Journal ArticleDOI

# CO2 electroreduction to ethylene via hydroxide-mediated copper catalysis at an abrupt interface

18 May 2018-Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science)-Vol. 360, Iss: 6390, pp 783-787

TL;DR: A copper electrocatalyst at an abrupt reaction interface in an alkaline electrolyte reduces CO2 to ethylene with 70% faradaic efficiency at a potential of −0.55 volts versus a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE).

AbstractCarbon dioxide (CO 2 ) electroreduction could provide a useful source of ethylene, but low conversion efficiency, low production rates, and low catalyst stability limit current systems. Here we report that a copper electrocatalyst at an abrupt reaction interface in an alkaline electrolyte reduces CO 2 to ethylene with 70% faradaic efficiency at a potential of −0.55 volts versus a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE). Hydroxide ions on or near the copper surface lower the CO 2 reduction and carbon monoxide (CO)–CO coupling activation energy barriers; as a result, onset of ethylene evolution at −0.165 volts versus an RHE in 10 molar potassium hydroxide occurs almost simultaneously with CO production. Operational stability was enhanced via the introduction of a polymer-based gas diffusion layer that sandwiches the reaction interface between separate hydrophobic and conductive supports, providing constant ethylene selectivity for an initial 150 operating hours.

Topics: Hydroxide (57%), Electrocatalyst (55%), Potassium hydroxide (55%), Catalysis (53%)

##### Citations
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A broad and historical view of different aspects and their complex interplay in CO2R catalysis on Cu is taken, with the purpose of providing new insights, critical evaluations, and guidance to the field with regard to research directions and best practices.
Abstract: To date, copper is the only heterogeneous catalyst that has shown a propensity to produce valuable hydrocarbons and alcohols, such as ethylene and ethanol, from electrochemical CO2 reduction (CO2R). There are variety of factors that impact CO2R activity and selectivity, including the catalyst surface structure, morphology, composition, the choice of electrolyte ions and pH, and the electrochemical cell design. Many of these factors are often intertwined, which can complicate catalyst discovery and design efforts. Here we take a broad and historical view of these different aspects and their complex interplay in CO2R catalysis on Cu, with the purpose of providing new insights, critical evaluations, and guidance to the field with regard to research directions and best practices. First, we describe the various experimental probes and complementary theoretical methods that have been used to discern the mechanisms by which products are formed, and next we present our current understanding of the complex reaction networks for CO2R on Cu. We then analyze two key methods that have been used in attempts to alter the activity and selectivity of Cu: nanostructuring and the formation of bimetallic electrodes. Finally, we offer some perspectives on the future outlook for electrochemical CO2R.

840 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

26 Apr 2019-Science
TL;DR: A comparative analysis of electrocatalyst and carbon emissions assessment of CO2 products such as ethylene, ethanol, and carbon monoxide shows that electrocatalytic production has the potential to yield the greatest reduction in carbon emissions, provided that a steady supply of clean electricity is available.
Abstract: Electrocatalytic transformation of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water into chemical feedstocks offers the potential to reduce carbon emissions by shifting the chemical industry away from fossil fuel dependence. We provide a technoeconomic and carbon emission analysis of possible products, offering targets that would need to be met for economically compelling industrial implementation to be achieved. We also provide a comparison of the projected costs and CO2 emissions across electrocatalytic, biocatalytic, and fossil fuel-derived production of chemical feedstocks. We find that for electrosynthesis to become competitive with fossil fuel-derived feedstocks, electrical-to-chemical conversion efficiencies need to reach at least 60%, and renewable electricity prices need to fall below 4 cents per kilowatt-hour. We discuss the possibility of combining electro- and biocatalytic processes, using sequential upgrading of CO2 as a representative case. We describe the technical challenges and economic barriers to marketable electrosynthesized chemicals.

548 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

Abstract: The electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide is a promising approach for storing (excess) renewable electricity as chemical energy in fuels. Here, we review recent advances and challenges in the understanding of electrochemical CO2 reduction. We discuss existing models for the initial activation of CO2 on the electrocatalyst and their importance for understanding selectivity. Carbon–carbon bond formation is also a key mechanistic step in CO2 electroreduction to high-density and high-value fuels. We show that both the initial CO2 activation and C–C bond formation are influenced by an intricate interplay between surface structure (both on the nano- and on the mesoscale), electrolyte effects (pH, buffer strength, ion effects) and mass transport conditions. This complex interplay is currently still far from being completely understood. In addition, we discuss recent progress in in situ spectroscopic techniques and computational techniques for mechanistic work. Finally, we identify some challenges in furthering our understanding of these themes. Electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 to fuels could be used as an approach to store renewable energy in the form of chemical energy. Here, Birdja et al. review current understanding of electrocatalytic systems and reaction pathways for these conversions.

476 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
04 Mar 2019
Abstract: The CO2 electroreduction reaction (CO2RR) to fuels and feedstocks is an attractive route to close the anthropogenic carbon cycle and store renewable energy. The generation of more reduced chemicals, especially multicarbon oxygenate and hydrocarbon products (C2+) with higher energy densities, is highly desirable for industrial applications. However, selective conversion of CO2 to C2+ suffers from a high overpotential, a low reaction rate and low selectivity, and the process is extremely sensitive to the catalyst structure and electrolyte. Here we discuss strategies to achieve high C2+ selectivity through rational design of the catalyst and electrolyte. Current state-of-the-art catalysts, including Cu and Cu–bimetallic catalysts, as well as some alternative materials, are considered. The importance of taking into consideration the dynamic evolution of the catalyst structure and composition are highlighted, focusing on findings extracted from in situ and operando characterizations. Additional theoretical insight into the reaction mechanisms underlying the improved C2+ selectivity of specific catalyst geometries and compositions in synergy with a well-chosen electrolyte are also provided. The electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to fuels and feedstocks has received increased attention over the past few years. In this Review, Roldan Cuenya and co-workers discuss strategies to achieve high selectivity towards multicarbon products via rational catalyst and electrolyte design.

336 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
, Na Ta3, Jie Zeng1
16 Jan 2019-Joule
Abstract: Summary The scaling up of electrocatalytic CO2 reduction for practical applications is still hindered by a few challenges: low selectivity, small current density to maintain a reasonable selectivity, and the cost of the catalytic materials. Here we report a facile synthesis of earth-abundant Ni single-atom catalysts on commercial carbon black, which were further employed in a gas-phase electrocatalytic reactor under ambient conditions. As a result, those single-atomic sites exhibit an extraordinary performance in reducing CO2 to CO, yielding a current density above 100 mA cm−2, with nearly 100% selectivity for CO and around 1% toward the hydrogen evolution side reaction. By further scaling up the electrode into a 10 × 10-cm2 modular cell, the overall current in one unit cell can easily ramp up to more than 8 A while maintaining an exclusive CO evolution with a generation rate of 3.34 L hr−1 per unit cell.

318 citations

##### References
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A simple derivation of a simple GGA is presented, in which all parameters (other than those in LSD) are fundamental constants, and only general features of the detailed construction underlying the Perdew-Wang 1991 (PW91) GGA are invoked.
Abstract: Generalized gradient approximations (GGA’s) for the exchange-correlation energy improve upon the local spin density (LSD) description of atoms, molecules, and solids. We present a simple derivation of a simple GGA, in which all parameters (other than those in LSD) are fundamental constants. Only general features of the detailed construction underlying the Perdew-Wang 1991 (PW91) GGA are invoked. Improvements over PW91 include an accurate description of the linear response of the uniform electron gas, correct behavior under uniform scaling, and a smoother potential. [S0031-9007(96)01479-2] PACS numbers: 71.15.Mb, 71.45.Gm Kohn-Sham density functional theory [1,2] is widely used for self-consistent-field electronic structure calculations of the ground-state properties of atoms, molecules, and solids. In this theory, only the exchange-correlation energy EXC › EX 1 EC as a functional of the electron spin densities n"srd and n#srd must be approximated. The most popular functionals have a form appropriate for slowly varying densities: the local spin density (LSD) approximation Z d 3 rn e unif

117,932 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An efficient scheme for calculating the Kohn-Sham ground state of metallic systems using pseudopotentials and a plane-wave basis set is presented and the application of Pulay's DIIS method to the iterative diagonalization of large matrices will be discussed.
Abstract: We present an efficient scheme for calculating the Kohn-Sham ground state of metallic systems using pseudopotentials and a plane-wave basis set. In the first part the application of Pulay's DIIS method (direct inversion in the iterative subspace) to the iterative diagonalization of large matrices will be discussed. Our approach is stable, reliable, and minimizes the number of order ${\mathit{N}}_{\mathrm{atoms}}^{3}$ operations. In the second part, we will discuss an efficient mixing scheme also based on Pulay's scheme. A special metric'' and a special preconditioning'' optimized for a plane-wave basis set will be introduced. Scaling of the method will be discussed in detail for non-self-consistent and self-consistent calculations. It will be shown that the number of iterations required to obtain a specific precision is almost independent of the system size. Altogether an order ${\mathit{N}}_{\mathrm{atoms}}^{2}$ scaling is found for systems containing up to 1000 electrons. If we take into account that the number of k points can be decreased linearly with the system size, the overall scaling can approach ${\mathit{N}}_{\mathrm{atoms}}$. We have implemented these algorithms within a powerful package called VASP (Vienna ab initio simulation package). The program and the techniques have been used successfully for a large number of different systems (liquid and amorphous semiconductors, liquid simple and transition metals, metallic and semiconducting surfaces, phonons in simple metals, transition metals, and semiconductors) and turned out to be very reliable. \textcopyright{} 1996 The American Physical Society.

64,484 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The formal relationship between ultrasoft (US) Vanderbilt-type pseudopotentials and Bl\"ochl's projector augmented wave (PAW) method is derived. It is shown that the total energy functional for US pseudopotentials can be obtained by linearization of two terms in a slightly modified PAW total energy functional. The Hamilton operator, the forces, and the stress tensor are derived for this modified PAW functional. A simple way to implement the PAW method in existing plane-wave codes supporting US pseudopotentials is pointed out. In addition, critical tests are presented to compare the accuracy and efficiency of the PAW and the US pseudopotential method with relaxed core all electron methods. These tests include small molecules $({\mathrm{H}}_{2}{,\mathrm{}\mathrm{H}}_{2}{\mathrm{O},\mathrm{}\mathrm{Li}}_{2}{,\mathrm{}\mathrm{N}}_{2}{,\mathrm{}\mathrm{F}}_{2}{,\mathrm{}\mathrm{BF}}_{3}{,\mathrm{}\mathrm{SiF}}_{4})$ and several bulk systems (diamond, Si, V, Li, Ca, ${\mathrm{CaF}}_{2},$ Fe, Co, Ni). Particular attention is paid to the bulk properties and magnetic energies of Fe, Co, and Ni.

46,297 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Graeme Henkelman
TL;DR: An improved way of estimating the local tangent in the nudged elastic band method for finding minimum energy paths is presented, and examples given where a complementary method, the dimer method, is used to efficiently converge to the saddle point.
Abstract: An improved way of estimating the local tangent in the nudged elastic band method for finding minimum energy paths is presented. In systems where the force along the minimum energy path is large compared to the restoring force perpendicular to the path and when many images of the system are included in the elastic band, kinks can develop and prevent the band from converging to the minimum energy path. We show how the kinks arise and present an improved way of estimating the local tangent which solves the problem. The task of finding an accurate energy and configuration for the saddle point is also discussed and examples given where a complementary method, the dimer method, is used to efficiently converge to the saddle point. Both methods only require the first derivative of the energy and can, therefore, easily be applied in plane wave based density-functional theory calculations. Examples are given from studies of the exchange diffusion mechanism in a Si crystal, Al addimer formation on the Al(100) surfa...

5,601 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper describes how accurate off-lattice ascent paths can be represented with respect to the grid points, and maintains the efficient linear scaling of an earlier version of the algorithm, and eliminates a tendency for the Bader surfaces to be aligned along the grid directions.
Abstract: A computational method for partitioning a charge density grid into Bader volumes is presented which is efficient, robust, and scales linearly with the number of grid points. The partitioning algorithm follows the steepest ascent paths along the charge density gradient from grid point to grid point until a charge density maximum is reached. In this paper, we describe how accurate off-lattice ascent paths can be represented with respect to the grid points. This improvement maintains the efficient linear scaling of an earlier version of the algorithm, and eliminates a tendency for the Bader surfaces to be aligned along the grid directions. As the algorithm assigns grid points to charge density maxima, subsequent paths are terminated when they reach previously assigned grid points. It is this grid-based approach which gives the algorithm its efficiency, and allows for the analysis of the large grids generated from plane-wave-based density functional theory calculations.

4,300 citations