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Journal ArticleDOI

CMOS image sensors: electronic camera-on-a-chip

01 Oct 1997-IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices (IEEE)-Vol. 44, Iss: 10, pp 1689-1698

Abstract: CMOS active pixel sensors (APS) have performance competitive with charge-coupled device (CCD) technology, and offer advantages in on-chip functionality, system power reduction, cost, and miniaturization. This paper discusses the requirements for CMOS image sensors and their historical development, CMOS devices and circuits for pixels, analog signal chain, and on-chip analog-to-digital conversion are reviewed and discussed.
Topics: CMOS sensor (65%), CMOS (60%), Image sensor (55%), Analog signal (51%), Pixel (50%)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Progress in light sensing using nanostructured materials is reviewed, focusing on solution-processed materials such as colloidal quantum dots and metal nanoparticles.
Abstract: The detection of photons underpins imaging, spectroscopy, fibre-optic communications and time-gated distance measurements. Nanostructured materials are attractive for detection applications because they can be integrated with conventional silicon electronics and flexible, large-area substrates, and can be processed from the solution phase using established techniques such as spin casting, spray coating and layer-by-layer deposition. In addition, their performance has improved rapidly in recent years. Here we review progress in light sensing using nanostructured materials, focusing on solution-processed materials such as colloidal quantum dots and metal nanoparticles. These devices exhibit phenomena such as absorption of ultraviolet light, plasmonic enhancement of absorption, size-based spectral tuning, multiexciton generation, and charge carrier storage in surface and interface traps.

1,107 citations


Journal Article
Abstract: CMOS active pixel sensors (APS) have performance competitive with charge-coupled device (CCD) technology, and offer advantages in on-chip functionality, system power reduction, cost, and miniaturization. This paper discusses the requirements for CMOS image sensors and their historical development, CMOS devices and circuits for pixels, analog signal chain, and on-chip analog-to-digital conversion are reviewed and discussed.

693 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The state of the art in machine vision inspection and a critical overview of real-world applications are presented and two independent ways to classify applications are proposed.
Abstract: The state of the art in machine vision inspection and a critical overview of real-world applications are presented in this paper. Two independent ways to classify applications are proposed, one according to the inspected features of the industrial product or process and the other according to the inspection independent characteristics of the inspected product or process. The most contemporary software and hardware tools for developing industrial vision systems are reviewed. Finally, under the light of recent advances in image sensors, software and hardware technology, important issues and directions for designing and developing industrial vision systems are identified and discussed. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

662 citations


Patent
14 Apr 2004-
Abstract: The disclosure is directed to a sensor device including processing circuitry, at least one sensor coupled to the processing circuitry, a serial data interface coupled to the processing circuitry and memory responsive to the processing circuitry. The memory includes a static unique identification number. The serial data interface provides access to retrieve the static unique identification number and sensed data measured with the at least one sensor from the memory.

621 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2009-Nature Photonics
Abstract: Solution-processed photodiodes with infrared sensitivities at wavelengths beyond the bandgap of silicon (corresponding to a wavelength of ∼1,100 nm) would be a significant advance towards cost-effective imaging. Colloidal quantum dots are highly suitable as infrared absorbers for photodetection, but high quantum yields have only been reported with photoconductors1,2,3. For imaging, photodiodes are required to ensure low-power operation and compatibility to active matrix backplanes4. Organic bulk heterojunctions5 are attractive as solution-processable diodes, but are limited to use in the visible spectrum. Here, we report the fabrication and application of hybrid bulk heterojunction photodiodes containing PbS nanocrystalline quantum dots as sensitizers for near-infrared detection up to 1.8 µm, with rectification ratios of ∼6,000, minimum lifetimes of one year and external quantum efficiencies of up to 51%. By integration of the solution-processed devices on amorphous silicon active matrix backplanes, we demonstrate for the first time near-infrared imaging with organic/inorganic hybrid photodiodes. Near-infrared imaging with solution-processed organic–inorganic hybrid photodiodes is demonstrated for the first time. The hybrid bulk-heterojunction photodiodes contain PbS nanocrystalline quantum dots as sensitizers for the detection of light of up to 1.8 µm in wavelength, have a minimum lifetime of one year, and external quantum efficiencies of up to 51%.

533 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new semiconductor device concept that consists of storing charge in potential wells created at the surface of a semiconductor and moving the charge over the surface by moving the potential minima is described.
Abstract: In this paper we describe a new semiconductor device concept. Basically, it consists of storing charge in potential wells created at the surface of a semiconductor and moving the charge (representing information) over the surface by moving the potential minima. We discuss schemes for creating, transferring, and detecting the presence or absence of the charge. In particular, we consider minority carrier charge storage at the Si-SiO 2 interface of a MOS capacitor. This charge may be transferred to a closely adjacent capacitor on the same substrate by appropriate manipulation of electrode potentials. Examples of possible applications are as a shift register, as an imaging device, as a display device, and in performing logic.

853 citations


Journal Article
Abstract: CMOS active pixel sensors (APS) have performance competitive with charge-coupled device (CCD) technology, and offer advantages in on-chip functionality, system power reduction, cost, and miniaturization. This paper discusses the requirements for CMOS image sensors and their historical development, CMOS devices and circuits for pixels, analog signal chain, and on-chip analog-to-digital conversion are reviewed and discussed.

693 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Sunetra K. Mendis1, Sabrina E. Kemeny1, R.C. Gee1, Bedabrata Pain1  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: A family of CMOS-based active pixel image sensors (APSs) that are inherently compatible with the integration of on-chip signal processing circuitry is reported. The image sensors were fabricated using commercially available 2-/spl mu/m CMOS processes and both p-well and n-well implementations were explored. The arrays feature random access, 5-V operation and transistor-transistor logic (TTL) compatible control signals. Methods of on-chip suppression of fixed pattern noise to less than 0.1% saturation are demonstrated. The baseline design achieved a pixel size of 40 /spl mu/m/spl times/40 /spl mu/m with 26% fill-factor. Array sizes of 28/spl times/28 elements and 128/spl times/128 elements have been fabricated and characterized. Typical output conversion gain is 3.7 /spl mu/V/e/sup -/ for the p-well devices and 6.5 /spl mu/V/e/sup -/ for the n-well devices. Input referred read noise of 28 e/sup -/ rms corresponding to a dynamic range of 76 dB was achieved. Characterization of various photogate pixel designs and a photodiode design is reported. Photoresponse variations for different pixel designs are discussed.

520 citations


"CMOS image sensors: electronic came..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The photogate APS was introduced by JPL in 1993 [53]‐[ 55 ] for high-performance scientific imaging and lowlight applications....

    [...]


Proceedings ArticleDOI
Eric R. Fossum1Institutions (1)
12 Jul 1993-
Abstract: Charge-coupled devices (CCDs) are presently the technology of choice for most imaging applications. In the 23 years since their invention in 1970, they have evolved to a sophisticated level of performance. However, as with all technologies, we can be certain that they will be supplanted someday. In this paper, the Active Pixel Sensor (APS) technology is explored as a possible successor to the CCD. An active pixel is defined as a detector array technology that has at least one active transistor within the pixel unit cell. The APS eliminates the need for nearly perfect charge transfer--the Achilles' heel of CCDs. This perfect charge transfer makes CCD's radiation 'soft,' difficult to use under low light conditions, difficult to manufacture in large array sizes, difficult to integrate with on-chip electronics, difficult to use at low temperatures, difficult to use at high frame rates, and difficult to manufacture in non-silicon materials that extend wavelength response. With the active pixel, the signal is driven from the pixel over metallic wires rather than being physically transported in the semiconductor. This paper makes a case for the development of APS technology. The state of the art is reviewed and the application of APS technology to future space-based scientific sensor systems is addressed.

450 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A new CMOS active pixel image sensor is reported. The sensor uses a 2.0 /spl mu/m double-poly, double-metal foundry CMOS process and is realized as a 128/spl times/128 array of 40 /spl mu/m/spl times/40 /spl mu/m pixels. The sensor features TTL compatible voltages, low noise and large dynamic range, and will be useful in machine vision and smart sensor applications. >

297 citations


Network Information
Related Papers (5)
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No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
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202134
202035
201927
201829
201731
201624