and large objects during testing). Models that learn the correct mechanism should be able to generalize to this benchmark. In total, we train and test 2000+ models and observe that all of them struggle to learn the underlying mechanism regardless of supervision signal and architectural bias. Moreover, the generalization capabilities of all tested models drop significantly as we move from artificial datasets towards more realistic real-world datasets. Despite their inability to identify the correct mechanism, the models are quite modular as their ability to infer other in-distribution factors remains fairly stable, providing only a single factor is out-of-distribution. These results point to an important yet understudied problem of learning mechanistic models of observations that can facilitate generalization.

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2 Citations

Open accessPosted Content
17 Oct 2021-arXiv: Learning
Abstract: A neural network is modular to the extent that parts of its computational graph (i.e. structure) can be represented as performing some comprehensible subtask relevant to the overall task (i.e. functionality). Are modern deep neural networks modular? How can this be quantified? In this paper, we consider the problem of assessing the modularity exhibited by a partitioning of a network's neurons. We propose two proxies for this: importance, which reflects how crucial sets of neurons are to network performance; and coherence, which reflects how consistently their neurons associate with features of the inputs. To measure these proxies, we develop a set of statistical methods based on techniques conventionally used to interpret individual neurons. We apply the proxies to partitionings generated by spectrally clustering a graph representation of the network's neurons with edges determined either by network weights or correlations of activations. We show that these partitionings, even ones based only on weights (i.e. strictly from non-runtime analysis), reveal groups of neurons that are important and coherent. These results suggest that graph-based partitioning can reveal modularity and help us understand how deep neural networks function.

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1 Citations

Open accessPosted Content
Gabriel Béna1, Dan F. M. Goodman1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Modularity of neural networks -- both biological and artificial -- can be thought of either structurally or functionally, and the relationship between these is an open question. We show that enforcing structural modularity via sparse connectivity between two dense sub-networks which need to communicate to solve the task leads to functional specialization of the sub-networks, but only at extreme levels of sparsity. With even a moderate number of interconnections, the sub-networks become functionally entangled. Defining functional specialization is in itself a challenging problem without a universally agreed solution. To address this, we designed three different measures of specialization (based on weight masks, retraining and correlation) and found them to qualitatively agree. Our results have implications in both neuroscience and machine learning. For neuroscience, it shows that we cannot conclude that there is functional modularity simply by observing moderate levels of structural modularity: knowing the brain's connectome is not sufficient for understanding how it breaks down into functional modules. For machine learning, using structure to promote functional modularity -- which may be important for robustness and generalization -- may require extremely narrow bottlenecks between modules.

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Open accessPosted Content
Fatemeh Vahedian1, Ruiyu Li1, Puja Trivedi1, Di Jin1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
09 Nov 2021-arXiv: Learning
Abstract: The success of neural networks (NNs) in a wide range of applications has led to increased interest in understanding the underlying learning dynamics of these models. In this paper, we go beyond mere descriptions of the learning dynamics by taking a graph perspective and investigating the relationship between the graph structure of NNs and their performance. Specifically, we propose (1) representing the neural network learning process as a time-evolving graph (i.e., a series of static graph snapshots over epochs), (2) capturing the structural changes of the NN during the training phase in a simple temporal summary, and (3) leveraging the structural summary to predict the accuracy of the underlying NN in a classification or regression task. For the dynamic graph representation of NNs, we explore structural representations for fully-connected and convolutional layers, which are key components of powerful NN models. Our analysis shows that a simple summary of graph statistics, such as weighted degree and eigenvector centrality, over just a few epochs can be used to accurately predict the performance of NNs. For example, a weighted degree-based summary of the time-evolving graph that is constructed based on 5 training epochs of the LeNet architecture achieves classification accuracy of over 93%. Our findings are consistent for different NN architectures, including LeNet, VGG, AlexNet and ResNet.

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Topics: Graph (abstract data type) (63%), Degree (graph theory) (56%), Artificial neural network (55%) ... show more

Open accessPosted Content
Yao Lu, Wen Yang, Yunzhe Zhang, Jinhuan Wang  +5 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: There are good arguments to support the claim that feature representations eventually transition from general to specific in deep neural networks (DNNs), but this transition remains relatively underexplored. In this work, we move a tiny step towards understanding the transition of feature representations. We first characterize this transition by analyzing the class separation in intermediate layers, and next model the process of class separation as community evolution in dynamic graphs. Then, we introduce modularity, a common metric in graph theory, to quantify the evolution of communities. We find that modularity tends to rise as the layer goes deeper, but descends or reaches a plateau at particular layers. Through an asymptotic analysis, we show that modularity can provide quantitative analysis of the transition of the feature representations. With the insight on feature representations, we demonstrate that modularity can also be used to identify and locate redundant layers in DNNs, which provides theoretical guidance for layer pruning. Based on this inspiring finding, we propose a layer-wise pruning method based on modularity. Further experiments show that our method can prune redundant layers with minimal impact on performance. The codes are available at

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Topics: Modularity (networks) (67%), Graph theory (51%)


39 results found

Open accessProceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/CVPR.2016.90
Kaiming He1, Xiangyu Zhang1, Shaoqing Ren1, Jian Sun1Institutions (1)
27 Jun 2016-
Abstract: Deeper neural networks are more difficult to train. We present a residual learning framework to ease the training of networks that are substantially deeper than those used previously. We explicitly reformulate the layers as learning residual functions with reference to the layer inputs, instead of learning unreferenced functions. We provide comprehensive empirical evidence showing that these residual networks are easier to optimize, and can gain accuracy from considerably increased depth. On the ImageNet dataset we evaluate residual nets with a depth of up to 152 layers—8× deeper than VGG nets [40] but still having lower complexity. An ensemble of these residual nets achieves 3.57% error on the ImageNet test set. This result won the 1st place on the ILSVRC 2015 classification task. We also present analysis on CIFAR-10 with 100 and 1000 layers. The depth of representations is of central importance for many visual recognition tasks. Solely due to our extremely deep representations, we obtain a 28% relative improvement on the COCO object detection dataset. Deep residual nets are foundations of our submissions to ILSVRC & COCO 2015 competitions1, where we also won the 1st places on the tasks of ImageNet detection, ImageNet localization, COCO detection, and COCO segmentation.

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Topics: Deep learning (53%), Residual (53%), Convolutional neural network (53%) ... show more

93,356 Citations

Open accessProceedings Article
Diederik P. Kingma1, Jimmy Ba2Institutions (2)
01 Jan 2015-
Abstract: We introduce Adam, an algorithm for first-order gradient-based optimization of stochastic objective functions, based on adaptive estimates of lower-order moments. The method is straightforward to implement, is computationally efficient, has little memory requirements, is invariant to diagonal rescaling of the gradients, and is well suited for problems that are large in terms of data and/or parameters. The method is also appropriate for non-stationary objectives and problems with very noisy and/or sparse gradients. The hyper-parameters have intuitive interpretations and typically require little tuning. Some connections to related algorithms, on which Adam was inspired, are discussed. We also analyze the theoretical convergence properties of the algorithm and provide a regret bound on the convergence rate that is comparable to the best known results under the online convex optimization framework. Empirical results demonstrate that Adam works well in practice and compares favorably to other stochastic optimization methods. Finally, we discuss AdaMax, a variant of Adam based on the infinity norm.

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Topics: Stochastic optimization (63%), Convex optimization (54%), Rate of convergence (52%) ... show more

78,539 Citations

Open accessProceedings Article
Karen Simonyan1, Andrew Zisserman1Institutions (1)
04 Sep 2014-
Abstract: In this work we investigate the effect of the convolutional network depth on its accuracy in the large-scale image recognition setting. Our main contribution is a thorough evaluation of networks of increasing depth using an architecture with very small (3x3) convolution filters, which shows that a significant improvement on the prior-art configurations can be achieved by pushing the depth to 16-19 weight layers. These findings were the basis of our ImageNet Challenge 2014 submission, where our team secured the first and the second places in the localisation and classification tracks respectively. We also show that our representations generalise well to other datasets, where they achieve state-of-the-art results. We have made our two best-performing ConvNet models publicly available to facilitate further research on the use of deep visual representations in computer vision.

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38,283 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/5.726791
Yann LeCun1, Léon Bottou2, Léon Bottou3, Yoshua Bengio4  +3 moreInstitutions (5)
01 Jan 1998-
Abstract: Multilayer neural networks trained with the back-propagation algorithm constitute the best example of a successful gradient based learning technique. Given an appropriate network architecture, gradient-based learning algorithms can be used to synthesize a complex decision surface that can classify high-dimensional patterns, such as handwritten characters, with minimal preprocessing. This paper reviews various methods applied to handwritten character recognition and compares them on a standard handwritten digit recognition task. Convolutional neural networks, which are specifically designed to deal with the variability of 2D shapes, are shown to outperform all other techniques. Real-life document recognition systems are composed of multiple modules including field extraction, segmentation recognition, and language modeling. A new learning paradigm, called graph transformer networks (GTN), allows such multimodule systems to be trained globally using gradient-based methods so as to minimize an overall performance measure. Two systems for online handwriting recognition are described. Experiments demonstrate the advantage of global training, and the flexibility of graph transformer networks. A graph transformer network for reading a bank cheque is also described. It uses convolutional neural network character recognizers combined with global training techniques to provide record accuracy on business and personal cheques. It is deployed commercially and reads several million cheques per day.

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Topics: Neocognitron (64%), Intelligent character recognition (64%), Artificial neural network (60%) ... show more

34,930 Citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/CVPR.2009.5206848
Jia Deng1, Wei Dong1, Richard Socher1, Li-Jia Li1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
20 Jun 2009-
Abstract: The explosion of image data on the Internet has the potential to foster more sophisticated and robust models and algorithms to index, retrieve, organize and interact with images and multimedia data. But exactly how such data can be harnessed and organized remains a critical problem. We introduce here a new database called “ImageNet”, a large-scale ontology of images built upon the backbone of the WordNet structure. ImageNet aims to populate the majority of the 80,000 synsets of WordNet with an average of 500-1000 clean and full resolution images. This will result in tens of millions of annotated images organized by the semantic hierarchy of WordNet. This paper offers a detailed analysis of ImageNet in its current state: 12 subtrees with 5247 synsets and 3.2 million images in total. We show that ImageNet is much larger in scale and diversity and much more accurate than the current image datasets. Constructing such a large-scale database is a challenging task. We describe the data collection scheme with Amazon Mechanical Turk. Lastly, we illustrate the usefulness of ImageNet through three simple applications in object recognition, image classification and automatic object clustering. We hope that the scale, accuracy, diversity and hierarchical structure of ImageNet can offer unparalleled opportunities to researchers in the computer vision community and beyond.

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Topics: WordNet (56.99%), Image retrieval (54%)

31,274 Citations

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