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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/10643389.2020.1732780

Co-composting with herbal wastes: Potential effects of essential oil residues on microbial pathogens during composting

04 Mar 2021-Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology (Informa UK Limited)-Vol. 51, Iss: 5, pp 457-511
Abstract: Because of the increasing use of herbal essential oils (EO) in pharmacology, medicine, and food processing, global EO production grows at a rapid rate, generating large amounts of plant residues wo...

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Topics: Compost (58%), Essential oil (51%)
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Open access
01 Jan 2014-
Abstract: Abstract Objective To determine the phytochemical characterization and antibacterial activity of Melissa officinalis essential oil against bacteria responsible for nosocomial infections. Methods The phytochemical characterization of essential oil was evaluated using gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis. Antibacterial activity of the oil was tested against four bacterial strains responsible for nosocomial infections: Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Klebsiella pneumonia , Staphylococcus aureus and Citrobacter koseri using disc diffusion method. Results Thirty three components were identified representing 89.30% of the total oil composition. The yield of essential oil was 0.4% and the predominant components were citronellal (14.40%), isogeraniol (6.40%), geraniol acetate (10.20%), nerol acetate (5.10%), caryophyllene (8.10%) and β-caryophyllene oxide (11.00%). Antibacterial activity of the oil showed the higher activity against all bacterial strains tested. Conclusions The essential oil extracted from lemon balm can be used to clean the environment of reanimation polyvalent and anaesthesia service.

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Topics: Phytochemistry (54%), Essential oil (53%), Officinalis (51%)

31 Citations


Open access
30 Jul 2013-
Abstract: This study evaluates the antioxidant properties of the essential oils (EOs) from Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZMB), Origanum vulgare L (OVL) and Mentha pulegium (MP) and their influence on the growth, membrane permeability and cell surface characteristics of Enterococcus faecalis. Disk diffusion and micro-well dilution were tested for the antimicrobial activity of EOs. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ZMB, OVL and MP were 2, 8 and 42 mg/mL, respectively. The mechanism of the antimicrobial action of EOs against E. faecalis was also studied by measurement of the release of cell constituents and observations of cells by electron microscopy. The antioxidant activities, as evaluated by inhibition of free radicals using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method, was 26.47, 3.20 and 34.67, for ZMB, OVL and MP, respectively. These three EOs have the potential to be applied in food products both to inhibit the growth of E. faecalis and to suppress the activity of carcinogenic O2–, produced by this bacterium. Practical Application The use of essential oils (EOs) from Zataria multi flora Boiss, Origanum vulgare L and Mentha pulegium as natural antimicrobial agents would be appreciated in foodstuffs. Considering extracellular superoxide produced by Enterococcus faecalis, which damages colonic epithelial cells DNA associated with colorectal cancer, these EOs can be used as bacteria inhibitors. They can be used alone or in combination with other preservative factors in food products. Moreover, EOs recognize as interesting natural compounds with great potential as alternatives to synthetic additives. These useful properties could be improved food safety and shelf life.

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Topics: Mentha pulegium (67%), Origanum (55%), Enterococcus faecalis (53%)

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.15421/022125
M. A. Lieshchova1, V. V. Brygadyrenko2Institutions (2)
25 Feb 2021-
Abstract: Plant food additives are becoming more and more popular and broadly applied products, though the information on risks they poses to the organism is limited and contradictive. Obesity and overeating are some of the commonest health issues around the world, and people are increasingly consuming workability-enhancing preparations as a simple and fast method of weight control. The plant-based preparations are considered less harmful than the synthetic chemical ones. Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Melissa officinalis L. and Vitex angus-castus L. are broadly used as food additives and medicinal plants, despite the fact that their complex physiological assessment on model animals in the conditions of obesity has not yet been performed. We carried out a 30-day experiment on white male rats. All the animals were given high-fat diet, and the experimental animals, in addition to this diet, received 5% crumbled dry herbs of L. angustifolia, M. officinalis or V. angus-castus. Taking into account the overall amount of consumed food, the mean daily gain in body weight; at the end of the experiment, we determined the index of the weight of the internal organs, biochemical and morphological blood parameters. At the beginning and the end of the experiment, the rats were examined for motor and orienting activities, and emotional status. Rats on high-fat diet gained up to 112% body weight by the end of the experiment, while rats that had received V. angus-castus gained up to 119%, M. officinalis – 135%, L. angustifolia – 139%, compared with the initial body weight. Addition of medicinal plants to the diet led to increase in average daily weight increment, significantly and reliably after consuming lavender and lemon balm, less significantly and unreliably after eating Vitex. L. angustifolia and M. officinalis reduced the relative brain weight, and ingestion of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis caused notable decrease in the relative mass of the thymus (down to 58% and 47% of the relative weight of thymus in animals of the control group respectively). Also, these plants decreased the motor and orienting activities of the rats by the end of the experiment. As for the biochemical parameters of blood, the activity of alkaline phosphatase significantly increased to 406% following consumption of Melissa, to 350% after consuming lavender, and to 406% after Vitex, compared to the control group. Furthermore, all the groups were observed to have increased AST and ALT activities. Intake of lavender led to increases in cholesterol (to 125%) and LDL cholesterol (to 228%), whereas the groups that consumed lemon balm were observed to have decreases in urea nitrogen (to 79%), totalbilirubin (to 63%) and triglycerides (to 63%). Addition of Vitex led to increase in the index of aterogenecity against the background of notable fall in HDL cholesterol (to 52% of the control group). The medicinal plants also contributed to the normalization of the glucose level. Morphological analysis of blood revealed no significant changes, except heightened content of monocytes in blood, which is characteristic of all groups, including the control. Effects of L. angustifolia, M. officinalis and V. angus-castus on the organism of rats on excessive-fat diet require additional histological, histochemical and immunological surveys.

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3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S13205-021-02860-2
31 May 2021-
Abstract: The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of Cellulomonas flavigena and Streptomyces viridosporus, as a bacterial inoculant, on the compostability of post-extraction lavender waste. The major physicochemical, microbiological, and biological properties of the composting materials were monitored for 161 days. The technology developed was shown to improve the compostability of recalcitrant herbal residues. The use of lavender waste beneficially affected the composting process by extending the thermophilic phase, accelerating the degradation of organic matter, and elevating the viable counts of useful microorganisms; however, adverse effects were also observed, including an increased carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (19.05) and a decreased germination index (93.4%). Bacterial inoculation was found to preserve the nitrogen content (2.50%) and improve the efficiency of biodegradation. The Salmonella- and Escherichia coli-free final composting products were mature, stable, and ready for soil application. To the authors’ knowledge, no previous research has investigated the compostability of lavender waste. Likewise, this is the first study that has used strains of C. flavigena and S. viridosporus in combination to facilitate a composting process.

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Topics: Compost (60%), Manure (51%), Lavandula angustifolia (51%) ... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.15421/022122
06 Mar 2021-
Abstract: Dose-dependent changes in protein metabolism in the blood and hematological parameters of pregnant rats under the effect of vanadium citrate are presented in the article. The animals were divided into five groups: group I – non-pregnant females, II – pregnant females consuming pure water without additives, III, IV, V – females which during the mating and pregnancy period received the solution of vanadium citrate at concentrations of 0.03, 0.125 and 0.50 μg V/mL water. The research findings show that in pregnant animals of group II, the level of urea and alkaline phosphatase activity increased, meanwhile aspartate aminotransferase activity decreased, as compared to the non-pregnant females of group І. The levels of total protein and albumin decreased; however, the content of β-globulins increased in the pregnant animals of group II, as compared with that in group I. Also, in the rats of group II, there was a decrease in hemolysis time, total content of erythrocytes and hemoglobin, the content of old and mature erythrocytes, while the content of young erythrocytes increased, as compared to group I. The platelet content and thrombocrit in rats of group II increased in comparison with group I. The content of leukocytes and lymphocytes in pregnant animals of group II decreased, while the content of granulocytes increased, in contrast to non-pregnant rats. Under the effect of vanadium citrate at concentrations of 0.03–0.50 μg V/mL, there was a significant increase in the maximum number of prohemolized erythrocytes, the time of maximum hemolysis was delayed by 0.4–0.6 min, as compared with the pregnant rats of group II. This did not affect the time of total hemolysis in rats of groups III and V, as compared with the pregnant animals in group II. Under the effect of vanadium citrate, an increase in the content of young erythrocytes was observed, as compared with group II. The hemoglobin content decreased at the concentration of 0.125 μg V/mL, while at the concentration of 0.50 μg V/mL it increased, as compared to the pregnant animals of group II. Also, under the effect of vanadium citrate there was a decrease in the mean hemoglobin concentration in the erythrocyte. In pregnant animals fed with vanadium citrate solutions, the platelet content and thrombocrit, the relative width of platelet distribution by volume decreased, as compared with the pregnant rats of group II. The content of leukocytes, lymphocytes and granulocytes under the effect of vanadium citrate increased, as compared with the pregnant animals in group II. Under the effect of vanadium citrate at the concentration of 0.03 μg V/mL, the level of albumin, creatinine and aspartate aminotransferase activity increased in blood plasma in comparison with group II. Meanwhile, at the concentration of 0.125 μg V/mL, the relative content of γ-globulins and aspartate aminotransferase activity increased, alkaline phosphatase activity and urea level decreased in comparison with group II. However at the concentration of 0.50 μg V/mL, the relative α- and γ-globulins content and aspartate aminotransferase activity increased, at the same time, the relative β-globulins content and urea level decreased in comparison with group II. Therefore, vanadium citrate normalizes the indicators of protein metabolism during pregnancy, thus it can be considered as a potential dietary drug for the pregnant.

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1 Citations


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287 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1046/J.1365-2672.2000.00969.X
H. J. D. Dorman1, Stanley G. Deans1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The volatile oils of black pepper [Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae)], clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry (Myrtaceae)], geranium [Pelargonium graveolens L'Herit (Geraniaceae)], nutmeg [Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae), oregano [Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum (Link) Letsw. (Lamiaceae)] and thyme [Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae)] were assessed for antibacterial activity against 25 different genera of bacteria. These included animal and plant pathogens, food poisoning and spoilage bacteria. The volatile oils exhibited considerable inhibitory effects against all the organisms under test while their major components demonstrated various degrees of growth inhibition.

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Topics: Myristicaceae (57%), Antibacterial agent (56%), Origanum (55%) ... read more

3,708 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1046/J.1365-2672.1999.00780.X
Abstract: The antimicrobial activity of plant oils and extracts has been recognized for many years. However, few investigations have compared large numbers of oils and extracts using methods that are directly comparable. In the present study, 52 plant oils and extracts were investigated for activity against Acinetobacter baumanii, Aeromonas veronii biogroup sobria, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype typhimurium, Serratia marcescens and Staphylococcus aureus, using an agar dilution method. Lemongrass, oregano and bay inhibited all organisms at concentrations of ≤ 2.0% (v/v). Six oils did not inhibit any organisms at the highest concentration, which was 2.0% (v/v) oil for apricot kernel, evening primrose, macadamia, pumpkin, sage and sweet almond. Variable activity was recorded for the remaining oils. Twenty of the plant oils and extracts were investigated, using a broth microdilution method, for activity against C. albicans, Staph. aureus and E. coli. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations were 0.03% (v/v) thyme oil against C. albicans and E. coli and 0.008% (v/v) vetiver oil against Staph. aureus. These results support the notion that plant essential oils and extracts may have a role as pharmaceuticals and preservatives.

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Topics: Essential oil (54%), Evening primrose (54%), Broth microdilution (51%) ... read more

2,373 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.2174/0929867033457719
Danuta Kalemba1, A. KunickaInstitutions (1)
Abstract: In recent years there has been an increasing interest in the use of natural substances, and some questions concerning the safety of synthetic compounds have encouraged more detailed studies of plant resources. Essential oils, odorous and volatile products of plant secondary metabolism, have a wide application in folk medicine, food flavouring and preservation as well as in fragrance industries. The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been known for many centuries. In recent years (1987-2001), a large number of essential oils and their constituents have been investigated for their antimicrobial properties against some bacteria and fungi in more than 500 reports. This paper reviews the classical methods commonly used for the evaluation of essential oils antibacterial and antifungal activities. The agar diffusion method (paper disc and well) and the dilution method (agar and liquid broth) as well as turbidimetric and impedimetric monitoring of microorganism growth in the presence of tested essential oils are described. Factors influencing the in vitro antimicrobial activity of essential oils and the mechanisms of essential oils action on microorganisms are reported. This paper gives an overview on the susceptibility of human and food-borne bacteria and fungi towards different essential oils and their constituents. Essential oils of spices and herbs (thyme, origanum, mint, cinnamon, salvia and clove) were found to possess the strongest antimicrobial properties among many tested.

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Topics: Essential oil (58%), Antibacterial agent (55%), Antimicrobial (54%)

1,547 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/JF980154M
Abstract: Carvacrol, (+)-carvone, thymol, and trans-cinnamaldehyde were tested for their inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium. In addition, their toxicity to Photobacterium leiognathi was determined, utilizing a bioluminescence assay. Their effects on the cell surface were investigated by measuring the uptake of 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine (NPN), by measuring their sensitization of bacterial suspensions toward detergents and lysozyme, and by analyzing material released from cells upon treatment by these agents. Carvacrol, thymol, and trans-cinnamaldehyde inhibited E. coli and S. typhimurium at 1-3 mM, whereas (+)-carvone was less inhibitory. trans-Cinnamaldehyde was the most inhibitory component toward P. leiognathi. Carvacrol and thymol disintegrated the outer membrane and released outer membrane-associated material from the cells to the external medium; such release by (+)-carvone or trans-cinnamaldehyde was negligible. Of the tested components, carvacrol and thymol decreased the intracellular ATP pool of E. coli and also inreased extracellular ATP, indicating disruptive action on the cytoplasmic membrane.

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Topics: Thymol (59%), Carvacrol (55%), Bacterial outer membrane (52%) ... read more

1,493 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PH6121451
25 Nov 2013-Pharmaceuticals
Abstract: The increasing resistance of microorganisms to conventional chemicals and drugs is a serious and evident worldwide problem that has prompted research into the identification of new biocides with broad activity. Plants and their derivatives, such as essential oils, are often used in folk medicine. In nature, essential oils play an important role in the protection of plants. Essential oils contain a wide variety of secondary metabolites that are capable of inhibiting or slowing the growth of bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Essential oils and their components have activity against a variety of targets, particularly the membrane and cytoplasm, and in some cases, they completely change the morphology of the cells. This brief review describes the activity of essential oils against pathogenic bacteria.

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924 Citations


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